THE SLOVENE COMMUNITY IN ITALY AND ITS
SCHOOL:
Facing the Changes of the Last Twenty Years
Two languages, two
cultures and plenty of
opportunities for the
future.
PRIMOŽ STRANI
Leeuwarden/Ljouwert 18th September 2009
The geography of
Slovenian
presence in Italy
Taken from P. Stranj, La comunità sommersa,
Editoriale Stampa Triestina, Trieste 1992 p.36
Some Historical Milestones
 First historical evidences
before year 600 a.d.
 The Protestant Reformation
 The two World Wars and the “mobile
boundaries”
 1991 the independence of Slovenia
 After Schenghen: Alpe-Adria without borders
Slovene as the Language of Instruction – a
Historical Framework
 Maria Theresa and the schools of Servola/Škedenj
(1780) and Cattinara/Katinara (Trieste)
 Fascism
 After WWII: rebuilding the Slovene school system
 60s and 70s: the juridical framework is set up
 The bilingual school of S. Pietro/Špeter (UD)
 National Law 38/2001
The Slovene School Network in Italy
TRIESTE - TRST




24 Nursery Schools with 27
classes
19 Primary Schools with 73
classes
5 Junior High Schools with
27 classes
4 Senior High Schools with
11 different programmes.
UDINE/VIDEM
GORIZIA - GORICA

10 Nursery Schools with 18
classes
 Primary Schools with 41
classes
 Junior High Schools with 14
classes
 2 Senior High Schools with 7
different programmes.
– Bilingual School of S. Pietro - Špeter
 1 Nursery School – 3 classes
 1 Primary School - 6 classes
 1 Junior High School - 3 classes
The Slovene Scholastic Population in Numbers
THE SITUATION
 s.y. 2007/08
3874 pupils
THE TREND

From 1945 to 1988

From 1988 to 2008
THE RATIONALISATION OF THE NETWORK
Closures (lack of pupils)
“Functional” unifications
External factors
What Defines the Slovene School in Italy?
THE LANGUAGE
All the subjects are taught in Slovene, with the exception of the Italian language
and the foreign languages. Until 2003 the amount of teaching hours in the schools
with Slovene as the language of instruction used to be higher than in Italian
schools .
SYLLABI
TEXT BOOKS
The teaching programmes are
mostly translated from Italian. A
specific programme for the
Slovene language is added,
whereas those for History and
Geography are adapted.

Written ad hoc

Imported from Slovenia

Translated from Italian

Slovene as L2
The Bilingual School of S. Pietro-Špeter
 The teaching model: “one person – one language”
 The local Slovene dialect as a bridge
 The social-economic context
 Law 38/2001 – the nationalisation
 The impact of the latest school reform on the model
The Cooperation with Republic of Slovenia

The role of Pedagogical Consultant

Special fund for textbooks in Slovene
language

Teachers training: Summer seminar and
September seminar

Sabbatical at Slovenian Universities

Initial training
The New Challenges
Linguistic structure of families whose
children attended Slovene nursery schools in
Italy - s.y. 1984/85
Marriages
between
Slo/Ita
36%
Marriages
between
Slo/Ita
46%
Data: P. Stranj, La comunità sommersa, Editoriale
Stampa Triestina, Trieste 1992
Marriages
among
Slovenes
32%
Other
nationalities
2%
Marriages
among
Slovenes
58%
Marriages
among
Italians
6%



Linguistic structure of families whose
children attended Slovene nursery schools in
Italy - s.y. 2003/04
Marriages
among
Italians
20%
Data: N. Bogatec, Evašol 2003, Slori,
Trieste 2004
A large number of pupils with little knowledge of Slovene language
Communication with families
What is the role and which is the target group of the “users” of the
Slovene school in Italy?
The New Challenges:
•
•
Pupils of Italian Families
 Territorial contexts

Schools of the city centres of
Gorizia/Gorica and Trieste/Trst

Schools at the border of the area
populated by the Slovene community
Pupils of Recently Immigrated Families
 War in the former Yugoslavia
 Other Slavic languages
 Other reasons
School and National Identity

Does the school still have the role of preserving the national
identity? And which identity it should preserve?

Bilingualism, trilingualism, …, multilingualism

The relation language/culture

Which role for the families?
How did we react?

2007 – a collection of approaches used by teachers was
published (by the Regional Institute for Educational Research)

2008 - a study on the effects of the multicultural environment
on primary instruction (by the Slovene Research Institute)

seminars for teachers on specific difficulties encountered by
foreigners who study Slovene (by the Regional School Board)

workgroups to set up the minimal standards for Slovene at each
level (by single schools or school networks)
What is left to do?

Research activity – understand how the linguistic variety
influences the acquisition of linguistic competences and how
they influence the learning outcomes

Spread the teaching of Slovene at Italian schools (we are just at
the beginning)

Specific teacher training for Slovene as second or foreign
language

Develop specific teaching materials

Re-think the structure of the Slovene school network in Italy
When borders are falling, can we
still live here without knowing the
language of the Other?
Pupils of schools with Slovene as
language of instruction s.y. 2007/2008
UD; 70
UD; 102
UD; 30
UD; 0
GO; 291
GO; 449
GO; 544
GO; 246
100%
80%
60%
40%
TS; 465
Nursery Sc.
TS; 772
TS; 373
TS; 532
20%
Primary Sc.
TS
Jr. High Sc.
GO
Sen. High Sc.
0%
UD
BACK
Number of pupils and
students attending
primary and secondary
schools with Slovene as
language of instruction
BACK
Number of pupils attending schools with Slovene as language of instruction in the
provinces of Trieste/Trst and Gorizia/Gorica
1988-2008
5000
4500
4000
3500
3000
2500
2000
1500
1000
500
19
86
/8
19 7
87
/8
19 8
88
/8
19 9
89
/9
19 0
90
/9
19 1
91
/9
19 2
92
/9
19 3
93
/9
19 4
94
/9
19 5
95
/9
19 6
96
/9
19 7
97
/9
19 8
98
/9
19 9
99
/0
20 0
00
/0
20 1
01
/0
20 2
02
/0
20 3
03
/0
20 4
04
/0
20 5
05
/0
20 6
06
/0
20 7
07
/0
20 8
08
/0
9
0
Data:
P. Stranj 1992
N. Bogatec e M. Bufon 1996
A. Rupel 2002
BACK
BACK
BACK
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