Kinds of Dictionaries
Deny A. Kwary
A Dictionary is …
 a systematically arranged list of
socialised linguistic forms compiled from
the speech-habits of a given speech
community and commented on by the
author in such a way that qualified reader
understands the meaning…
(Zgusta 1971:17)
Typology of Dictionaries
(1) scholarly dictionaries of record;
(2) practical dictionaries for everyday use;
(3) pedagogical dictionaries;
(4) dictionaries of linguistic phenomena;
(5) special-subject dictionaries;
(6) bilingual dictionaries;
(7) onomasiological dictionaries.
(1) scholarly dictionaries of record
 The 19th and 20th centuries saw an explosion
of scholarly lexicographical activity.
 Every language in the world that has an
established literary tradition now has (or will
soon have) a major dictionary.
 Classic examples of great historical dictionaries
are the Oxford English Dictionary (OED), the
Trésor de la langue française, and the
Deutsches Wörterbuch.
(2) practical dictionaries for everyday use
 The emphasis in practical dictionaries
nowadays is often on presenting a wealth of
complex facts about words in a way that is as
accessible as possible for users.
 Concise Oxford dictionary (1911) seems very
dense and hard to use when compared with
the 10th edition (1999), where a great deal of
careful planning went into the page design and
layout, as well as the selection of information.
(3) pedagogical dictionaries
 the emphasis is either on helping the user to
‘encode’ or ‘decode’ the language.
 A dictionary designed for encoding use typically
has a smaller word list and many more
examples of usage than one for decoding use.
 Examples of pedagogical dictionaries:
 Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary
 Collins Cobuild English Dictionary for Advanced
 Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English
 Macmillan English Dictionary for Advanced
Some of the innovative design features of
pedagogical dictionaries
 The use of controlled/limited defining
vocabulary in definitions
 The use of corpus-driven contextual
paraphrase as a defining technique
 The extended use of authentic example
 The use of extensive (nonverbal) illustrations
to support definitions
(4) dictionaries of linguistic phenomena
 Typical examples of dictionaries of linguistic
phenomena are Slang dictionaries.
 English slang lexicography falls into three
1. The ‘canting’ or criminal slang dictionaries of the
16th to the 18th centuries
2. The ‘vulgar tongue’ works of the late 18th to the
mid-19th centuries, and
3. The ‘modern’ productions in the 20th and the
21st centuries.
1. The ‘canting’ or criminal slang dictionaries of
the 16th to the 18th centuries:
 The hye way to the Spytell House, by Robert
Copland (c. 1535). It describes the various
categories of beggars and thieves, as well as
their tricks and frauds.
 A new dictionary of the terms ancient and
modern of the canting crew, by the
anonymous B.E., Gent.[leman] (c. 1698),
2. The ‘vulgar tongue’ works of the late 18th to
the mid-19th centuries:
 A classical dictionary of the vulgar tongue,
by the antiquary and former militia officer
Captain Francis Grose (1785).
 Modern slang, cant and vulgar words,
latterly The slang dictionary, by Camden
Hotten who was a bookseller/publisher and
a cultivator of the ‘flower garden,’ books of
flagellant pornography.
3. In the ‘modern’ productions in the 20th and the
21st centuries, American slang has taken over
along with an explosion of US lexica.
 Vocabulary of criminal slang, by Jackson
and Hellyer (1914).
 American tramp and underworld slang, by
Godfrey Irwin (1931).
 Campus slang, by Connie Eble (1972).
 The slang and jargon of drugs and drink, by
Richard A. Spears (1986).
(5) special-subject dictionaries
 Ranging from huge dictionaries of medicine
and law to quite small dictionaries of particular
sports or games.
 Covering multifarious topics. Examples:
 A Dictionary of Color, by Ian Paterson; London:
Thorogood Publishing, 2004; 528 pages.
 Dictionary of Militery Terms, by Richard Bowyer;
London: A&C Black, 2007; 289 pages.
 To be discussed further in Week 14.
(6) bilingual dictionaries
 Bilingual dictionaries are typically practical
tools for interlingual communication and
learning, rather than scholarly studies.
 Examples:
 Kamus Indonesia-Inggris, by John M. Echols and
Hassan Shadily, 3rd Edition, 1992.
 Kamus Lengkap Indonesia-Inggris, by Alan M.
Stevens and A.Ed. Schmidgall-Tellings, 2nd
Edition, 2008.
 To be discussed further in Week 13.
(7) onomasiological dictionaries
 an onomasiological dictionary is to help the user
to find the appropriate word for a particular
meaning or concept.
 For example: Roget’s Thesaurus, in which words
are arranged in hierarchies under more general
Types of Dictionarys based on the
Language(s) used:
 Monolingual dictionaries: For example, the
entry words are in English and the definitions
are also in English.
 Bilingual dictionaries: For example, the entry
words are in English and the definitions (or
equivalents) are in Indonesian.
 Semibilingual (or bilingualized) dictionaries:
For example, the entry words are in English
and they are provided with the definitions in
English and the equivalents in Indonesian.
 Multilingual (or pluralingual) dictionaries:
Containing more than two languages.
That’s All for Today
Thank You

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