Ontology Building
Methodologies and Tools
SSSW03
Federica Schiappelli
LEKS, IASI-CNR
Rome, 19-09-03
From the Asun Gómez-Pérez lectures
Ontological Engineering:Methodologies and Tools
Asunción Gómez-Pérez, Mariano Fernández-López,Oscar Corcho
Summary
The word “Ontology”
Ontological Engineering: Methodologies
Ontological Engineering: Tools
Conclusions
References
19 Sept 2003
SSSW 2003
2
The word “Ontology”
Ontology: a fashionable word in the
last decade
Methodologies
Building
Management
Merging
Ontology
Translation
Reuse
Evolution
Tools
19 Sept 2003
Mapping
Learning
Evaluation
Languages
SSSW 2003
3
What is an ontology?
Many definitions have been given:





19 Sept 2003
from Philosophy: “a systematic explanation of being”
Neches gives some guidelines: “…defines the basic
terms and relations including the vocabulary of a topic area as
well as the rules for combining terms and relations to define
extensions to the vocabulary.”
Gruber, the most quoted: “…an explicit specification of
a conceptualization”
Borst, slightly modified:“…a formal specification of a
shared conceptualization”
Guarino: “…a logical theory which gives an explicit, partial
account of a conceptualization”
SSSW 2003
4
Summary
The word “Ontology”
Ontological Engineering: Methodologies
Ontological Engineering: Tools
Conclusions
References
19 Sept 2003
SSSW 2003
5
Methodologies for Ontology Building
Building domain ontologies from huge
ontologies (SENSUS, Cyc, AKT,…)
OTK (On-To-Knowledge) Methodology
Univ. of Kharlsrhue
Methontology
Univ. Politecnica de Madrid
19 Sept 2003
SSSW 2003
6
The SENSUS approach
Linking Domain Specific Terms to a broad Coverage Ontology
METHOD:
 Identify “seed” terms
 Link seed terms to SENSUS by hand
 Include nodes on the path to root
 Add entire subtrees using the heuristic:


If many nodes in a subtree are relevant,
the other nodes in the subtree are relevant
 prune the skeletal ontology using heuristics
19 Sept 2003
SSSW 2003
7
SENSUS: An example
19 Sept 2003
SSSW 2003
8
SENSUS: An example (cont’d)
19 Sept 2003
SSSW 2003
9
The OTK methodology
19 Sept 2003
SSSW 2003
10
OKT: Ontology Development Activities
Feasibility study
 Focus the domain, identify people involved
Kickoff
 Ontology Requirement Spec Doc: potential users, available
sources, baseline description from competency questions,
brainstorming
Refinement
 Knowledge elicitation with domain experts, formalization
Inferencing
 F-logic, implementation issues
Evaluation
 Check requirements, tests, quality (Ontoclean)
Application&Evolution
 Maintenance program, expected lifetime estimation
19 Sept 2003
SSSW 2003
11
The Methontology Framework
Ontology Development Process (which
activities)
 Management, Development, Support
Life Cycle (order of activities)
 Evolving Prototype.
Methodology (how to carry out)







19 Sept 2003
Specification
Knowledge Acquisition
Conceptualization
Integration
Implementation
Evaluation
Documentation
SSSW 2003
12
Methontology: Ontology Development Activities
19 Sept 2003
SSSW 2003
13
METHONTOLOGY: Specification
Produce an Ontology Specification Document (OSD)
Content






Purpose
Scenarios of use
Possible end users
Level of formality of the ontology
Scope
Granularity
Technique

Competency Questions
Output
Ontology
Specification
Document
19 Sept 2003
SSSW 2003
14
METHONTOLOGY: Conceptualization
Organize and structure the knowledge
acquired during the knowledge acquisition


Terms glossary from Ontology Spec Doc
Primitives for Modelling Taxonomies






Subclass-of
Disjoint decomposition
Exhaustive-Decomposition
Partition
Ad-hoc relations
Definition of
 Concept Dictionary, Instance Attributes,Class Attributes
 Formal axioms, Rules, Instances
19 Sept 2003
SSSW 2003
15
Other methodologies (1/3)
Ontology building

Cyc methodology
 Manual codification of common sense knowledge extracted by
hand, machine learning tools for new knowledge acquisition

Uschold and King
 Identify the purpose, build, evaluate, document

Gruniger and Fox
 Identify the main scenarios, identify the competency
questions, extract relevant concepts and relations, formalize
in FOL

KACTUS methodology
 Ontology built on the basis of an application KB, by
abstraction
19 Sept 2003
 OPAL (Object,Process,Actor modelling language)
SSSW 2003
16
Other methodologies (2/3)
Ontology reengineering

Extension of methontology
Ontology cooperative construction


19 Sept 2003
CO4 methodology
(KA)2 methodology
SSSW 2003
17
Other methodologies (3/3)
Ontology learning


Aussenac-Gille methodology
Maedche methodology
 OntoLearn
Ontology merging methodologies



FCA-merge
PROMPT
ONIONS
Ontology evaluation methods


19 Sept 2003
Ontoclean (Guarino)
Gomez-Perez eval methodology
SSSW 2003
18
Summary
The word “Ontology”
Ontological Engineering: Methodologies
Ontological Engineering: Tools
Conclusions
References
19 Sept 2003
SSSW 2003
19
Which tool???
The one I like most?
The one I know the best?
The one that translates the ontology into a
given implementation language?
The one that best fits my needs?
19 Sept 2003
SSSW 2003
20
Types of Ontology Tools
Ontology development tools

Editors and browsers
Graphical editors
Translators
Ontology library management
Ontology documentation
Ontology population
Evaluation

Evolution






Merge and alignement tools
Ontology-based annotation tools
Querying tools and inference engines
Ontology learning tools
19 Sept 2003
SSSW 2003
21
Some tools
OilEd from University of Manchester http://oiled.man.ac.uk/
Ontolingua from KSL (Stanford University)
http://www-ksl.stanford.edu
OntoSaurus from ISI (USA)
http://www.isi .edu/isd/ontosaurus.html
OntoEdit from Karlsrhue Univ.
http://ontoserver.aifb.unikarlsruhe.de/ontoedit/
Protégé 2000 from SMI (Stanford University)
http://protege.stanford.edu /
WebOnto from KMI (Open University)
http://kmi.open.ac.uk/projects/webonto/
WebODE from UPM http://webode.dia.fi.upm.es/webODE/
KAON from AIFB and FZI at the University of Karlsruhe
http://kaon.semanticweb.org/
SymOntoX from LEKS http://www.symontox.org/
19 Sept 2003
SSSW 2003
22
Tools for Ontological Engineering (1/3)
Protégé2000


Technology: Java standalone application; plug-in architecture
Knowledge model features:
OKBC compliant: classes and slots. Also metaclasses
Axioms in KIF and PAL
Knowledge acquisition forms automatically generated for capturing instances



Merge tools: protégéPrompt
Imports: RDF, OIL, XML
Exports: RDF, OIL, XML
WebODE


Technology: Java workbench.
Knowledge model features:
 Support to Methontology; OCML; axioms in Prolog


19 Sept 2003
Imports: RDF(S), OIL, DAML+OIL, F-logic, Prolog
Exports: RDF(S), DAML+OIL, OWL , F-logic, Prolog
SSSW 2003
23
Tools for Ontological Engineering (2/3)
OILed


Technology: Java standalone application. Backends can be added easily.
Knowledge model features:
 SHIQ: classes organized in class taxonomies, properties, property restrictions
and individuals. Disjoint and exhaustive subclass decompositions.



Imports: RDF(S), OIL, DAML+OIL, SHIQ
Exports: RDF(S), DAML+OIL, OWL, SHIQ
Inference engine: FaCT, RACER
OntoEdit


Technology: Java standalone application
Knowledge model features:
 Support to OTK methodology
 Multilingual development of ontologies, Multiple inheritance
 Basic Axioms: disjoint concepts, symmetric relations, transitive relations.


19 Sept 2003

Imports: RDF, DAML+OIL, XML, FLogic
Exports: RDF, DAML+OIL, XML, FLogic
Inference engine: OntoBroker
SSSW 2003
24
Tools for Ontological Engineering (3/3)
OntoSaurus



Ontology Server
• Knowledge Representation Language based on DL: LOOM
• Reasoning capabilities associated to LOOM
• Ontology: SENSUS
Ontology Browser dinamically creates HTML pages
• Edit the ontology
• Display the ontology content
Translators
Ontolingua
19 Sept 2003
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
Creation, edition and analysis of ontologies
Browsing and retrieval of ontologies
Assembly, customization, and extensions of ontologies
Translation of ontologies into typical application environments
Access to ontologies from remote applications (GFP)
Support for distributed, collaborative development of consensus ontologies
SSSW 2003
25
Conclusions
Relationships between the main methods and tools
Method.
Tools
Lang
SENSUS
OntoEdit
OWL,DAML+OIL
OKT
OilEd
RDF(S)
Methontology
Ontosaurus
XML
Uschold et al.
Protégé2000
KIF
Gruniger et al.
WebODE
OCML
Most of tools support ontology markup languages

Translation in other languages is also possible
A few correspondences bw methodologies and tools
Many “similar” tools, just focussing on onto building

Ontology merging is still not supported!
Ontology are developed manually

19 Sept 2003
Automatic ontology acquisition is the next step!
SSSW 2003
26
References
Summer School URL:http://minsky.dia.fi.upm.es/summerschool/index.html
OntoWeb URL: www.ontoweb.org
OntoRoadMap URL:
http://babage .dia.fi .upm.es/ontoweb/wp1/OntoRoadMap/index.HTML
Methodologies for building ontologies from the scratch
Cyc methodology URL: http://www.cyc.com
Uschold and King URL: Not available
Grüninger and Fox URL: Not available
KACTUS methodology URL: Not available
METHONTOLOGY URL: Not available
SENSUS methodology URL: Not available
On-To-Knowledge Methodology URL: http://www.ontoknowledge.org/
Methodologies for reengineering ontologies
Method for reengineering ontologies integrated in Methontology URL: Not available
Methodologies for cooperative construction of ontologies
CO4 methodology URL: Not available
(KA)2 methodology URL: Not available
19 Sept 2003
SSSW 2003
27
References
Ontology learning methodologies
Aussenac-Gille's and colleagues methodology URL:
http://www.biomath.jussieu.fr/TIA/
Maedche and colleagues' methodology URL: Not available
Ontology merge methodologies
FCA-merge URL: Not available
PROMPT URL: Not available
ONIONS URL: Not available
Ontology evaluation methods
OntoClean: Guarino's group methodology URL: Not available
Gómez Pérez's evaluation methodology URL: Not available
19 Sept 2003
SSSW 2003
28
References
Environments for building ontologies
APECKS URL: Not available
Apollo URL: http://apollo.open.ac.uk
CODE4 URL: http://www.csi.uottawa.ca/~doug/CODE4.html
CO4 URL: http://co4.inrialpes.fr/
DUET (DAML UML Enhanced Tool) URL:
http://grcinet.grci.com/maria/www/CodipSite/Tools/Tools.html
GKB-Editor URL: http://www.ai.sri.com/~gkb/
IKARUS URL: http://www.csi.uottawa.ca/~kavanagh/Ikarus/IkarusInfo.html
JOE (Java Ontology Editor) URL: http://www.engr.sc.edu/research/CIT/demos/java/joe/
OilEd URL: http://img.cs.man.ac.uk/oil/
OntoEdit URL: http://ontoserver .aifb.uni- karlsruhe.de/ontoedit /
Ontolingua URL: http://www-ksl-svc.stanford.edu:5915/
Ontological Constraints Manager (OCM) URL: http://www.ecs.soton.ac.uk/~yk1/rp956.ps
Ontology Editor by Steffen Schulze -Kremer URL: http://igd.rzberlin.mpg.de/~www/prolog/oe.html
OntoSaurus URL: http://www.isi.edu/isd/ontosaurus.html
Protégé-2000 URL: http://protege.stanford.edu
VOID URL: http://www.swi.psy.uva.nl/projects/Kactus/toolkit/about.html
WebODE URL: http://delicias.dia.fi.upm.es/webODE/index.html
WebOnto URL: http://kmi.open.ac.uk/projects/webonto/
19 Sept 2003
SSSW 2003
29
References
Ontology merging and integration tools
Chimaera URL: http://www.ksl.stanford.edu/software/chimaera/
FCA-Merge Tool URL: Not available .
PROMPT URL: http://protege.stanford.edu/plugins/prompt/prompt.html
Ontology-based annotation tools
OntoMarkupAnnotation Tool URL: http://kmi.open.ac.uk/projects/akt /
OntoMat URL:
http://ontobroker.semanticweb.org/annotation/ontomat/index.html
OntoAnnotate URL: http://www.ontoprise .de/com/co_produ_tool2.htm
SHOE Knowledge Annotator URL:
http://www.cs.umd.edu/projects/plus/SHOE/KnowledgeAnnotator.html
UBOT DAML Annotation URL: http://ubot.lockheedmartin.com/ubot/
Ontology learning tools
ASIUM URL:
http://www.lri.fr/~faure/Demonstration.UK/Presentation_Demo.html
CORPORUM-OntoBuilder URL: http://ontoserver .cognit .no
LTG Text Processing Workbench URL:
http://www.ltg.ed.ac.uk/%7Emikheev/workbench.html
Text-To-Onto URL: http://ontoserver .aifb.uni- karlsruhe.de/texttoonto/
19 Sept 2003
SSSW 2003
30
19 Sept 2003
SSSW 2003
31
Descargar

The First European Summer School on Ontological