The Information School of the University of Washington
Database Intro
INFO/CSE 100, Fall 2006
Fluency in Information Technology
http://courses.washington.edu/info100/
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Readings and References
• Reading
» Fluency with Information Technology
• Chapter 14, Introduction to Database Concepts
• References
» Access Database: Design and Programming
• by Steve Roman, published by O'Reilly
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Why Study Databases?
• Some of us want to compute, but all of us
want information …
• Much of the archived information is in tables
• Databases enhance applications, e.g. Web
• Once you know how to create databases, you can use
them to personal advantage
• Databases introduce interesting ideas
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Relational Databases
• Information is stored in tables
» Tables store information about entities
» Entities have characteristics called attributes
» Each row in a table represents a single entity
• Each row is a set of attribute values
• Every row must be unique, identified by a key
» Relationships -- associations among the data
values are stored
Table structure = schema
Table contents = instance
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A Table in a Database
Tables have names, attributes {fields}, entities {rows}
instance
Schema for Example table:
ID
number unique number(Key)
Last
text
person’s last name
First
text
person’s first name
JobCode number current position
Hire
date
first day on job
...
schema
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Two tables in a database
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Redundancy in a database is Very Bad
• Not every assembly of tables is a good database
• Repeating data is a bad idea
» Replicated data can differ in its different locations, e.g.
multiple addresses can differ
•
•
Inconsistent data is worse than no data
Cut down on the typos and mis-keyed entries
» Keep a single copy of any data
•
•
Reduces memory and data processing costs
if it is needed in multiple places, associate it with a key and
store key rather than the data
» Effort to update is high
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Relationships between tables
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“You can look it up”
• When looking for information, a single
item might be the answer, but a table is
more likely
» Which employees live in Kirkland?
• Table of employees
» Who is taking INFO/CSE 100?
• Table of students
» Whose mile run time  4:00?
• Table of runners
Query to a database (set of tables) produces a new table
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Select Operation
• Select creates a table from the rows of another
table meeting a criterion
Select * from Perms Where Hire < 1993
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More Select Operation
• Select creates a table from the columns of
another table
Select Last, First From Perms
This is a select from 9 dimensions to 2 dimensions
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Union
• Union combines two tables with same attributes
Select * From Perms Union Select * From Temps
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Join
• Combines rows if common field matches
Select * From Perms inner join JobCodes on
Perms.JobID = JobCodes.JobID
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DB Operations
• These various DB Operations can create any
table from a given set of tables
• All modern database systems are built on these
relational operations
• The operations are not usually used directly, but are
used indirectly from other languages
• Structured Query Language (SQL) is the
language that we talk to the database in
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Database Structure
• A database contains one or more tables
» Tables include entities with attributes
» There are relationships defined between the entities in
the various tables
» Retrieve information from the tables using queries
» Create GUI front ends (forms and reports) for users
• First, design the database or create the schema
» What are the entities?
» What are the attributes of each entity? Are they
atomic?
» What are the relationships between tables?
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Build a Library Database Schema
• What are the entities?
• What are the attributes of each entity? Are they
atomic?
• What are the relationships between tables?
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Name
Price
ISBN
ID
Title
Books
∞
WrittenBy
Phone
∞
Authors
∞
PublisherOf
1
Publishers
ID
entity-relationship diagram for Library database
Phone
Name
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Create a new database
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Create a new table in the database
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Creating a table in Design view
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Entering Table Data
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Build another table
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Add publisher ID to books
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Create the link between the tables
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Name
Price
ISBN
ID
Title
Books
∞
WrittenBy
Phone
∞
Authors
∞
PublisherOf
1
Publishers
Hey presto, we have a database!
ID
Phone
Name
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Two tables with a relationship
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Create a query
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The query produces a new (virtual) table
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Select particular columns
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Select particular rows
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SQL behind the scenes
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Summary
• Databases : built on tables
» Tables represent entities
» Tables/Entities have attributes (fields)
» Tables have a primary key (unique to that table)
• Related tables are “linked” using primary keys
• Structured Query Language (SQL) used to ask
questions of database
» SQL typically “called” from other programming
languages
» Can limit rows, columns, and join tables
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Questions
• A(n) ______ is a unique identifier for any
row in a database table.
• The ______ operation takes rows from a
table to create a new table.
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Questions
• For the following, either indicate that the field is
atomic or divide the field to make the result
atomic.
Field
StudentNo
Phone
Name
Class
City
DOB
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Contents
47385633
(206) 555-1212
Maria Murray
INFO100 : AB
Seattle, WA 98115
September 26, 1983
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Questions
• Suppose I wanted a database to run a wine review
web site.
» What would some entities be?
» What would some attributes be of those entities?
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Database Intro - University of Washington