Reported speech qwertyui El estilo indirecto (reported speech) se usa para contar lo que alguien ha dicho sin citar exactamente sus palabras. Podemos contar en presente lo que alguien acaba de decir, para lo cual basta Con quitar las comillas y cambiar el pronombre sujeto y la persona del verbo. “ I am tired” He says that he is tired Pero lo normal es que el verbo que introduce la subordinada en estilo indirecto (say o tell, normalmente) vaya en pasado, y entonces el cambio más importante es que el verbo de la subordinada da un salto atrás ( de present simple a Past simple, de éste a past perfect, etc) “I like noodles” He said that he liked noodles Además de suprimir las comillas y cambiar los tiempos verbales, también es necesario que hagamos algunos cambios en los pronombres y en las expresiones de tiempo y de lugar. La oración subordinada va introducida por “ that” , aunque en inglés hablado se suele omitir. Cuando la frase enuncia una verdad general no hay cambio en los tiempos verbales. “Crime is punished by the law”, she said She said that crime is punished by the law Cambios en los tiempos verbales Tense Present simple Direct Speech “He works as an editor” Tense Indirect Speech Past simple He said that he worked as an editor Present continuous “He is working as an editor” Past continuous He said that he was working as an editor Past simple “He worked as an editor” Past perfect He said that he had worked as an editor Past continuous “He was working as an editor” Past perfect continuous He said that he had been working as an editor Present perfect simple “He has worked as an editor” Past perfect He said that he had worked as an editor Present perfect continuous “He has been working as an editor” Present perfect continuous He said that he had been working as an editor Past perfect simple “He had worked as an editor” Past perfect simple He said that he had worked as an editor Past perfect continuous “He had been working as an editor” Past perfect continuous He said that he had been working as an editor Future simple “He will work as an editor” Would + infin. He said that he would work as an editor Cambios en los modales Can Could May Might Must / have to Must / had to Will Would Cambios en otras palabras Now Then Today That day Tonight That night Yesterday The previous day / the day before Last week The previous week / the week before A month ago The previous month / the month before Tomorrow The following day / the next day / the day after Next week The following week / the week after Here There This That These Those Reported questions Hay dos tipos de preguntas: LAS YES / NO QUESTIONS son las que se contestan con un “si” o un “no”. para ponerlas en estilo indirecto utilizamos el verbo ask, y a continuación if o whether. Entonces la pregunta deja de serlo y se convierte en una frase afirmativa, ya no hay inversión sujeto-verbo(A+S+V), ni signo de interrogación, ni comillas. “Did you speak to John last night?” She asked aux suj verb She asked if / whether I had spoken to John last night LAS WH-QUESTIONS son las que empiezan por una palabra interrogativa (Wh- word) Al pasarlas al estilo indirecto ponemos dicha palabra (wh-) y luego el sujeto + verbo. ►Who told you that story? She asked Sujeto → no aux She asked who had told us that story Who are you writing to? She asked She asked who I was writing to suj ► Where did you go last summer? He asked me He asked me where I had gone the previous summer suj Reported orders Para poner una orden en estilo indirecto cambiamos el imperativo por un infinitivo con to. Pero antes del infinitivo debemos poner un verbo que exprese mandato, como Tell u order , seguido del complemento indirecto. Hay otros verbos que siguen esta estructura aunque no expresen orden. Ask o beg para peticiones. Warn para advertir a alguien de algo. Advise para dar consejo Invite para hacer una invitación. “Stop driving so fast”. My mother ordered me to stop driving so fast. Si la oración es negativa , ponemos not delante de to. “Don´t tell anybody” He begged me not to tell anybody Reported suggestions Primero ponemos el sujeto y el verbo suggest en pasado y después lo que se sugirió. Las sugerencias se pueden pasar a estilo indirecto de dos formas: usando una oración introducida por that, con su sujeto y el verbo en la forma base. (El verbo demand, que expresa mandato, también sigue esta estructura) “Let´s watch the news” Tom suggested Tom suggested that we watch the news Usando el gerundio, sin especificar ningún sujeto. “ Let´s phone the police inmediately” He suggested phoning the police inmediately Reported verbs + Admit Agree Answer Apologise Boast (presumir, alardear) Claim ? Enquire Request orders Complain Declare Deny Explain Inform Insist Want to know Wonder Demand Order requests Shout Warn Suggestions Advise Invite Suggest Recommend Mention Offer Promise Refuse Remind Reply Beg Choose the correct answer 1. Frank promised that he will take / would take photographs on the trip. 2. The shop claimed that they have / had no more Harry Potter books. 3. Bob explained that he couldn’t / can’t come that evening. 4. Dad mentioned that he was going / is going to the dentist. 5. Laura admitted that she doesn’t know / didn’t know the answer. Choose the correct continuation. 1. I wondered … . a. if Mike was still angry b. if Mike still loves me 2. Reporters asked eyewitnesses … . a. what had they seen b. if they had seen anyone leave the building 3. My parents wanted to know … . a. which film I was going to b. what time I will get home 4. Joe asked the doctor … . a. when could he go back to work b. if he could go back to work Complete the sentences with the correct form of the verbs in brackets. 1.“My parents are reading the paper.” Mike said his parents ……………………… were reading (read) the paper. 2.“David will arrive soon.” would arrive (arrive) soon. Bill mentioned that David ……………………… 3.“John forgot my birthday!” had forgotten (forget) her birthday. Tessa complained that John ……………………… 4.”I’m not waiting for you.” wasn’t waiting (wait) for us. Simon said that he ……………………… 5.“Were you speaking to the publisher?” He wanted to know if I ……………………… had been speaking (speak) to the publisher. 6. “Barbara can meet us later.” could meet She mentioned that Barbara ……………………… (meet) us later. Complete the sentences with the correct form of the verbs in brackets. hadn’t broken 1. The boys claimed that they ……………………… (not break) the window. would take (take) me to the party. 2. Rita promised that she ……………………… preferred (prefer). 3. The salesgirl asked Jenny which sweater she ……………………… 4. Ingrid admitted that she couldn’t understand ……………………… (cannot understand) the maths. have / was having (have) a test 5. The student wanted to know if the class would……………………… the following week. had called (call) her when she was out. 6. Sandra wondered who ……………………… would give (give) him a ticket if he caught 7. The policeman warned Alex that he ……………………… him speeding again. 8. Jack said that he had been cleaning ……………………… (clean) his room when his mother had come home the previous day. 9. Mr Roberts said that he ……………………… was using (use) the computer at that moment. Write sentences using the words below. 1.they / had / the / museum / that / been / all / Sandra / working / week / said / at They said that Sandra had been working at the museum all week Sandra said that they had been working at the museum all week. 2.whether / raining / children / was / asked / the / it The children asked whether it was raining. 3.told / mum / clean / house / my / me / to / the My mum told me to clean the house 4.that / playing / Brian / friends / his / basketball / said / were Brian said that his friends were playing basketball. 5.pizza / dinner / night / suggested / a / that / David / ordering / for David suggested ordering a pizza for dinner that night. Complete the sentences according to the meaning of the original sentences. 1. “Let’s invite the neighbours for coffee tomorrow,” said Mrs Thomas. Mrs Thomas suggested.. . ..inviting / that we invite the neighbors for coffee the next / the following day 2. “Don’t walk on the grass,” said the park keeper to the children. The park keeper told the children not to walk on the grass . 3. “Why do I have to go to the dentist today?” asked the little boy. The little boy asked why he had to go to the dentist that day . 4. “I’ll never hit Johnny again,” Daniel said. Daniel promised that he would never hit Johnny again / never. to hit Johnny again 5. “We are watching the news on TV now,” her parents said. Her parents told us that they were watching the news on TV then . Choose the correct time expression. 1. “Let’s go to lunch next week.” She suggested going to lunch … . a. the following week b. next week c. that week 2. “I am going to buy a new computer tomorrow.” He said he was going to buy a new computer … . a. the day before b. the next day c. tomorrow 3. “We are eating now.” She said they were eating … . a. now b. later c. then 4. “Did you call me last night?” He asked whether I had called him … . a. the night before b. yesterday c.last night Complete the following sentences using reported speech. Make all necessary changes. 1.“I have an important meeting with the editor.” Victor said (that) . he had an important meeting with the editor 2.“Steve, don’t be late for the press conference.” not to be late for the press conference The secretary reminded Steve . 3. “I went to the doctor yesterday.” Linda said .. . …(that) she had been / had gone to the doctor the day before / the previous day 4.“Dad will be working late tonight.” Mum said (that) Dad would be working late that night Complete the sentences. Use reported speech. 1.“Stop making so much noise,” the teacher told the students. The teacher told the students The teacher told the students to stop making so much noise. 2. “Don’t turn on the television,” Tim’s mother said. Tim’s mother told him Tim’s mother told him not to turn on the television. 3. “Let’s meet at the café after work,” Anne suggested. Anne suggested that Anne suggested that we meet at the café after work Write the sentences in direct speech. 1.I asked Regina where she was going for her holiday. “Where are you going for your holiday?” I asked Regina. 2.Everyone asked Susan what she had done the day before. “What did you do yesterday?” everyone asked Susan. 3.They said that they wouldn’t go to the party unless Sam invited them. “We won’t go to the party unless Sam invites us,” they said. 4.The manager ordered Gina to finish typing those letters by five o’clock. “Finish typing these letters by five o’clock!” the manager ordered Gina 5.Albert told us that he had finished the last Harry Potter book the week before. I finished the last Harry Potter book last week,” Albert said. 6.Tina suggested that we make Lucy a surprise party. “Let’s make Lucy a surprise party,” Tina suggested. Choose the correct verb in brackets. Then rewrite the sentences in reported speech. 1.Anne: “My parents won’t allow me to work after school.” (complain / suggest) Anne complained that her parents wouldn’t allow her to work after school 2.Shop manager: “We are closing the shop early today.” (order / explain) The shop manager explained that they were closing the shop early that day 3.Teacher: “If you complete the assignment by next week, you’ll get extra marks.” (enquire / promise) The teacher promised that if we / they completed the assignment by the following week / the week after, we / they would get extra marks. 4.Tim: “Don’t forget the party next week, Sam.” (remind / suggest) Tim reminded Sam not to forget the party the following week / the week after.