• Logon to computer and go to my blog by
typing the following into Google Chrome:
http://daniellmiddle.typepad.com/hogan/
• Open the PowerPoint by clicking on
“Download 4-13-15” and complete your
notes
• Once finished, go to USA Test Prep and
complete assignments
April 13, 2015
Agenda
1. Finish notes
2. Government Systems (9)
3. USA Test Prep
Homework: Review Notes
Gandhi Movie Permission Slip
Major themes for Social Studies
The Europeans made a mess of Africa
and Southwest Asia by partitioning with
artificial political borders.
Trade is good.
Specialization leads to trade.
Nationalism leads to independence.
The U.S. tried to contain the spread of
communism during the cold war.
Artificial Borders
Unequal distribution of resources
Unstable Government
Low Literacy rate
Unstable Government
Diseases like HIV / AIDS
More Entrepreneurship & Trade
Investing in Capital Goods
Investing in Human Capital
Conflict &
Civil Wars
Low GDP &
Standard of
Living
$
High GDP
History Quick Hits
Southwest Asia
 When the ________________
Empire lost World War I, their
Ottoman
partitioned
land was divided or _________________________
by
Britain and France. The _______________
borders the
artificial
Europeans created set the stage for conflict between
different ethnic and religious groups.
 Jews established the state of ______________
for 4 reasons
Israel
religious
 They had a __________________
connection to the land,
because they believe that God gave it to Abraham.
 The __________________
Zionism
movement encouraged Jews
to return to their homeland.
 ___________________________
in Europe made them
Anti-Semitism
feel unsafe
Holocaust
 6 million of them were killed in the ___________________
History Quick Hits
Africa
colonized nearly all of
 In the late 1800s, Europeans ___________
artificial
Africa. They divided up the continent using _________
borders.
Pan
 ___________
Nationalist movements and _____-Africanism
encouraged people in different African countries to seek
independence from their European rulers.
 Many countries in Africa still suffer from the effects of
European colonialism. Their problems include:
 _____________
governments
unstable
 ________
wars
civil
HIV / AIDS
 Diseases like _________
 Poor access to ____________
education
Quick History
Review
Studying history with currency
Hi, my name is
I am from
_____________________.
Saddam Hussein
Iraq
_______________________.
I am important to history because I invaded
_______
Kuwait in 1991, causing the ________
Persian Gulf
War. The U.S. also invaded my country in 2003
because they thought I was making ________.
WMD’s.
Hi, my name is
I am from
Nelson Mandela
_____________________.
South Africa
_______________________.
I am important to history because I led the fight
Apartheid
to get rid of ________________,
a system of
_________
separation. I became the first black
racial
____________ of South Africa.
president
Hi, my name is
I am from
_____________________.
Mohandas Gandhi
_______________________.
India
I am important to history because I led the
India
people of ________
to become independent
Britain
from ______________.
My system of
___________
protest influenced MLK and
non-violent
Nelson Mandela.
Hi, my name is
Ho Chi Minh
_____________________.
I was an independence leader from
Vietnam
___________________.
I am important to history I was the communist leader
who forced the _________
to leave North Vietnam.
French
The U.S. tried to contain the spread of
____________,
in my country, but did not succeed.
communism
Hi, my name is
I am from
Mao Zedong
_____________________.
China
_______________________.
communist
I am important to history I was the __________
leader of China. My reforms like the Great
cultural
Leap Forward and ____________
_____
Revolution resulted in the ________
of millions
deaths
of people. During my rule, people had very little
____________.
freedom
Hi, I’m not really on any money!
My name is ________________________.
Osama bin Laden
I am from Saudi Arabia, but I was hiding in
____________________.
Afghanistan
I am important to history because I was the
leader of _____________,
the group that
al-Qaeda
attacked America on 9/11. The U.S. invaded
Afghanistan to find me and defeat the
_______________
government that was
Taliban
protecting me.
Bonus Question!
Were any of these men
alive in 2013?
Nelson Mandela
Died: December 15, 2013
History Milestone Review
a. Explain how European partitioning the
Middle East after the breakup of the Ottoman
Empire led to regional conflict.
 the collapse of the Ottoman Empire, after WWI, has
affected Southwest Asia’s development
 European countries established borders that did not exist
previously.
 these boundaries, do not necessarily reflect natural
divisions within the region

partitioning of the Middle East blended different groups together
 this artificial blending has served as another source of
conflict both within parts of the region and between some
countries in the region and western nations like the USA.
Key Vocab:
partition(ing)- to divide or split
artificial political boundaries – new countries’ borders,
created by Europe, mixed together different ethnic groups
and did not have meaning to the people of the regions
SAMPLE QUESTIONS
How did European involvement in
Southwest Asia impact the region after the
collapse of the Ottoman Empire?
a. Many Europeans emigrated to
Southwest Asia.
b. Countries in Southwest Asia modeled
their governments on European
governments.
c. Political borders were decided by
European powers without consideration
of the political and historic connections
in the region.
d. European powers presence in
Southwest Asia established a long
period of peace and improved relations
with non-Muslim western nations.
What led to the end of the Ottoman Empire
at the end of WWI?
a. Ottomans were on the losing side of the
war along with Germany
b. The Ottoman Empire spent too much
money and went bankrupt
c. A long drought had caused a famine
that had ruined the economy
d. The Sultan was overthrown by a rebel
group of factory workers
Who drew the borders of the new countries
in SW Asia after WWI?
a. United States
b. European politicians
c. Ottoman leaders
d. Middle Eastern Governments
b. Explain the historical reason for the establishment of
the modern State of Israel in 1948; include the Jewish
religious connection to the land, the Holocaust, antiSemitism, and Zionism in Europe.
There are four reasons why the modern state of Israel was
established.
 the religious connection to the land
o ancient homeland of the Jewish people
 Zionism
o The desire to return to the ancient homeland around
Jerusalem
 anti-Semitism
o anti-Jewish speech or actions
o Jewish people had experienced much anti-Semitism,
wanted a safe place
 Holocaust
o Murder of 6 million Jews (5 million others) in Europe by
Nazi Germany
British gained control Palestine after the breakup of the Ottoman
Empire. British allowed Jewish Immigration. British gave up
control to the United Nations, who divided the land between Jews
and Palestinians. Arab War begins the day after Israel is created;
Israel wins and expands her lands.
SAMPLE QUESTIONS
The State of Israel was established in May,
1948, to provide a homeland for the Jewish
people. One of the reasons behind the
establishment of the State of Israel was
a. the French Mandate system.
b. the Zionist movement in Europe.
c. a vote by the people of Palestine.
d. a requirement of the Treaty of
Versailles
What is Zionism?
a. All religious groups should have their
own homeland
b. Arabs and Jews should share the land
equally
c. All governments should be theocracies
d. Jews should return to their ancient
homeland in Zion. (Israel)
Why did so many countries in the United
Nations feel it was right to create Israel in
1948?
a. There was no one else living on the
land at the time
b. Many felt that Jews deserved a
homeland after the horrors of the
Holocaust
c. Arab nations support the creation of a
homeland in Palestine
d. All ethnic groups of the former Ottoman
Empire were given their own country
c. Describe how land and religion
are reasons for continuing conflicts
in the Middle East.
The religious cause stems
 basic differences between the three
major religions in the region
 each religion’s connection to specific
holy places, such as Jerusalem
The connections to the land
 conflict over land in terms of both
military importance and the claims of
other groups, such as Palestinians, to
land in SWA.
 Limited access to resources such as
arable land and water
SAMPLE
At the root of many conflicts in the
Middle East is a religious issue
concerning historical ownership of the
land. This issue centers around who
a. settled there first
b. was promised the land by God
c. won the Battle of Armageddon
d. established the city of Jerusalem
QUESTIONS
Which of the following is an example of
how religion is a continuing reason for
conflict?
a. The climate is harsh and dry
b. Water is scarce
c. Arable land is scarce
d. The area around Jerusalem is
sacred to Islam, Christianity,
and Judaism
d. Explain U.S. presence and interest in Southwest Asia;
include the Persian Gulf conflict and invasions of Afghanistan
and Iraq.
SWA has a large amount of oil and oil is critical USA’s energy supply.
Persian Gulf War (Desert Storm)
 Iraq invades Kuwait in Aug. 1990
o Accused Kuwait of stealing oil
o Kuwait should be part of Iraq; land was not partitioned correctly after the
fall of the Ottoman Empire
 USA gets much oil from Kuwait and Saudi Arabia, Iraq was threatening the oil
supply
 Feb 1991 – UN Forces drive Iraqi forces from Kuwait. Hussein remains in
power in Iraq.
Invasion of Afghanistan
 Sept. 11, 2001 – terrorist attack
 USA began military operations in Afghanistan to find the people responsible
o Osama bin Laden and Al-Qaeda
 Taliban, radical Muslim government of Afghanistan, gave safe harbor to
terrorism
 USA removed Taliban govt; is working in Afghanistan to build a democratic
republic
Invasion of Iraq (Operation Iraq Freedom)
 2003 USA removes Saddam Hussein from power because
o Thought Iraq was developing nuclear weapons and offering aid to
groups like al-Qaeda
 Operation Iraq Freedom
o US troops stayed in Iraq to build a democratic government
o stop the fighting between different ethnic and religious groups vying for
power
SAMPLE QUESTIONS
What is the name of the war that was a
multinational conflict that occurred when Iraq
invaded Kuwait?
a. Persian Gulf War
b. Arab – Israeli Wars
c. Invasion of Afghanistan
d. Operation Iraqi Freedom
Why would the USA want to remove the Taliban
government from Afghanistan?
a. Because they were harboring al-Qaeda and
bin Laden
b. To get rid of Saddam Hussein
c. To help Kuwait
d. To get rid of the Soviets
In 2003, the USA removed Saddam Hussein from
power because ____.
a. he was hiding al-Qaeda leader Osama bin
Laden in Iraq
b. he had just invaded Kuwait that month.
c. the USA thought that he was capable of
producing weapons of mass destruction
d. the USA could not allow Afghanistan to have a
communist government
Why did the United Nations try to stop Iraq from
taking over Kuwait in 1990?
a. The UN wanted to destroy the country of Iraq
b. The only job of the UN is military action
around the world
c. The economies of many nations depend on oil
and Iraq’s actions threatened that supply
d. The UN has to intervene whenever any
member nation has a conflict with another
country
Who are the Taliban?
a. the government of Iraq
b. the government of Kuwait
c. a group of radical Muslims
d. a part of the United Nations
What is the United States’ main economic interest
in Southwest Asia?
a. oil
b. tourism
c. trade routes
d. selling American – made products
a. Explain how the European partitioning
across Africa contributed to conflict, civil
war, and artificial political boundaries.
 decisions made by European colonial powers in Africa, during
the 1800s and 1900s, have influenced African countries of
the 21st century.
o partition, colonial rule, political boundaries, and civil war
have played out differently in a variety of countries
o Europeans partitioned Africa and the consequences of
that action is the created tension and instability in Africa.
In 1946 British colonial authorities merged southern and
northern Sudan into a single administrative region. The
inhabitants of southern Sudan primarily practice
Christianity and Traditional African religions. Northern
Sudan is inhabited by Arab Muslims. Merging the citizens
in the previously separate regions led to the first
Sudanese civil war and subsequent political and ethnical
strife. Based on the passage, what contributed to civil
war in Sudan?
A.
B.
C.
D.
Apartheid.
Pan-African Movement.
Artificial political borders.
African Nationalist movement.
b. Explain how nationalism led to independence
in South Africa, Kenya, and Nigeria.
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
In some parts of Africa, the people ruled by European colonial powers began to develop a strong
sense of nationalism. This nationalism helped some countries in Africa become independent.
South Africa
Much of the colonial conflict in South Africa occurred between the British and the settlers of Dutch,
German, and French origin who preceded the British. Eventually, the British Empire was able to
consolidate power over this group and established the Union of South Africa in 1910. At this time, all
power remained in the hands of white South Africans under British rule. In 1912, the African National
Congress was established. This group of would fight for the rights of black and “colored” people in
South Africa from 1912 through the end of Apartheid and the election of Nelson Mandela in 1994. It
is important to understand that the independence of South Africa from the British Empire was
established by the white minority in 1961. Their decision to declare themselves a republic was driven
by their desire to maintain the system of Apartheid. The nationalist movement in South Africa did not
achieve independence from a colonial power; rather, it defeated the Apartheid system and
established equal rights for black and “colored” South Africans.
Kenya
Although there was a European presence in this part of Africa as early as 1498, Kenya did not
become an official British colony until 1920. Black people in the colony were denied a role in politics
until 1944, when a few black people were allowed to run and hold office. In the 1950s, there was a
violent, seven year uprising resulting in the deaths of tens of thousands of black Kenyans. Black
participation in government increased steadily during this period, and Kenya became an independent
nation in 1963.
Nigeria
British influence in Nigeria began in 1885 and the territory officially became a British colony in 1914.
A largely peaceful nationalist movement in Nigeria led the British to move Nigeria gradually toward
independence between 1945 and 1960. Final independence was achieved in 1960. Unfortunately,
economic development by the British during the colonial period was unequally distributed in the
territory that became the country of Nigeria. This allowed some of the ethnic groups in the country
to have greater wealth and power than other ethnic groups. The inequities and ethnic tensions
caused multiple coups throughout the 60s, 70s, 80s, and 90s.
Sample Questions
Which of these was the result of the
nationalist movement in countries like
Nigeria and Kenya?
a.
poverty
b. illiteracy
c.
independence
d. the spread of AIDS
The independence movements in
Kenya, South Africa, and Nigeria have
which of the following in common?
a.
all gained independence in 1960
b. all gained independence from the
British
c.
all followed the leadership of
Jomo Kenyatta
d. all had to defeat the Boers
How do the independence movements in
Kenya and Nigeria differ?
a.
b.
c.
d.
one was a French colony while the was
British
Gandhi was the leader of the independence
move in Kenya
Nelson Mandela end colonial rule in Nigeria
the independence movement violent in
Kenya and peaceful in Nigeria
How did Nigeria’s diversity cause problems
after independence?
a.
b.
c.
d.
caused segregation of the races
caused many political parties so the
government was unable to make a decision
caused all government paper work to be
written in more than 400 languages
caused ethnic and religious conflict that
lead to civil war in 1966
d. Explain the impact of the PanAfrican movement.
Pan-Africanism – people of African descent, no matter where they lived in the world, should think of Africa
as a homeland. They wanted to end European colonial rule in Africa and work together to make Africa
better. Pan-African movement sparked many nationalist movements in Africa (which leads to
independence)
African Nationalism From 1900 to 1945, most Pan-Africanists, with the notable exception of Marcus
Garvey, were black intellectuals from the United States, the Caribbean, and Europe or affluent black
Africans studying abroad in Europe and the Americas. After WWII, these young black leaders began to
organize influential groups of black Africans. Some of the groups attending Pan-African conferences in
Europe developed nationalist movements in their colonies and fought for independence.
Independence Some of the most influential Pan-Africanists rose to become president of newly
independent African countries. This is true for Kenyatta in Kenya and Nkrumah in Ghana. The PanAfrican movement led to the development of a loose organization of African states known as the African
Union.
The purpose of the Pan African
Movements in Africa is to
A. Develop a unified region.
B. Create one African language.
C. Create one African Government.
D. Develop a unified political identity.
The main goal of the Pan-African movement
was to
A. end any support for the African
National Congress
B. immediately overthrow all of the
ruling governments in Africa
C. get all African nations to become
members of the United Nations
D. get African to think of themselves
as one people and work together
c. Explain the creation and end of apartheid in South Africa
and the roles of Nelson Mandela and F.W.de Klerk.
Apartheid – legal segregation of races in South Africa adopted in 1948; complicated
system of racial identification and classifying citizens as either black, colored, Asian,
or white. The Apartheid system greatly restricted the freedoms of non-white South
Africans in many ways including
• own little land
• segregated facilities (schools, libraries, movie theaters, restaurants)
• can’t marry someone of a different race
• no voting or political freedoms
The world reaction to this policy was strong; countries around the world criticized
South Africa, boycotted South African made products, and the country was not
allowed to participate in the Olympics.
Nelson Mandela worked with the African National Congress to try to end Apartheid
and was jailed for 27 years for his work against the government. In 1990, de Klerk
began to repeal Apartheid laws as a response to the negative economic and political
international pressure. De Klerk released Mandela from prison and Mandela and de
Klerk had to work together to peacefully end Apartheid. Mandela and de Klerk were
the leaders of two of the major political parties and wrote a new constitution
guaranteeing all South Africans equal rights.
c. Explain the creation and end of apartheid in South Africa
and the roles of Nelson Mandela and F.W.de Klerk.
What role did Nelson Mandela and
F.W. De Klerk play in the evolution of
Apartheid in South Africa?
A. They created apartheid.
B. They enhanced apartheid.
C. They helped maintain apartheid.
D. They worked to abolish
apartheid.
A policy of racial segregation in South
Africa, adopted in 1948, is called ____?
A. Pan-Africanism
B. Nationalism
C. Imperialism
D. Apartheid
What decision did South African
President FW de Klerk eventually make
about the country’s apartheid laws?
A. He added many new and even
harsher laws
B. He began to recommend that
the laws be repealed
C. He lifted the segregation laws on
those living in South African
cities.
D. He worked to spread apartheid
laws to nations neighboring
South Africa
Nelson Mandela and FW de Klerk won the
Nobel Peace Prize in 1993 for ____.
A. working for South Africa’s
independence without violence
B. the peaceful end of apartheid
C. ending the ethnic fueled civil war in
neighboring Angola
D. surviving 7th grade social studies
Government Terms
Review
for the GA Milestones
Term
Formal Definition
Unitary
a system in which
authority is centralized
in one national
government





centralized authority
concentrated
one government
works best for small country
Israel, Sudan, China
federal
several states or
regions share power
with a central
government




power distributed
power divided or shared
local or regional authorities
India, Nigeria, South Africa
confederation
Picture
Examples / Synonyms
loosely allied states or
nations that come
together for a common
cause





loosely allied
common cause
decentralized
weak
United Nations, African Union
dictatorship
a system of
government in which
the ruler has
absolute power and
is not restricted by
laws or a constitution
monarchy
Formal Definition
ruled by a monarch
who usually inherits
the authority
theocracy
Term
a government ruled
by a religious leader
or leaders
Picture
Examples / Synonyms






authoritarian
totalitarian
Saddam Hussein
repression
despot
Sudan, North Korea




inherited
new ruler is related to
previous ruler
kingdom
Saudi Arabia




faith based
holy leader
Islamic state
Iran
Name:
Democratic
The people rule
with lots of citizen
participation.
Name:
Oligarchic
A small group of
people rule, with
little citizen
participation.
Name:
Autocratic
One person rules
with no citizen
participation.
Practice Questions
1. In which of these countries would
the leader have to be a direct
descendant of the prior leader of the
country?
A.
B.
C.
D.
Iran
Israel
Saudi Arabia
Afghanistan
2. In Nigeria’s government, power is
divided between Central and
regional authorities. This is an
example of which government type?
A.
B.
C.
D.
Unitary
Confederation
Federal
parliamentary
3. In a parliamentary government,
unlike the presidential system, the
head of government belongs to
which branch?
A.
B.
C.
D.
Judicial
National
Executive
Legislative
4. Johnny is holding a sign in front of a
city council building that says “A vote
for Smith is a vote for lower taxes.”
Which of the following governments
does Johnny most likely live in?
A.
B.
C.
D.
autocratic monarchy
oligarchic theocracy
autocratic dictatorship
democratic republic
5. How does a Democratic government
differ from an Oligarchic
government?
A.
B.
C.
D.
The role of the citizen
How the leadership is selected
Law making process
Judicial system
•a national government as well as 28 state
governments
•the leader of each legislature's majority is
appointed governor by the president
•citizens of each state elect state legislatures
6. Based on the information above,
which statement identifies India's
government?
A.
B.
C.
D.
federal republic
communist state
constitutional monarchy
autocratic confederation
7. All citizens participate equally in
which type of government?
A.
B.
C.
D.
Oligarchy
Democracy
Autocracy
Theocracy
8. Kenya is a Republic and North
Korea is a dictatorship. How does the
method of voting for leaders differ in
these countries?
A. In North Korea, all citizens elect a
president
B. In North Korea, citizens do not elect a
leader
C. In Kenya, citizens do not elect a leader
D. In Kenya, a few citizens elect a
president
Government Systems of
Southwest Asia, Africa, and
S & E Asia
Israel
Form of
Government
Parliamentary
Democracy
Form of
Leadership
Voting Rights and Personal
Freedoms
 All citizens vote at 18.
 Freedom of speech, press,
Prime Minister
and criticism.
 Equal rights for men &
women.
Saudi Arabia
Form of
Government
Monarchy
Form of
Leadership
King
Voting Rights and Personal
Freedoms
 No vote for King, men
vote in some local
elections.
 No freedom of speech,
media, criticism or
religion.
Iran
Form of
Government
Theocracy
Form of
Leadership
Supreme
Leader
Voting Rights and Personal
Freedoms
 No voting for Supreme
Leader, but men and
women vote for
Consultative Assembly
and for ceremonial
(powerless) president.
 No freedom of speech,
media, criticism or
religion.
Kenya
Form of
Government
Presidential
Democracy
Form of
Leadership
President
Voting Rights and Personal
Freedoms
 Citizens over 18 vote
for president and
legislature.
 Can only criticize the
government a little.
South Africa
Form of
Government
Parliamentary
Democracy
Form of
Leadership
President
Voting Rights and Personal
Freedoms
 Citizens over 18 vote
for members of
parliament.
 Freedom of speech,
media, and criticism.
India
Form of
Government
Parliamentary
Democracy
“Federal
Republic”
Form of
Leadership
Prime
Minister
Voting Rights and Personal
Freedoms
 All citizens vote at
18.
 Freedom of speech,
press, and criticism.
China
Form of
Government
Dictatorship
“Communist
State”
Form of
Leadership
President
(general secretary
of the Communist
Party)
Voting Rights and Personal
Freedoms
 Only one party to
vote for.
 No freedom of
speech, media, or
criticism.
 Very limited personal
freedoms.
Japan
Form of
Government
Constitutional
Monarchy
(democratic)
Form of
Leadership
Voting Rights and Personal
Freedoms
Prime
Minister
 All citizens vote at 18
for parliament.
 Freedom of speech,
press, and criticism.
 Equal rights for men &
women.
Parliamentary
Presidential
Democracy
All government branches
answer to parliament
Leader is
Prime Minster
Don’t vote for
prime minister
Democracy
Both
3 branches of
government
democratic
political parties
One party usually
controls the government
parliamentary
democracy
Government branches .
are independent .
Leader is the president
Citizens vote directly
for president.
More than one political
party can be in power .
presidential
democracy
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