Implementing a Successful
Verbal Behavior Program
Presented by
Cindy Peters
President and Executive Director
The Mariposa School
203 Gregson Drive, Cary, NC 27511
Phone: 919-461-0600
FAX: 919-461-0566
www.MariposaSchool.org
Copyright 2004 The Mariposa School
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The VB Curriculum
B a s e d o n B .F . S k in n e r’s b o o k “V e rb a l B e h a v io r” (1 9 5 7 )
w h ic h p ro p o s e s th a t la n g u a g e is a b e h a vio r, w h ic h is
in flu e n c e d p rim a rily th ro u g h re in fo rc e m e n t, a n d o n
e s ta b lis h in g a n d m a in ta in in g th e m o tiv a tio n to le a rn .
E m p h a s is is o n te a c h in g th e fu n c tio n o f la n g u a g e .
T e a c h in g p ro c e d u re s fo c u s o n tra n s fe rrin g th e c h ild ’s
a b ility to re s p o n d a c ro s s a ll fu n c tio n a l c a te g o rie s . A
“w o rd ” is n o t c o n s id e re d “le a rn e d ” u n til it c a n b e u s e d
a c ro s s a ll fu n c tio n s .
In te n s iv e o n e -o n -o n e th e ra p y im m e rs e s th e c h ild in a
“la n g u a g e -le a rn in g e n v iro n m e n t”.
Copyright 2004 The Mariposa School
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The VB Curriculum
F o llo w s th e m a n u a ls b y M a rk L . S u n d b e rg , P h D . a n d
Ja m e s W . P a rtin g to n , P h D .
“T h e A sse ss m e n t o f B a sic L a n g u a g e a n d L e a rn in g
S kills (T h e A B L L S )” (1 9 9 8 )
“T e a ch in g L a n g u a g e to C h ild re n w ith A u tis m o r
O th e r D e ve lo p m e n ta l D isa b ilitie s ” (1 9 9 8 )
A B L L S P ro to co l
 B a sic L e a rn e r S kills
 A ca d e m ic S kills
 S e lf-H e lp S kills
 M o to r S kills
Copyright 2004 The Mariposa School
(S e ctio n s A – P )
(S e ctio n s Q – T )
(S e ctio n s U – X )
(S e ctio n s Y – Z )
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Assessment of Basic Learning and Language Skills
Skills Tracking System
Student: AJF
Assessor
C52
C51
C50
C49
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C47
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C10
C9
C8
C7
C6
C5
C4
C3
C2
C1
Date
SF
06/04/01
DF
11/27/01
MJ
03/21/02
Current
B21
B20
B19
B18
B17
B16
B15
B14
B13
B12
B11
B10
B9
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B2
B1
A11
A10
A9
A8
A7
A6
A5
A4
A3
A2
A1
A
Cooperation &
Reinf orcer
Ef f ectiveness
B
Visual
Perf ormance
C
D13
D12
D11
D10
D9
D8
D7
D6
D5
D4
D3
D2
D1
Receptive
Language
D
F27
F26
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F2
F1
E9
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E2
E1
Imitation
E
G42
G41
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G7
G6
G5
G4
G3
G2
G1
Vocal
Imitation
F
Requests
Copyright 1994 - 1998 By Behavior Analysts, Inc.
G
H42
H41
H40
H39
H38
H37
H36
H35
H34
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Labeling
H
N/A
Intraverbal
I9
I8
I7
I6
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I3
I2
I1
I
Spontaneous
Vocalizations
Assessment of Basic Learning and Language Skills
Skills Tracking System
Stude nt: AJF
Assessor
Date
SF
06/04/01
DF
11/27/01
MJ
03/21/02
R42
R41
R40
R39
R38
R37
R36
R35
R34
R33
R32
R31
R30
R29
R28
R27
R26
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R14
R13
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R8
R7
R6
R5
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R2
R1
Curre nt
J20
J19
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J14
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J11
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K10
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Syntax &
Grammar
K
Play &
Leisure
L
M12
M11
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M6
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M3
M2
M1
Social
Interaction
M
N10
N9
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N7
N6
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N4
N3
N2
N1
Group
Instruction
N
Q15
Q14
Q13
Q12
Q11
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Q9
Q8
Q7
Q6
Q5
Q4
Q3
Q2
Q1
P6
P5
P4
P3
P2
P1
Classroom
Routines
P
Copyright 1994 - 1998 By Behavior Analysts, Inc.
Generalized
Responding
Q
Reading
R
Math
Assessment of Basic Learning and Language Skills
Skills Tracking System
Stude nt: AJF
Assessor
Date
SF
06/04/01
DF
11/27/01
MJ
03/21/02
Curre nt
S9
S8
S7
S6
S5
S4
S3
S2
S1
S
U15
U14
U13
U12
U11
U10
U9
U8
U7
U6
U5
U4
U3
U2
U1
T6
T5
T4
T3
T2
T1
Writing
T
Spelling
U
V10
V9
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V6
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V3
V2
V1
Dressing
V
X10
X9
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X1
W7
W6
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Eating
W
Y28
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Y1
Grooming
X
Toileting
Copyright 1994 - 1998 By Behavior Analysts, Inc.
Y
Z28
Z27
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Z1
Gross
Motor
Z
Fine
Motor
Functional Categories of Language
M a n d – A re q u e st fo r so m e th in g (ite m , a ctivity, in fo rm a tio n … ) th a t
is d e sire d . A ve rb a l b e h a vio r in w h ich th e fo rm o f a re sp o n se is
co n tro lle d b y th e m o tiva tio n a l o r a ve rsive co n d itio n th a t d e te rm in e d
th e b e h a vio r (e .g . a s kin g fo r fo o d w h e n h u n g ry)
 O ccu rs w h e n a n E O is stro n g
 O ccu rs w h e n yo u w a n t a n a ctivity o r o b je c t th a t yo u h a ve n o t
h a d in a w h ile (d e p riva tio n )
 F irst fo rm o f ve rb a l b e h a vio r to b e a cq u ire d sin c e it m a y p ro d u ce
im m e d ia te a n d sp e cific re in fo rc e m e n t re q u e ste d
 M a y a lso ta ke th e fo rm o f m a la d a p tive b e h a vio rs (S IB ,
a g g re ssio n , e tc.)
EXAM PLE:
“I w an t ju ice.”
“L et’s go ou tside.”
Copyright 2004 The Mariposa School
“W h ere ’s m y coat? ”
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Functional Categories of Language
R e c e p tive L a n g u a g e – L iste n e r re sp o n d s to th e re q u e sts o f
o th e rs.
Id e n tifyin g a n o b je ct b y p o in tin g , to u ch in g , g ivin g , e tc.
EXAM PLE:
S p e a k e r: “D o th is” (c la p s h a n d s ) (L is te n e r c la p s h a n d s )
S p e a k e r: “P u t you r sh oes on ”
S p e a k e r: “T h row th e ball to m e”
Copyright 2004 The Mariposa School
(L is te n e r p u ts s h o e s o n )
(L is te n e r th ro w s b a ll)
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Functional Categories of Language
T a c t – N a m in g s o m e th in g (ite m , p e rso n , a ctio n … ), o r a p ro p e rty o f
so m e th in g w h ic h is p re se n t. (In clu d e s n o u n s, p ro n o u n s,
p re p o sitio n s, a d je ctive s, a d ve rb s)
 W h e n te a ch in g a c h ild to ta ct, yo u tra n sfe r th e stim u lu s co n tro l
fro m th e m a n d o r e c h o ic re sp o n se to th e ta ct.
EXAM PLES:
C h ild : (lo o kin g u p a t sky a n d p o in tin g ) “ A irplan e!”
In stru c to r: (h o ld in g u p re d b a ll) “W h a t colo r is th is? ”
S tu d e n t: “R ed.”
S tu d e n t: (o n th e s w in g se t)
In stru c to r: “W h a t are you doin g ? ”
S tu d e n t: “S w in gin g .”
Copyright 2004 The Mariposa School
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Functional Categories of Language
In tra ve rb a l – A n s w e rin g “W h ” q u e stio n s o r re sp o n d in g to
so m e th in g sa id b y a n o th e r p e rso n a b o u t so m e th in g (ite m , p e rso n ,
a ctio n … ), o r a p ro p e rty o f s o m e th in g w h ic h is N O T p re se n t.
(C o n ve rsa tio n a l e xc h a n g e ). “F ill in ” re sp o n se s a re a lso fre q u e n tly
u se d .
EXAM PLE S
“A re yo u h avin g fu n ? ”
“Y es.”
“W h o did yo u pla y w ith ?” “ Joh n n y a n d D avid.”
“H ow m an y toys d id you play w ith ?” “T h ree.”
“W h ich toy did yo u lik e best?” “T h e n ew o n e.”
“W h ere is it?”
“O n th e sh elf.”
“N am e som e an im als.” “C at, dog, h orse.”
“ A n a n im al th at says ‘m eow ’ is a _ _____ .” “ C at.”
Copyright 2004 The Mariposa School
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Functional Categories of Language
F F C (F e a tu re , F u n c tio n , C la s s ) – A s s o c ia tio n s o r “in tra v e rb a l
c o n n e c tio n s ” b e tw e e n th e w o rd s .
ta c t, o r in tra v e rb a l.
R e s p o n s e s a re re c e p tiv e ,
EXAM PLE:
In s tru c to r: “F in d a n a n im a l.”
S tu d e n t: (p o in ts to c a t) (R e c e p tiv e b y c la s s )
In s tru c to r: “W h ich o n e sa ys m eo w ? ”
S tu d e n t: (p o in ts to c a t) “ C a t.” (T a c t b y fe a tu re )
In s tru c to r: “A n a n im a l th a t c o u ld b e yo u r p e t is a _ _ _ _ ”
S tu d e n t: “C a t.” (In tra v e rb a l fill-in b y fu n c tio n )
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Functional Categories of Language
E c h o ic – V e rb a l im ita tio n . T h e a b ility to re p e a t e xa ctly w h a t is
h e a rd . U s e d to sh a p e a rticu la tio n , o r la te r o n , m o re co m p le x
co n stru cts.
EXAM PLE:
In stru c to r: “B all.”
S tu d e n t:
“B all.”
M o to r Im ita tio n – C o p yin g m o to r m o ve m e n ts m a d e b y a n o th e r
p e rso n . U se d to te a ch sig n la n g u a g e .
EXAM PLE:
In stru c to r: (S ig n s ‘b a ll’)
S tu d e n t:
(S ig n s ‘ball’)
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Verbal Behavior (VB) Program Components
N a tu ra l e n viro n m e n t tra in in g (N E T )
(c h ild le d )
&
In te n s ive te a c h in g (D T T )
(in s tru c to r le d )
&
P o sitive b e h a vio ra l te ch n iq u e s to re p la ce
m a la d a p tive b e h a vio rs
Copyright 2004 The Mariposa School
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Important Concepts
B e h a vio r – A ll le a rn e d b e h a vio r is d ire c tly re la te d to
re in fo rc e m e n t th a t o c c u rre d a fte r it w as e x h ib ite d . W h e n w e
h a ve a g o o d g ra s p o f w h a t m o tiva te s a n in d ivid u a l, it a llo w s
u s to c o n trive s itu a tio n s w h ic h a re c o n d u c ive to le a rn in g .
E s ta b lis h in g O p e ra tio n (E O ) – T h e fa c to r w h ic h
te m p o ra rily in c re a s e s o r d e c re a s e s th e va lu e o f a re in fo rc e r
a n d le a d s to a n in c re a s e in th e b e h a vio rs w h ic h h a ve b e e n
a s s o c ia te d w ith a p a rtic u la r re in fo rc e r.
R e in fo rc e m e n t – S o m e th in g th a t h a p p e n s a fte r a b e h a vio r
o c c u rs th a t in c re a s e s th e o c c u rre n c e o f th e s a m e b e h a vio r
u n d e r th e s a m e c o n d itio n s in th e fu tu re .
Copyright 2004 The Mariposa School
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What effects an EO?
D e p riva tio n w ill in c re a s e th e va lu e o f th e re in fo rc e r b e c a u s e
th e p e rs o n h a s n ’t h a d th e d e s ire d ite m fo r a w h ile . (If c h ild le ft
‘B a rn e y ’ a t G ra n d m a ’s la s t w e e k e n d , w h e n s h e re tu rn s to
G ra n d m a ’s , th e d o ll is h ig h ly d e s ira b le .)
S a tia tio n w ill d e c re a s e th e va lu e o f a re in fo rc e r. If th e c h ild h a s
b e e n p la yin g w ith th e B a rn e y d o ll a ll d a y, it m a y n o t b e th a t
d e s ira b le a n ym o re .
In e ffe c tive T e a c h in g P ro c e d u re s w ill in c re a s e th e v a lu e
o f e s c a p e a n d d e c re a s e th e va lu e o f th e re in fo rc e r b e in g u s e d .
(“C o m p e tin g E O .”)
E ffe c tive T e a c h in g P ro c e d u re s w ill m a in ta in th e v a lu e o f
th e E O th a t is c o n d u c ive to le a rn in g .
Copyright 2004 The Mariposa School
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Reinforcement vs. Punishment
R e in fo rc e m e n t
 G ivin g so m e th in g a p e rso n fin d s d e sira b le a fte r th e b e h a vio r
o ccu rs (p o sitive re in fo rce m e n t), o r
 R e m o vin g so m e th in g th a t th e in d ivid u a l fin d s a ve rsive
(n e g a tive re in fo rce m e n t).
P u n is h m e n t
 A p p lyin g s o m e th in g th e in d ivid u a l fin d s a v e rsive (p o sitive
p u n is h m e n t), o r
 T a kin g a w a y s o m e th in g th e in d ivid u a l fin d s p le a su ra b le rig h t
a fte r th e b e h a vio r h a s o ccu rre d (n e g a tiv e p u n is h m e n t).
Copyright 2004 The Mariposa School
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Positive Reinforcement
S itu a tio n - A ch ild s e e s a c a n d y b a r in th e g ro ce ry sto re a n d
w a n ts (h a s a n E O fo r) it.
1 ) C h ild scre a m s “I w a n t ca n d y” a n d th ro w s a ta n tru m .
A d u lt h a n d s h im th e ca n d y b a r in o rd e r to ke e p th e
p e a ce . (R e in fo rce m e n t o f in a p p ro p ria te b e h a v io r)
2 ) C h ild tu rn s to th e a d u lt w ith h im a n d sig n s ‘ca n d y’. T h e
a d u lt h a n d s th e ca n d y b a r to h im a n d th a n ks h im fo r
a skin g n ic e ly. (R e in fo rce m e n t o f a p p ro p ria te b e h a v io r)
D iscu s sio n : In b o th e xa m p le s, th e ch ild h a s le a rn e d th a t h is
b e h a v io r g e ts h im w h a t h e w a n ts, s o h e is like ly to re p e a t th is
b e h a v io r n e xt tim e .
Copyright 2004 The Mariposa School
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Negative Reinforcement
S itu a tio n : T h e ra d io is p la yin g lo u d ly in th e ro o m .
1 ) T h e c h ild c o m e s in to th e ro o m a n d b e g in s s c re a m in g .
S o m e b o d y ru s h e s o v e r to tu rn d o w n th e ra d io .
(R e in fo rc e m e n t o f in a p p ro p ria te b e h a v io r)
2 ) T h e c h ild c o m e s in a n d c o v e rs h is e a rs s a yin g “T o o lo u d ”.
S o m e b o d y a s k s th e c h ild if h e w o u ld lik e to h a v e th e
v o lu m e o n th e ra d io tu rn e d d o w n . W h e n th e c h ild
a n s w e rs “y e s ”, th e v o lu m e is tu rn e d d o w n .
(R e in fo rc e m e n t o f a p p ro p ria te b e h a v io r)
Copyright 2004 The Mariposa School
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Punishment
T h e A B A d e fin itio n o f p u n is h m e n t is ra th e r d iffe re n t fro m th e
c o m m o n v ie w o f p u n is h m e n t in s o c ie ty.
C o m m o n D e fin itio n : s o m e th in g m e te d o u t to a p e rs o n w h o
h a s c o m m itte d a c rim e o r o th e r in a p p ro p ria te b e h a v io r;
in v o lv e s n o t o n ly th e h o p e th a t th e b e h a v io r w ill c e a s e , b u t
a ls o e le m e n ts o f re trib u tio n o r re ta lia tio n . It h a s m o ra l a n d
e th ic a l c o n n o ta tio n s .
A B A d e fin e s p u n is h m e n t a s th e p ro c e s s in w h ic h th e
c o n s e q u e n c e o f a b e h a v io r re s u lts in th e fu tu re d e c re a s e
in th e o c c u rre n c e o f th e b e h a v io r
Copyright 2004 The Mariposa School
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Punishment
T h e re a re tw o m a jo r p ro c e d u ra l v a ria tio n s o f p u n is h m e n t:
 P o s itiv e P u n is h m e n t: th e o c c u rre n c e o f a b e h a v io r is fo llo w e d
b y th e p re s e n ta tio n o f a n a v e rs iv e s tim u lu s a n d , a s a re s u lt, th e
b e h a v io r is le s s lik e ly to o c c u r in th e fu tu re
S itu a tio n : T e e n a g e r m is s e s h is c u rfe w .
P u n is h m e n t: P a re n t s ta te s th a t h e h a s to ra k e th e y a rd th is
w e e k e n d . (A p p lic a tio n o f s o m e th in g a v e rs iv e )
 N e g a tiv e P u n is h m e n t: th e o c c u rre n c e o f a b e h a v io r is fo llo w e d
b y th e re m o va l o f a re in fo rc in g s tim u lu s a n d , a s a re s u lt, th e
b e h a v io r is le s s lik e ly to o c c u r in th e fu tu re
S itu a tio n : T e e n a g e r m is s e s h is c u rfe w .
P u n is h m e n t: P a re n t s ta te s th a t h e c a n n o t a tte n d a p la n n e d
e ve n t. (R e m o v a l o f a re in fo rc in g o r d e s ire d a c tiv ity )
Copyright 2004 The Mariposa School
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Punishment
P ro b le m s w ith p u n is h m e n t in c lu d e :
M a y e lic it a g g re s s io n o r o th e r e m o tio n a l s id e e ffe c ts
M a y re s u lt in e s c a p e o r a v o id a n c e b e h a v io rs b y th e
p e rs o n w h o s e b e h a v io r is b e in g p u n is h e d
M a y b e n e g a tiv e ly re in fo rc in g fo r th e p e rs o n u s in g
p u n is h m e n t a n d th u s m a y re s u lt in th e m is u s e o r o v e ru s e
o f p u n is h m e n t
W h e n p u n is h m e n t is u s e d , its u s e is m o d e le d , a n d
o b s e rv e rs o r p e o p le w h o s e b e h a v io r is b e in g p u n is h e d
m a y b e m o re lik e ly to u s e p u n is h m e n t th e m s e lv e s in th e
fu tu re
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Punishment
P u n is h m e n t s h o u ld b e u s e d o n ly a fte r fu n c tio n a l
n o n -a v e rs iv e a p p ro a c h e s h a v e b e e n
im p le m e n te d a n d p ro v e n in e ffe c tiv e o r p a rtia lly
in e ffe c tiv e in d e c re a s in g th e p ro b le m b e h a v io r.
D iffe re n tia l re in fo rc e m e n t p ro c e d u re s m u s t b e
u s e d in c o n ju n c tio n w ith p u n is h m e n t.
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Basic Principles of a VB Program
 T h e m a n d s a re th e first typ e o f la n g u a g e to te a c h
 E ch o ic, im ita tio n , re c e p tive la n g u a g e , a n d m a tch in g to
sa m p le sh o u ld b e a d d e d A S A P
 S e ssio n s c o n ta in a m ixtu re o f th e ve rb a l o p e ra n ts (m ixe d
V B ) w ith th e o p p o rtu n ity to m a n d a s th e m a in re in fo rce m e n t
fo r th e ta rg e t re sp o n se
 T h e b a sic te a c h in g p ro ce d u re s a re d e rive d fro m b e h a vio r
m o d ifica tio n (A B A ) te a ch in g p rin cip le s
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Elements of a Good VB Program
 P la yin g = L e a rn in g
 L e a rn e r m a ke s co n sta n t re q u e sts fo r d e sire d ite m s, a ctio n s,
in fo rm a tio n e tc. (m a n d in g )
 R e q u e sts a re th e m o st m o tiva tin g fo rm o f co m m u n ica tio n
b e ca u se th e p e rso n m a kin g th e re q u e st is re in fo rce d b y
g e ttin g so m e th in g in re tu rn (w h a te ve r h e re q u e s te d )
 W o rd s a re ta u g h t th ro u g h a ll fu n ctio n a l ca te g o rie s o f la n g u a g e
 C o n sta n t c o n ve rsa tio n a l d ia lo g u e o ccu rs b e tw e e n te a ch e r a n d
le a rn e r
 K e e p s th e le a rn e r o n ta sk
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Elements of a Good VB Program
 S itu a tio n s co n trive d b y te a ch e r to cre a te m o tiva tio n a l co n d itio n s
(E O ’s) so th e le a rn e r b e h a ve s in a d e sire d w a y.
E xa m p le s :
1 ) F a vo rite to y o u t o f re a ch ; le a rn e r m u st re q u e st it
2 ) C h ild w a n ts to g o o u tsid e ; te a c h e r sta n d s b y d o o r a n d
w a its fo r le a rn e r to a sk fo r d o o r to b e o p e n e d
 E rro rle ss le a rn in g
 P ro m p tin g o cc u rs B E F O R E a n in co rre ct re sp o n se is m a d e
a n d in a d ve rte n tly le a rn e d
 C h ild is le s s fru stra te d
 P ro m p t fa d in g (M o st to le a st) 0 – 3 s e co n d d e la y
 P re ve n ts p ro m p t d e p e n d e n c y a n d e n co u ra g e s in d e p e n d e n t
th in kin g
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Elements of a Good VB Program
 R a p id re sp o n d in g (flu e n c y)
 L e a d s to b e tte r re te n tio n
 In th e “re a l w o rld ” o th e r ch ild re n d o n ’t w a it fo r a n s w e rs
 A h ig h ra te o f c o rre ct re sp o n s e s (F a st p a ce d in stru ctio n )
 K e e p s le a rn e r “o n ta sk”
 R e in fo rce s a cq u isitio n o f sk ills
 S kills g e n e ra liz e d im m e d ia te ly
 S kills a re m o re u se fu l w h e n th e y ca n b e p e rfo rm e d in a
va rie ty o f p la ce s a n d co n d itio n s
 M ixe d a n d va rie d ta sks
 K e e p s th e le a rn e r “o n h is to e s” a n d p re v e n ts b o re d o m
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Elements of a Good VB Program
 D ifficu lt ta s ks in te rsp e rse d w ith e a s y ta s k s to ke e p le ve l o f
re in fo rce m e n t h ig h
 “P a irin g ” te ch n iq u e s u se d to m a ke a situ a tio n , p e rso n o r a ctivity
re in fo rcin g a n d e xp a n d ch ild ’s in te re sts
EXAM PLE:
C h ild w a tc h e s fa vo rite vid e o w h ile le a rn in g to d o p u zzl e
 T ra n sfe r p ro ce d u re s u se d to m a ke le a rn in g e a sie r
E X A M P L E : (e rro rle ss re ce p tive to ta ct tra n sfe r)
In stru c to r: “S h o w m e th e cat.”
S tu d e n t: (to u c h e s c a t)
In stru c to r: “W h at is th at? C at. (p a u s e ) W h at is th at? ”
S tu d e n t: “C at.”
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Things to Keep in Mind
  E v e ry m o m e n t is a “te a c h a b le ” m o m e n t!
  D a ta c o lle c tio n is v a lu a b le to tra c k p ro g re s s a n d
tro u b le s h o o t, b u t it s h o u ld n e v e r in te rfe re w ith te a c h in g!
  If th e c h ild is n o t le a rn in g , it’s th e fa u lt o f th e te a c h in g
p ro c e d u re s , N O T th e c h ild!
  If it’s n o t m e a n in g fu l to th e c h ild , fin d a w a y to m a k e it s o!
  B e h a v io rs a lw a ys o c c u r fo r a re a s o n . It’s u p to U S to fig u re
out W H Y.
  L e a rn in g c a n (a n d s h o u ld ) b e F U N !
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Data Collection Procedures Using
“Pocket-ABLLS”
1 . B in d e r is d iv id e d in to s e c tio n s c o rre s p o n d in g to e a c h s e c tio n o f
th e A B L L S . (A n a d d itio n a l s e c tio n is c re a te d fo r F F C ta rg e ts .)
2 . T h e re a re th re e typ e s o f c a rd s /d a ta s h e e ts :
a ) “S im p le T a rg e ts ”
b ) “M u ltip le T a rg e ts p e r G o a l”
c ) “F F C ta rg e ts ” (ite m s b y fe a tu re , fu n c tio n , c la s s ) a re g ro u p e d
to g e th e r b y ite m o n o n e c a rd a n d c o rre s p o n d in g d a ta s h e e t.
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Data Collection Procedures Using
“Pocket-ABLLS”
a ) “S im p le T a rg e ts ”, ha ve a o ne -to -o n e
c o rre s p o n de n c e b e tw e e n an A B L L S g o a l a n d a
ta rg e t c a rd a n d d a ta s h e e t. T h a t is , th e g o al “A 1 ”
h a s o n e c a rd a n d o n e d a ta sh e e t.
(S e e ex a m p le s 1 a n d 2 .)
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Example 1 – “Simple Target” Card
A1
I
P
T A K E S R E IN FO R C E R W H E N O FFE R E D
C opyright 2003 T he M ariposa School. A ll R ights R eserved.
Based on “T he ABLL S ,” copyright 1998 by Beha vior Analy sts, Inc. U s ed by perm ission.
1 . D O E S N ’ T TA K E A L L TH E TIM E , O R S LO W TO R E S P O N D
2 . T A K E S Q U IC K L Y A LL TH E TIM E
I = Independent Response P = Prompted Response
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Example 2 – “Simple” Data Sheet
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Data Collection Procedures Using
“Pocket-ABLLS”
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Example 3 – “Multiple Targets per Goal”
Card
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Example 4 – “Multiple Targets per Goal”
Data Sheet
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Data Collection Procedures Using
“Pocket-ABLLS”
Copyright 2004 The Mariposa School
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Example 5 – “FFC Targets” Card
B IR D ( 1 )
C opyright 2003 T he M ariposa School. A ll R ights R eserved.
Based on “T he ABLL S ,” copyright 1998 by Beha vior Analy sts, Inc. U se d by perm ission .
I
P
SEL EC T
I
P
NAM E
I
P
F LIES
(C 2 3 )
O BJEC T
(C 2 4 ) P I C TU R E
(G 2 )
O BJEC T
(G 4 ) P I C TU R E
(C 2 0 ) S E LE C T
(G 1 2 ) N A M E
(H 7 ) F I LL I N
(G 1 5 ) N A M E F U N C TI O N
(H 8 ) F I LL IN F U N C TI O N
I
P
LIV ES IN A N E ST
(C 2 1 ) S E LE C T
(G 1 3 )
(G 1 0 ) N A M E F E A TU R E
I
P
F EA TH ER S
(C 2 1 ) S E LE C T
(G 1 3 )
(G 1 0 ) N A M E F E A TU R E
I
P
P
(H 1 0 ) F I LL IN
(H 9 ) F I LL I N F E A TU R E
N AM E
W IN G S
(C 2 1 ) S E LE C T
(G 1 3 )
(G 1 0 ) N A M E F E A TU R E
I
(H 1 0 ) F I LL IN
(H 9 ) F I LL I N F E A TU R E
N AM E
(H 1 0 ) F I LL IN
(H 9 ) F I LL I N F E A TU R E
N AM E
A N IM A L
(C 2 2 ) S E LE C T
(G 1 4 )
(G 1 6 ) N A M E C L A S S
Copyright 2004 The Mariposa School
(H 1 2 ) F I LL IN
(H 1 1 ) F I LL I N C L A SS
N AM E
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Example 6 – “FFC Targets” Data Sheet
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Data Collection Procedures Using
“Pocket-ABLLS”
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Data Collection Procedures Using
“Pocket-ABLLS”
Copyright 2004 The Mariposa School
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Data Collection Procedures Using
“Pocket-ABLLS”
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Benefits of Using “Pocket-ABLLS”
 C a rd s a re p o rta ble

E a s y to us e b o th a t th e tab le a n d w h ile p la yin g (N E T )
 D a ta c a n b e c ap tu re d q uick ly a n d re c o rd e d la te r

K e e p s a tte n tio n foc u se d o n stu d e n t, n o t on th e d a ta
 N o te s c a n b e w ritte n dire c tly o n to th e c a rd s

Im p o rta n t in sig h ts a re n o t “los t” in a n o te b o ok
 E n s u res a ll ta rg e ts a re ta u ght e a c h d a y
 E n a b les o the r p e o p le to q uick ly d e te rm in e c u rre n t g o als

B rin g s n e w in s truc to rs “u p to s p e e d ” q uick ly

G ive s s u bs titu te in s truc to rs “th e b ig pic tu re ”
 E a s y to c yc le in p re vio us ly m a s te re d ite m s fo r re vie w
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 In s p ire d b y “In tro d u c tio n to V e rb a l B e h a v io r” c o n fe re n c e g iv e n
b y D r. V in c e C a rb o n e , in G re e n s b o ro , N C ; M a rc h 2 0 0 0
 In c o rp o ra te d a s a n o n -p ro fit; D e c e m b e r 2 0 0 0
 B e g a n s e rv in g s tu d e n ts , S e p te m b e r, 2 0 0 1
 P riv a te s c h o o l c e rtifie d b y th e N C D e p a rtm e n t o f N o n -p u b lic
e d u c a tio n
 F u n d e d e n tire ly fro m c o n trib u tio n s fro m in d iv id u a ls a n d
o rg a n iz a tio n s
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M IS S IO N S T A T E M E N T
T o p ro v id e in te n s iv e in d iv id u a liz e d in s tru c tio n to c h ild re n w ith
a u tis m , ta rg e tin g th e b ro a d ra n g e o f e d u c a tio n a l, b e h a v io ra l,
s p e e c h , s o c ia l a n d m o to r d ys fu n c tio n s th a t a ffe c t th e m , in a
s in g le in te g ra te d s e ttin g .
R e c o g n izin g th e h ig h in c id e n c e o f
c h e m ic a l a n d o th e r s e n s itiv itie s in s u c h c h ild re n , p a rtic u la r c a re
m u s t b e ta k e n to m a in ta in a s a fe a n d h e a lth y in d o o r
e n v iro n m e n t, w h e re s tu d e n ts m a y fu n c tio n a t th e ir v e ry b e s t.
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Overview of Verbal Behavior