1
Classification is the grouping of objects based on similarities.
Examine the evolutionary basis of
modern classification systems.
(six kingdoms)
2
Classification
 Classification is an important
– In understanding how organisms are
related and how they are different.
– So that we can work with the diversity
of life
 Taxonomy is the branch of biology
that studies the grouping and naming
of organisms.
3
Aristotle
His classification system was
based on structural
differences that were seen.
4
Carolus Linnaeus (1707-1778)
Swedish Botantist
•Based his
classification on characteristics of organisms
that were similar.
Developed the two word system used to identify
species: binomial nomenclature.
5
Clip
6
Binomial Nomenclature
 Because scientists speak many different
languages and common names for organisms
may vary from place to place, a universal
system for naming organisms is used.
 The scientific name of an organism is based
on a two-word system called binomial
nomenclature.
7
Quercus alba: is the name for white
oak (alba is Latin for “white”)
Quercus rubra: is the name for the
red oak (rubra is Latin for “red”)
Micropterus salmoides is the name
for a largemouth bass
8
Binomial nomenclature
•The two words, genus and species, are
always italicized (or underlined).
•The first word in a scientific name, genus,
is always capitalized and the second word,
species, is never capitalized.
•For example the scientific name of the
largemouth bass would be Micropterus
salmoides (or Micropterus salmoides).
9 In addition to (1) appearance and (2)
behavior, (3) molecular structure (e.g.,
DNA) and(4) evolutionary relationships
are also considered when classifying
organisms.
 Organisms that share
more similarities are
more closely related
and are grouped
together.
10
Eight levels of classification
Least
alike
Domain
Taxon:
Group or
level of
classification
Most
alike
Species is
the most
specific
11
Taxon
Level
HUMAN
CHIMPANZEE
HOUSE
CAT
LION
HOUSEFLY
KINGDOM
Animalia
Animalia
Animalia
Animalia
Animalia
PHYLUM
Chordate
Chordate
Chordate
Chordate
Arthropoda
CLASS
Mammal
Mammal
Mammal
Mammal
Insect
ORDER
Primates
Primates
Carnivora
Carnivora
Diptera
FAMILY
Hominidae
Pongidae
Felidae
Felidae
Muscidae
GENUS
Homo
Pan
Felis
Felis
Musca
SPECIES
sapiens
troglodytes
domestica
leo
domestica
Scientific
Name
ORGANISM
Homo
sapiens
Pan troglodytes
Felis
domestica
Felis leo
Musca
domestica
12
Example: Human Classification
How would you write
the scientific name?
a. homo Sapiens
b. Homo sapiens
c. Homo Sapiens
13
CLASSIFICATION OF THE
LARGEMOUTH BASS
Domain Eukarya
Kingdom Animalia (multicellular organisms that eat food)
Phylum Chordata (animals with a backbone)
Class Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes)
Order Perciformes (perch-like fishes)
Family Centrarchida (sunfishes)
Genus Micropterus (types of bass)
Species salmoides (largemouth bass)
Largemouth Bass:
Micropterus salmoides
14
15
KINGDOMS
OF LIFE
16
Six Kingdoms of Life
Plantae
Protista
EuBacteria
Archaebacteria
OLD NAME:
MONERA
Fungi
Animalia
Three Domains and Six Kingdoms:
Three Domains:
Bacteria- Unicellular and prokaryotic.
17
Autotrophic and Heterotrophic. Cell walls
have peptidoglycan.
Kingdoms: Eubacteria
Archaea- Unicellular and prokaryotic.
Cell walls do not have peptidoglycan.
Kingdoms: Archaebacteria
Eukarya- Eukaryotic.
Kingdoms:
Protista, Plantae,
Fungi, Animalia.
18
Bacteria
•Eubacteria (true
bacteria) &
Archaebacteria contain
prokaryotes, cells
without membranebound organelles.
•Microscopic &
unicellular.
•Archaebacteria are
mainly found in
extreme environments
like the deep oceans,
hot springs, and
swamps.
•Heterotropic &
autotrophic
Protista
•unicellular and
multicellular
organisms with
a variety of
characteristics
•eukaryotic
organisms that
lack complex
organ systems
and live in moist
environments.
•Heterotropic
and autotrophic
•Most are
microscopic.
Fungi
•Consumers that stay put.
•Unicellular or multicellular
heterotrophic eukaryotes that
absorb nutrients from dead and
decaying matter by decomposing
dead organisms and wastes in the
environment.
19
Plantae
Multicellular
eukaryotes that
photosynthesize.
Most have
cellulose cell walls
and tissues that
have been
organized into
organs and organ
systems.
Autotrophic-some
parasitic- some
carnivore.
Animalia
Multicellular
consumersheterotrophic
Cells do not have cell
walls.
Their tissues have
been organized into
complex organ
systems; the nervous
system, muscle system
and digestive system,
as well as others.
20
6 Kingdoms of Life
Clip
22
Evolutionary
relationship
between the
kingdoms.
Clip
A cladogram
is a tree-like
diagram
showing
evolutionary
relationships.
Any two
branch tips
sharing the same
immediate node
are most closely
related.
Cladogram
22.3
Illustrate
relationships
• Bacteria, Archaebacter
ia, & the Prokaryotic
Domains Video (8:51)
22.1
1a Two feet
2
1b Some other number of feet
3
2a Does not look at all human
4
2b Looks a lot like a human
5
3a One leg
6
3b Three or four legs
7
4a Fly-like
Mosk Cara
4b Not fly-like
8
5a Seems to be a girl
Rita Nita
5b Not a girl
9
6a Leg is curled , two feet
Ru-ela.Brella
6b Leg is straight, one foot
Giggles
7a Three legs
10
7b Four legs
11
8a Has webbed feet
Hex Oculate
8b Clawed feet
12
9a Curly hair, no toes
Lugio Wirum
9b Wiggly looking mouth, three toes on feet
C. Nile
10a Very long nose, open mouth
Elle E. Funk
10b Some other appearance
13
11a Has duck bill, two pinchers
Tri D. Duckt
11b No arms or pinchers
14
12a Has ears, tail, and beak
Grif Leon
12b Four eyes on stalks
Eggur Ondy
13a One eye, webbed feet
Cue Kide
13b Four stalked eyes, four pinchers
Quadrumenox
14a Three toed feet, nose like a flower
Tunia petalos
14b Spider-like, has spots
Patterned mulywumpus
23
EOCT ALERT!!!!
 A multicellular organism that
obtains its food by absorbing
nutrients belongs to the
kingdom




A Animalia
B Fungi
C Plantae
D Protista
24
The study of animals
is known as
A
B
C
D
botany
ecology
taxonomy
zoology
25
In 1988, the tiger swallowtail,
Papilio glaucus, was proclaimed
Georgia’s state butterfly. The
tiger swallowtail shares the most
characteristics with members of
which taxonomic level?
 A class
 B family
 C order
 D phylum
26
One main difference between
members of the Kingdoms Plantae
and Animalia is the ability to
A obtain energy
B reproduce
C move
D exchange gases
27
The table shows an early method of
classifying animals.
Which of the following best illustrates why the
modern Linnaean classification system has replaced
the system developed by Aristotle?
A) Flying insects fly over both land and water.
B) Eating habits of reptiles and some land mammals
are different.
C) Sea snake bones are similar to those of reptiles
that live on land.
D) Birds are warm-blooded like mammals.
A group of prokaryotes
that live in extreme
environments are the
A viruses
B protists
C eubacteria
D archaebacteria
28
The complexity of body systems differs
greatly among organisms. Which of
the following organisms has developed
organ systems for obtaining and
utilizing energy?
A
B
C
D
bacterium
mushroom
mouse
virus
29
Ms. Wall, may I be excused? My brain is full.
Descargar

Slide 1