Latin Vulgate Group 2 96121204 Bella 96121236 Rebecca 96121237 Apple 94121145 Lilly 94121303 Hannah Introduction ↓ ( Rebecca) Background ↓ (Hannah) Translation & Development ↓ (Bella) Versions of Vulgate ↓(Lilly) Influence (Apple) ◎What is the Vulgate mean? comes from the word “vulgata” ◎Why was the vulgate written? ◎ the Latin translation of the Bible ◎Time: 5th century ◎ be called “versio vulgata” in 13th century BACKGROUND Two Important Figures Pope Damasus I Jerome at work Pope Damasus I Being active in defending the Roman Church against the threat of schisms Encouraging Jerome to revise the available Old Latin versions of the Bible into a more accurate Latin, resulting in the Vulgate Jerome He is best known for his new translation of the Bible into Latin, the Vulgate. Prior to Jerome's Vulgate, all Latin translations of the Old Testament were based on the Septuagint. 382-405 A.D. He began in 382 A.D. by correcting the existing Latin language version of the New Testament, commonly referred to as the Vetus Latina. By 390 A.D. he turned to the Hebrew Bible, having previously translated portions from the Septuagint. He completed this work by 405 A.D.. NOTICE The Vulgate is a compound work, only some parts of which are due to Jerome. Jerome's independent translation from the Hebrew: the protocanonical books of the Old Testament, with the exception of the Psalter. Translation revision of the New Testament Old Testament from the Septuagint Old Testament from Hebrew The New Testament The differences between it and the Old Latin versions. The Gospels or the Whole New Testament Revised Old Testament from the Septuagint 1.Roman Psalter 2.Gallican Psalter 3.Rest of the Old Testament Old Testament from the Hebrew The final version of Jerome’s translations toward Old Testament. Development Reformation Calvinists introduced vernacular versions translated from the original languages. Other bible translations in different lauguages. Council of Trent (1554-1563) Qualified the books as being “entire with all their parts, as they have been used to be read in the Catholic Church, and as they are contained in the old Latin vulgate edition” Versions of the Vulgate -Human writing and printing errors in the copying of the original Vulgate Several editions of the first printed work varied one from the other - Versions of the Vulgate Clementine Vulgate (1592-1960s) Nova Vulgata (1907- ~) Stuttgart Vulgate (1969- ~) Clementine Vulgate After the Reformation, the Church of Rome attempted to standardize the overall text of the Vulgate. The actual first authorized text was sponsored by Pope Sixtus V (1589-90), known as the Sistine Vulgate. But soon it was repudiated by the next pope, Clement VIII (1592-1605) who ordered a new edition. Clementine Vulgate became the standard Bible text of the Catholic Church until 1960s. Nova Vulgata In 1907, Pope Pius X commissioned the another version of the Vulgate, called the Nova Vulgata. Is currently the official Latin version published and approved by the Roman Catholic Church. It takes account of the modem textual criticism of recent years. It doesn’t contain the book that are considered apocryphal. e.g. the 3rd and 4th Book of Ezra Stuttgart Vulgate Another version of the Vulgate published by the German Bible Society, based in Stuttgart. The edition, also called Biblia Sacra Vulgata is mainly a scholar work, seeks to reproduce the original text. It provides variant readings from the diverse manuscripts and printed editions of the Vulgate. Its spelling retains a more medieval Latin orthography than the Clementine. But its sparse, unpunctuated text can be difficult to read. It is the one most disseminated on the Internet. This electronic version is usually mutilated, lacking all formatting, notes, prefaces and apparatus. Stuttgart Vulgate vs. Clementine Vulgate Book Of Genesis Chapter 1 1 in principio creavit Deus caelum et terram 2 terra autem erat inanis et vacua et tenebrae super faciem abyssi et spiritus Dei ferebatur super aquas 3 dixitque Deus fiat lux et facta est lux 4 et vidit Deus lucem quod esset bona et divisit lucem ac tenebras 5 appellavitque lucem diem et tenebras noctem factumque est vespere et mane dies unus 6 dixit quoque Deus fiat firmamentum in medio aquarum et dividat aquas ab aquis 7 et fecit Deus firmamentum divisitque aquas quae erant sub firmamento ab his quae erant super firmamentum et factum est ita 8 vocavitque Deus firmamentum caelum et factum est vespere et mane dies secundus 9 dixit vero Deus congregentur aquae quae sub caelo sunt in locum unum et appareat arida factumque est ita 10 et vocavit Deus aridam terram congregationesque aquarum appellavit maria et vidit Deus quod esset bonum Liber Genesis 1 1 In principio creavit Deus cælum et terram. 2 Terra autem erat inanis et vacua, et tenebræ erant super faciem abyssi : et spiritus Dei ferebatur super aquas. 3 Dixitque Deus : Fiat lux. Et facta est lux. 4 Et vidit Deus lucem quod esset bona : et divisit lucem a tenebris. 5 Appellavitque lucem Diem, et tenebras Noctem : factumque est vespere et mane, dies unus. 6 Dixit quoque Deus : Fiat firmamentum in medio aquarum : et dividat aquas ab aquis. 7 Et fecit Deus firmamentum, divisitque aquas, quæ erant sub firmamento, ab his, quæ erant super firmamentum. Et factum est ita. 8 Vocavitque Deus firmamentum, Cælum : et factum est vespere et mane, dies secundus. 9 Dixit vero Deus : Congregentur aquæ, quæ sub cælo sunt, in locum unum : et appareat arida. Et factum est ita. 10 Et vocavit Deus aridam Terram, congregationesque aquarum appellavit Maria. Et vidit Deus quod esset bonum. Nova Vulgata Liber Genesis 1 In principio creavit Deus caelum et terram. 2 Terra autem erat inanis et vacua, et tenebrae super faciem abyssi, et spiritus Dei ferebatur super aquas. 3 Dixitque Deus: “Fiat lux”. Et facta est lux. 4 Et vidit Deus lucem quod esset bona et divisit Deus lucem ac tenebras. 5 Appellavitque Deus lucem Diem et tenebras Noctem. Factumque est vespere et mane, dies unus. 6 Dixit quoque Deus: “Fiat firmamentum in medio aquarum et dividat aquas ab aquis”. 7 Et fecit Deus firmamentum divisitque aquas, quae erant sub firmamento, ab his, quae erant super firmamentum. Et factum est ita. 8 Vocavitque Deus firmamentum Caelum. Et factum est vespere et mane, dies secundus. 9 Dixit vero Deus: “Congregentur aquae, quae sub caelo sunt, in locum unum, et appareat arida”. Factumque est ita. vs. KJV Bible Genesis 1:1 In the beginning God created the heaven and the earth. 1:2 And the earth was without form, and void; and darkness was upon the face of the deep. And the Spirit of God moved upon the face of the waters. 1:3 And God said, Let there be light: and there was light. 1:4 And God saw the light, that it was good: and God divided the light from the darkness. 1:5 And God called the light Day, and the darkness he called Night. And the evening and the morning were the first day. 1:6 And God said, Let there be a firmament in the midst of the waters, and let it divide the waters from the waters. 1:7 And God made the firmament, and divided the waters which were under the firmament from the waters which were above the firmament: and it was so. 1:8 And God called the firmament Heaven. And the evening and the morning were the second day. The influence on art, music, hymns, and religious plays Influence on other versions of the bible -- KJV, or Authorized Version --translations of Protestants The influence on the development of the English Language—in matters of the Bible and religion Taking Latin words from into English 1.creatio (e.g. Genesis 1:1, Heb 9:11) 2.absit (e.g., Mt 16:22 in the King James Bible) Introducing Greak words: synagogue, baptism, or so.