Tree Bimorphisms and Their Relevance in the Theory of Translations Cătălin-Ionuţ Tîrnăucă GRLMC, Rovira i Virgili University catalinionut.tirnauca@estudiants.urv.cat CLG 08, Madrid, 28/06/2008 Outline Motivation Tree transformations Ways to define tree transformations What is a tree bimorphism? What can we do with a bimorphism? Conclusions References CLG 08, Madrid, 28/06/2008: C. Tîrnăucă, Tree bimorphisms and their relevance in translations Motivation: why using trees in NLP? Strings and finite-state machines are extremely useful in speech recognition, text recognition, etc. NOT suitable for translations between natural languages: don’t capture syntax-sensitive transformations; don’t execute certain reorderings of parts of sentences. Hence, researchers from computational linguistic community have shown an increasing interest in more powerful formalisms, ones that can model trees and tree transformations. The new field of syntax-based machine translation was established: (Knight and Graehl 2005). CLG 08, Madrid, 28/06/2008: C. Tîrnăucă, Tree bimorphisms and their relevance in translations Motivation: formal properties required Accuracy is an important issue in machine translation, so the whole theory should rely on a solid mathematical background (formal languages). A perfect model: (Knight 2008), should have at least: expressiveness (reordering parts of sentences, i.e., local rotation), inclusiveness (generalizing the finite state machines), modularity (closure under composition, i.e., breaking the initial problem into smaller pieces easier to solve), and teachability (efficient training). CLG 08, Madrid, 28/06/2008: C. Tîrnăucă, Tree bimorphisms and their relevance in translations Motivation: defining tree transformations Many of the formalisms proposed until now fail in at least one of the above criteria. We mention the weak and strong parts of some of them, as well as the relation between them. We will see (something about and types of): tree transducers (formal language theory), tree homomorphisms (formal language theory), synchronous grammars (linguistics), and TREE BIMORPHISMS (formal language theory). We speak more about modularity: think of what success finite-state machines had because of the noisy-channel concept! CLG 08, Madrid, 28/06/2008: C. Tîrnăucă, Tree bimorphisms and their relevance in translations Tree transformations: first trees Ranked alphabet : ={S/2, NP/1, NP/3 symbols of a given rank, N/0,VP/2,V/1} i.e., number of branches (if not unique you can X=Spanish alphabet rename); represent parts Yield = Vamos a la playa of sentences (NP, VP) Leaf alphabet X: usual S alphabets of “words” called variables (Spanish, VP NP Russian) T(X): set of all trees V NP N Tree language: subset of T(X) Yield: concatenated Vamos la a playa sequence of leaf variables read from left to right CLG 08, Madrid, 28/06/2008: C. Tîrnăucă, Tree bimorphisms and their relevance in translations Tree transformations and translations Tree transformation : a collection of pairs of parse (syntax) trees of natural language sentences. Its translation ( ): a set of pairs of words from the two natural languages considered: just take the yield of such a pair of trees. VP NP D The N V castle burns S t T (Y) s T (X) transforms s into t, i.e., (s,t) yd(s) is translated into yd(t) VP NP V N Arde castelul X= English words Y= Romanian words ={S/2,NP/2,VP/1,NP/1,D/1, N/1} ={S/2,NP/2,VP/1,NP/1, N/1} T (X)= English parse trees Output Romanian Input English S T (Y)=Romanian parse trees CLG 08, Madrid, 28/06/2008: C. Tîrnăucă, Tree bimorphisms and their relevance in translations Define tree transformations: tree transducers Input tree Output tree Tree Transducer A tree transducer uses a set of states to encode information, and given an input tree over the input ranked alphabet, computes a (set of) output tree(s) over the output ranked alphabet in two ways: Top-down: starts at root, finishes at leaves; Bottom-up: starts at leaves, finishes at root. Many types introduced (in general, modularity doesn’t hold or cannot be proved), at least two look very promising: Extended top-down tree transducers: (Knight and Graehl 2005) Multi bottom-up tree transducers: (Maletti, Engelfriet and Lilin 2008), (Maletti 2007) CLG 08, Madrid, 28/06/2008: C. Tîrnăucă, Tree bimorphisms and their relevance in translations Define tree transformations: tree homomorphisms (I) A tree homomorphism :T(X)T(Y) is: a mapping which, based on certain rules defined for every input symbol, transforms recursively an input tree into a (totally or not) different output tree, or A top-down tree transducer with one state. Defines a simple tree transformation ={(s,(s))s T(X)}; usually one just identifies with treating as a relation. We need auxiliary variables to indicate an occurrence of a subtree in a tree during the processing. CLG 08, Madrid, 28/06/2008: C. Tîrnăucă, Tree bimorphisms and their relevance in translations Define tree transformations: tree homomorphisms (II) :T(X)T(Y) is defined by the rules: (x)= X(x): each x in the input replaced by a tree X(x) from output; (c)= 0(c): each constant c in the input replaced by a tree 0(x); (f(t1,…,tm))= m(f)(1 (t1),…, m (tm)): each root f in the input tree replaced by a tree m(f) from the output, where auxiliary variables appear as leaf symbols; X={in, blue} ={NP/3,ADJ/1,D/0} T (X)= English parse trees NP in 1 D ADJ 2 3 blue Input tree s in T(X) Y= {the, red, pen, out, of} 3(NP)=VP( 2, 3, 1, of)` 1(ADJ)=N(big, 1, pen) 0(D)=D(the) X(in)=out X(blue)=red D VP 3(NP)= X(in)=out 3 1 of X2the (bleu)=red N 1(ADJ)= big 1 pen ={VP/4,N/3,D/1} T (Y)=English parse trees VP D N out of the big red pen Output tree (t) in T(Y) CLG 08, Madrid, 28/06/2008: C. Tîrnăucă, Tree bimorphisms and their relevance in translations Define tree transformations: tree homomorphisms (III) Several types of tree homomorphisms exist depending on the restrictions imposed on each tree m(f) and implicitly on auxiliary variables: Linear: in each m(f) no copy of a subtree is allowed (no i appears twice or more); Non-deleting: in each m(f) no subtree information is lost (each i appears at least once); Strict: no m(f) can be reduced to an auxiliary variable i; Quasi-alphabetic: linear, non-deleting, strict, each constant is mapped to a constant or a tree of height 1 (all leaves are symbols from the output leaf alphabet), and each m(f) is a tree of height 1 in which the subtrees are reordered and symbols from the output leaf alphabet may appear as leaves. H: the class of all tree homomorphisms. lH, nH, sH, qH: the corresponding restricted class. CLG 08, Madrid, 28/06/2008: C. Tîrnăucă, Tree bimorphisms and their relevance in translations Define tree transformations: synchronous grammars (I) Use the idea of synchronous rewriting: two formal grammars work in parallel, productions being linked by some relation and applied synchronously. Pairs of recursively related words are generated simultaneously. Syntax-directed translators, first used in compilers, use the power of context-free rewriting and can be viewed as a three-step process one of which is a tree transformation: 1. For a given input sentence u, construct a parse tree for u. 2. Transform the parse tree into a tree in the output grammar. 3. Take the yield of the output tree as a translation for u. S VP1 P2 you VP3 ; P2 VP3 VP1 P before ; antes de VP VP speak ; hablar VP think ; pensar think S S P before you VP speak , P VP antes de hablar VP pensar CLG 08, Madrid, 28/06/2008: C. Tîrnăucă, Tree bimorphisms and their relevance in translations Define tree transformations: synchronous grammars (III) Many types of syntax-directed translations: Syntax Directed Translation Schemata: (Aho and Ullman 1972), Synchronous CFGs: (Satta and Peserico 2005), Inversion Transduction Grammars: (Wu 1997), Tree-to-string models: (Yamada and Knight 2001), Hierarchical Phrase-Based Models: (Chiang 2007), etc Beyond the generative capacity of CF rewriting (multi-level rules): Synchronous Tree Substitution Grammars: (Shieber 2004). Involve discontinuous constituents: Synchronous TAGs: (Shieber and Schabes 1990), Generalized Multitext Grammars: (Melamed et all 2004). CLG 08, Madrid, 28/06/2008: C. Tîrnăucă, Tree bimorphisms and their relevance in translations Define tree transformations: synchronous grammars (III) Synchronous grammars derivations can be viewed as pairs of trees, just as usual derivations in formal grammars can be viewed as trees. From the way of defining them, we can see that they: easily capture syntax-sensitive transformations, execute local rotations, and are in general trainable. Unfortunately no modularity results were known or could be proved until recently: (Shieber 2004). What helped us improve the modularity? Answer: TREE BIMORPHISMS. Why? Don’t be impatient and don’ fell asleep. It follows right now. This is the best part and not too much mathematics. CLG 08, Madrid, 28/06/2008: C. Tîrnăucă, Tree bimorphisms and their relevance in translations What is a tree bimorphism? (I) A mathematical, nice alternative way to define tree transformations. Excellent tool for proving mathematical properties of classes of tree transformations. Consists of two tree homomorphisms defined on the same (regular) tree language, i.e., domains of tree transducers that computes a partial identity function. CLG 08, Madrid, 28/06/2008: C. Tîrnăucă, Tree bimorphisms and their relevance in translations What is a tree bimorphism? (II) t T(X) RT(Z) Input language (t) yd((t)) Common abstract language: Interlingua transforms into is translated into (t) T(Y) yd((t)) Output language B(H1,Rec,H2): a class of tree bimorphisms. B(H1,Rec,H2): the class of tree transformations defined by B. B=(,R,): a tree bimorphism from the class B, with H1, RRec, H2. B(lnH,Rec,qH): the class of all tree bimorphisms in which the first tree homomorphism component is linear and non-deleting, the second is a quasi-alphabetic tree homomorphism. CLG 08, Madrid, 28/06/2008: C. Tîrnăucă, Tree bimorphisms and their relevance in translations What can we do with a bimorphism? Concept very similar with synchronous grammars: from derivation trees to derived trees. This way, we can encode the derivations into the common tree language, and by using the tree homomorphisms to get the derivations in input/output grammars. In 2004, Shieber was the first one who linked synchronous grammars and tree bimorphisms; he was trying to improve modularity and other mathematical properties of classes of tree transformations defined by synchronous grammars. CLG 08, Madrid, 28/06/2008: C. Tîrnăucă, Tree bimorphisms and their relevance in translations Results obtained The tree bimorphisms B(lnH,Rec,lnH): The tree bimorphisms B(lnsH,Rec,lnsH): not closed under composition: (Maletti 2007); define the same class of tree transformations as STSGs: (Shieber 2004). not closed under composition: (Arnold and Dauchet 1982); define the same class of tree transformations as a special STAG: (Shieber 2006). The (quasi-alphabetic) tree bimorphisms B(qH,Rec,qH): closed under composition: (Steinby and Tîrnăucă 2007); define the same translations as STDSs: (Steinby and Tîrnăucă 2007), SCFGs and ITGs: (Tîrnăucă 2007); the tree transformations are encoded in their bimorphism counterpart. CLG 08, Madrid, 28/06/2008: C. Tîrnăucă, Tree bimorphisms and their relevance in translations Conclusions; future work Properties of/ modeling tree transformations: a new challenge in machine translation. Modularity, or closure under composition, a big issue. There are several ways to define tree transformations. One connects all of them and helps us to prove modularity: tree bimorphisms. We saw some results obtained recently. What about other useful properties of synchronous grammars, other synchronous grammars and other tree bimorphism? Can we obtain more improvements? CLG 08, Madrid, 28/06/2008: C. Tîrnăucă, Tree bimorphisms and their relevance in translations References (I) Aho, Alfred and Jeffrey Ullman (1972). The theory of parsing, translation, and compiling, Volume I: Parsing. New Jersey: Prentice Hall Professional Technical Reference. Arnold, André and Max Dauchet (1982). “Morphismes et bimorphismes d’arbres”, Theoretical Computer Science 20: 33–93. Chiang, David (2007). “Hierarchical phrase-based translation”, Computational Linguistics 33(2):201–228. Engelfriet, Joost, Eric Lilin and Andreas Maletti (2008). “Extended multi bottom-up tree transducers”. Manuscript. URL: http://wwwtcs.inf.tu-dresden.de/~maletti/pub/engmal08.pdf. Knight, Kevin (2008). “Capturing practical natural language transformations”. Manuscript. URL: http://www.isi.edu/natural-language/mt/capturing.pdf. Knight, Kevin and Jonathan Graehl (2005). “An overview of probabilistic tree transducers for natural language processing”. In: Alexander F. Gelbukh, ed., Computational Linguistics and Intelligent Text Processing 6th International Conference, CICLing 2005, Proceedings, vol. 3406 of LNCS. Berlin: Springer-Verlag, pp. 1–24. Maletti, Andreas (2007). “Compositions of extended top-down tree transducers”. In: Remco Loos, Szilárd Z. Fazekas and Carlos Martín Vide, eds., Proceedings of the 1st International Conference on Language and Automata Theory and Applications, LATA 2007, vol. 35/07 of GRLMC Reports. Tarragona: Universitat Rovira i Virgili, pp. 379–390. Melamed, I. Dan (2003). “Multitext grammars and synchronous parsers”. In: HLT-NAACL 2003, Proceedings of the 2003 Conference of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics on Human Language Technology - Volume 1. Morristown: Association for Computational Linguistics, pp. 79–86. CLG 08, Madrid, 28/06/2008: C. Tîrnăucă, Tree bimorphisms and their relevance in translations References (II) Satta, Girogio and Enoch Peserico (2005). “Some computational complexity results for synchronous context-free grammars”. In: HLT/EMNLP 2005, Human Language Technology Conference and Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing, Proceedings of the Conference. Morristown: Association for Computational Linguistics, pp. 803–810. Shieber, Stuart M. (2004). “Synchronous grammars as tree transducers”. In: Proceedings of the TAG+7: Seventh International Workshop on Tree Adjoining Grammar and Related Formalisms, 2004, pp. 88–95. Shieber, Stuart M. (2006). “Unifying synchronous tree-adjoining grammars and tree transducers via bimorphisms”. In: EACL 2006, 11st Conference of the European Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics, Proceedings of the Conference. Association for Computer Linguistics, pp. 377-384. Steinby, Magnus and Cătălin I. Tîrnăucă (2007). “Syntax-directed translations and quasialphabetic tree bimorphisms”. In Jan Holub and Jan Zdárek, eds,, Implementation and Application of Automata, 12th International Conference, CIAA 2007. Berlin: Springer-Verlag, pp. 265–276. Tîrnăucă, Cătălin I. (2007). “Synchronous context-free grammars by means of tree bimorphisms”. In: Gemma Bel Enguix and Maria Dolores Jiménez Lopez, eds., Proceedings of the 1st International Workshop on Non-Classical Formal Languages in Linguistics (ForLing 2007), vol. 36/07 of GRLMC Reports. Tarragona: Universitat Rovira i Virgili, pp. 97–107. Yamada, Kenji and Kevin Knight (2001). “A syntax-based statistical translation model”. In: Proceedings of the 39th Annual Meeting on Association for Computational Linguistics. Morristown: Asociation of Computational Linguistics, pp. 523-530. Wu, Dekai (1997). “Stochastic inversion transduction grammars and bilingual parsing of parallel corpora”, Computational Linguistics 23(3): 377–403. CLG 08, Madrid, 28/06/2008: C. Tîrnăucă, Tree bimorphisms and their relevance in translations That’s all folks! Graçias! Mila esker! Moltes gràcies! 謝謝你。 Grazie! Kiitos CLG 08, Madrid, 28/06/2008: C. Tîrnăucă, Tree bimorphisms and their relevance in translations

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