“The Literary Hypertext as a
Version of the
Teacher-Scholar Model”
Fall University Teaching and Learning Institute
August 30, 2002
Peter Stoicheff
Department of English
University of Saskatchewan
What is “hypertext” anyway?
• The term was coined by Theodor Nelson in the early 1960s
What is “hypertext” anyway?
• The term was coined by Theodor Nelson in the early 1960s
• It refers to a digital or electronic text that has links to its
different parts (internal) or to other texts (external)
I became interested in the scholarly
possibilities of hypertext because:
• of the complexity of Ezra Pound’s Cantos
The components of that complexity are:
• Its “intertextuality”
The components of that complexity are:
• Its “intertextuality”
• Its interdisciplinarity
The components of that complexity are:
• Its “intertextuality”
• Its interdisciplinarity
• Its many languages
I became interested in the pedagogical
possibilities of hypertext because:
• Graduate students in the English Department, responding
to a questionnaire, said they wanted to work more
collaboratively and less in isolation (1995)
This request got me thinking about:
• How my friends in the sciences work closely with other
scientists
This request got me thinking about:
• How my friends in the sciences work closely with other
scientists
• How their graduate students collaborate with each other
This request got me thinking about:
• How my friends in the sciences work closely with other
scientists
• How their graduate students collaborate with each other
• How an offprint of mine looks like this ...
…while offprints in the sciences look rather
like this:
While I was thinking about collaboration and
offprints and graduate students and Pound and
hypertext I ...
• Had two graduate students assistants (Sherry Van
Hesteren and Tim Drake, supplied by the English
Department) to help me with marking and some library
research (1996)
• Was teaching T.S. Eliot’s “The Love Song of J. Alfred
Prufrock”
I realized:
• The graduate students were being under-employed doing
occasional marking and library work
I realized:
• The graduate students were being under-employed doing
occasional marking and library work
• The first-year students were finding Eliot’s poem difficult
because it was highly intertextual, interdisciplinary and
multilingual
I figured:
• The graduate students would be more fulfilled if they
worked together, and with me, on something ...
I figured:
• The graduate students would be more fulfilled if they
worked together, and with me, on something …
• That “something” could be a digital edition of Eliot’s
intertextual poem ...
I figured:
• The graduate students would be more fulfilled if they
worked together, and with me, on something …
• That “something” could be a digital edition of Eliot’s
intertextual poem …
• The digital edition could be used in the first-year
classroom.
I suggested to the two graduate students that we:
• Learn some basic encoding languages like html
• Create a website for “The Love Song of J. Alfred
Prufrock” (1996)
One of the first inspirations for the site was an
image in Edward Tufte’s
Envisioning Information:
Prufrock
Encouraged by the success of that early
collaborative effort, I designed an Honours
English course on hypertext. In it, students
planned what a hypertext edition of Mary
Shelley’s Frankenstein might look like.
Why Frankenstein? (1997)
• Because Shelley wrote two versions (1818 / 1831)
• Because the manuscripts are interesting
• Because it has been “rewritten” so frequently
» Frankenstein
That summer (1997) I hired two graduate
students, Jon Bath and Corey Owen, who had
been in that class and together we:
• Gathered the information collected during the course
• Started creating the Frankenstein website
• Kept track of the editorial challenges the new digital
platform faced us with, and wrote a co-authored paper on it
all for Computers and the Humanities.
That article’s title page looks something like
this:
•
“The Ghost in the Machine: Editorial Issues in the Design of a Digital Literary
Edition”
•BY Jon Bath AND
Corey Owen AND
Peter Stoicheff
•
Computing in the Humanities XVI October 1999: 301-28.
In a graduate course the following year (1998)
we designed a hypertext edition of William
Faulkner’s The Sound and the Fury
because … its narrative structure is very
complex.
That summer (1998) I got some funding to
hire my doctoral student, Allison Muri, to
begin programming the design arrived at by
the students during the course.
The following summer (1999) I got some more
funding and hired a new M.A. student, Joel
Deshaye (you just heard from him), to continue
the digital work Allison began. I also hired a
continuing M.A. student, Maria TruchanTataryn, to do Faulkner-related research for the
site.
The Sound and the Fury
Meanwhile ...
• The T.S. Eliot site was getting 1,500 hits per month
Meanwhile ...
• The T.S. Eliot site was getting 1,500 hits per month
• I had hired an undergraduate student (David Mitchell) to
continue working on it (1999)
Meanwhile ...
• The T.S. Eliot site was getting 1,500 hits per month
• I had hired an undergraduate student (David Mitchell) to
continue working on it (1999)
• The Frankenstein site was getting 3,000 hits per month
Meanwhile ...
• The T.S. Eliot site was getting 1,500 hits per month
• I had hired an undergraduate student (David Mitchell) to
continue working on it (1999)
• The Frankenstein site was getting 3,000 hits per month
• We were getting a lot of responses to the two sites from
scholars and students around the world.
Also in the meantime, various combinations
of graduate students previously and presently
involved in the projects gave talks and invited
papers to ...
• The “Changing the Climate” graduate conference at the
University of Saskatchewan
Also in the meantime, various combinations
of graduate students previously and presently
involved in the projects gave talks and invited
papers to ...
• The “Changing the Climate” graduate conference at the
University of Saskatchewan
• The English Department faculty
Also in the meantime, various combinations
of graduate students previously and presently
involved in the projects gave talks and invited
papers to ...
• The “Changing the Climate” graduate conference at the
University of Saskatchewan
• The English Department faculty
• The University graduate student community
Also in the meantime, various combinations
of graduate students previously and presently
involved in the projects gave talks and invited
papers to ...
• The “Changing the Climate” graduate conference at the
University of Saskatchewan
• The English Department faculty
• The University graduate student community
• An Association of Canadian Colleges and University
Teachers of English (ACCUTE) conference in Ottawa
Also in the meantime, various combinations
of graduate students previously and presently
involved in the projects gave talks and invited
papers to ...
• The “Changing the Climate” graduate conference at the
University of Saskatchewan
• The English Department faculty
• The University graduate student community
• An Association of Canadian Colleges and University
Teachers of English (ACCUTE) conference in Ottawa
• Three Humanities Research Unit conferences
Also in the meantime, various combinations
of graduate students previously and presently
involved in the projects gave talks and invited
papers to ...
• The “Changing the Climate” graduate conference at the
University of Saskatchewan
• The English Department faculty
• The University graduate student community
• An Association of Canadian Colleges and University
Teachers of English (ACCUTE) conference in Ottawa
• Three Humanities Research Unit conferences
• Graduate hypertext courses
By the end of last summer (2001)
Joel Deshaye and I had mostly finished the
Sound and Fury website.
(It was recently recognized as one of the five
best scholarly Faulkner sites on the WWW.)
In the last three years, four of the graduate
students who collaborated on these hypertext
projects wrote theses and dissertations on
hypertext-related work:
• Corey Owen, “A Hypertext Edition of the Seafarer”
(M.A. 1999)
• Jon Bath, “The Well-Coded Urn: Authorial Design in the
Hypertext Fiction of Stuart Moulthrop and Michael Joyce”
(M.A. 2000)
• Maria Truchan-Tataryn, “Benjy Resurrected: The
Deconstruction of the Idiot in The Sound and the Fury”
(M.A. 2000)
• Allison Muri, “The Enlightenment Cyborg: Aspects and
Origins of the Postmodern Man-Machine Metaphor”
(Ph.D. 2001)
Along the way we learned that:
• A good literary hypertext edition will recognize what
advantage there is to its existence; that is, it will be
developed with a full understanding of what it provides
that a book-based critical edition does not or cannot. It will
not be developed simply because the opportunity is there to
create a hypertext edition. Instead, it will be developed
because something significant to our understanding of the
text will be yielded.
Joel Deshaye and I turned all of that into a
talk titled
“The Visual Display of Literary Complexity
in a Hypertext Critical Edition of William
Faulkner’s The Sound and the Fury”
• University of Regina invited lecture, April 2001
• NYU Conference of the
Association for Computing in the Humanities
invited paper, June 2001
About four years ago, when Corey Owen and
Jon Bath and I were designing the
Frankenstein site we began to think about the
page ...
• Weren’t we simply reproducing the two-dimensional page
on the computer?
• Shouldn’t the computer be able to create a writing space
that is different from the paper page as we know it?
Who better qualified to re-think the concept of
the page than graduate and undergraduate
students?
While I’ve been reading books ...
The students have been …
PLAYING COMPUTER
GAMES!
This idea about “the page” resulted in:
• A collaborative talk to a Humanities Research Unit
conference at the U of S by Allison Muri (Ph.D.
candidate), Jon Bath (M.A. candidate), Andrew Taylor
(English prof) and me on the history and future of the page
This idea about “the page” resulted in:
• A collaborative talk to a Humanities Research Unit
conference at the U of S by Allison Muri (Ph.D.
candidate), Jon Bath (M.A. candidate), Andrew Taylor
(English prof) and me on the history and future of the page
• The creation of a scholarly website on the history and
future of the page: “Architectures, Ideologies and
Materials of the Page” (AIM)
This idea about “the page” resulted in:
• A collaborative talk to a Humanities Research Unit
conference at the U of S by Allison Muri (Ph.D.
candidate), Jon Bath (M.A. candidate), Andrew Taylor
(English prof) and me on the history and future of the page
• The creation of a scholarly website on the history and
future of the page: “Architectures, Ideologies and
Materials of the Page” (AIM)
• A conference called “The Future of the Page”
This idea about “the page” resulted in:
• A collaborative talk to a Humanities Research Unit
conference at the U of S by Allison Muri (Ph.D.
candidate), Jon Bath (M.A. candidate), Andrew Taylor
(English prof) and me on the history and future of the page
• The creation of a scholarly website on the history and
future of the page: “Architectures, Ideologies and
Materials of the Page” (AIM)
• A conference called “The Future of the Page” FOP site
• A book of essays (including two by graduate students) on
The Future of the Page appearing shortly with U of T Press
The University has the goal of "supporting and
facilitating individual, collaborative and multidisciplinary research by cultivating a productive
research climate at the University of
Saskatchewan."
• "Increasing Research Intensiveness at the U of S"
(Research Committee of Council, Feb. 2000)
"In a university, an obligation rests on every
individual faculty member to embody the
role of teacher-scholar by participating in
research and scholarly activity and by
engaging students through instruction. No
faculty member can opt out of either task."
• "Increasing Research Intensiveness at the U of S"
“The profound interrelation of teaching and
research can be highlighted and
encouraged by the University, as adopted
in the teacher-scholar model. Ways of
doing this include:
• encouraging faculty members to involve students, both
undergraduate and graduate, in their research.
• identifying research themes that extend across disciplines and
draw on the research strengths of many sectors of the
University.”
Hypertext activities in the
English Department have:
• Permitted and encouraged collaborative work among
graduate students, undergraduate students and faculty
Hypertext activities in the
English Department have:
• Permitted and encouraged collaborative work among
graduate students, undergraduate students and faculty
• Involved graduate and undergraduate students in the
creation of scholarly and pedagogical sites that are still
accessed by thousands of users each month
Hypertext activities in the
English Department have:
• Permitted and encouraged collaborative work among
graduate students, undergraduate students and faculty
• Involved graduate and undergraduate students in the
creation of scholarly and pedagogical sites that are still
accessed by thousands of users each month
• Joined in a genuine way the unique skills of graduate
students, undergraduates and faculty (including, as well,
Prof. Lisa Vargo and Allison Muri)
Hypertext activities in the
English Department have:
• Permitted and encouraged collaborative work among
graduate students, undergraduate students and faculty
• Involved graduate and undergraduate students in the
creation of scholarly and pedagogical sites that are still
accessed by thousands of users each month
• Joined in a genuine way the unique skills of graduate
students, undergraduates and faculty
• Provided a way for graduate students and faculty to present
significant research results at conferences
Hypertext activities in the
English Department have:
• Permitted and encouraged collaborative work among
graduate students, undergraduate students and faculty
• Involved graduate and undergraduate students in the
creation of scholarly and pedagogical sites that are still
accessed by thousands of users each month
• Joined in a genuine way the unique skills of graduate
students, undergraduates and faculty
• Provided a way for graduate students and faculty to present
significant research results at conferences
• Provided a way for graduate students and faculty to coauthor papers
Collaborative work has also encouraged
students to ...
• Be skeptical of what they hear me say from the front of a
more traditional classroom…
Descargar

The Literary Hypertext as a Version of the Teacher