Culturally Responsive
Positive Behavior
Supports:
A District Success Story
RTI Conference Wilmington, Ohio 2010
Objectives
• Examine the stages of implementation
• Discuss strategies that develop capacity for implementing multitiered Culturally Responsive Positive Behavior Supports districtwide
• View examples of tools and resources used to facilitate district-wide
implementation
• Learn critical data-based actions needed to sustain implementation
efforts across time and changing leadership/personnel
• Hear from practitioners involved in district-wide implementation
efforts
RTI Conference Wilmington, Ohio 2010
Agenda
• Starting with the Big Picture: Rationale for
District-wide Implementation
• Progressing through the Stages of
Implementation
– Stage Description
– District Example
– Planning Activity
• Lessons Learned and Next Steps
• Wrap Up
RTI Conference Wilmington, Ohio 2010
Starting with the Big
Picture:
Rationale for
District-wide Implementation
RTI Conference Wilmington, Ohio 2010
Small-scale or school by
school reform efforts without
district level intervention are
often not sustainable over a
long period of time. (Anderson, 2003)
RTI Conference Wilmington, Ohio 2010
Meta-analysis of research on the impact
of site-based management (SBM) on
improving student outcomes and teaching
quality found little evidence that SBM
produces much if any improvements in the
quality of education in the absence of both
pressure and support from district and
state levels of education (Leithwood).
RTI Conference Wilmington, Ohio 2010
By taking a district approach to
improvement efforts, it is more likely that
new programs will be incorporated into
the district’s standard operations. It is
also more likely that experimental
approaches can be taken to scale through
the district’s structures.
(Anderson, 2003)
RTI Conference Wilmington, Ohio 2010
Cincinnati Public
Schools
RTI Conference Wilmington, Ohio 2010
Cincinnati Public Schools
Basic Facts
Total Enrollment
65 Total Schools
• 33,781
• 47 Elementary
• 18 Secondary
RTI Conference Wilmington, Ohio 2010
Cincinnati Public Schools Basic Facts
Subgroup Distribution
– African American
– Caucasian
– Multiracial
– Asian
– Hispanic
– Native American
69.4%
23.8%
4.3%
0.8%
1.6%
0.1%
Information taken from district Report Card
RTI Conference Wilmington, Ohio 2010
Cincinnati Public Schools
Basic Facts
Limited English Proficiency
• 2.5% (over 100 languages spoken)
Students with Disabilities
• 20.3%
Economically Disadvantaged
• 59.9%
RTI Conference Wilmington, Ohio 2010
Cincinnati Public Schools
Positive School
Culture
District-Wide Initiative
RTI Conference Wilmington, Ohio 2010
Positive School Culture
combines a Positive Behavior
Supports model with culturally
responsive practices.
RTI Conference Wilmington, Ohio 2010
Cincinnati Public School’s
Positive School Culture
Positive Behavior Supports involves broad range
systemic and individualized strategies that positively
impact student behavior.
 These research-validated practices include the:
– clearly defined rules and behavioral expectations,
– teaching of appropriate behavior,
– consistent and proactive management practices,
– systematic correctional and acknowledgement of
student behavior.
•
RTI Conference Wilmington, Ohio 2010
Cincinnati Public School’s
Positive School Culture
On-going data collection is a core feature
of Positive Behavior Supports,
emphasizing the need to use student
data for making decisions about the level
of support needed for students across
three tiers: (a) universal school-wide
supports, (b) targeted interventions, and
(c) intensive individualized interventions.
RTI Conference Wilmington, Ohio 2010
Cincinnati Public School’s
Positive School Culture
Culturally responsive practices are specific
educational practices, teaming processes,
instructional strategies, and curricula content
designed to increase achievement among
historically underachieving culturally diverse
students (National Center for Culturally
Responsive Educational Systems, 2004).
RTI Conference Wilmington, Ohio 2010
Cincinnati Public School’s
Positive School Culture
Key principles of culturally responsive practices
includes:
– students’ culture, language, heritage and experiences
are valued and used to facilitate learning and
development,
– culturally responsive, respectful, rigorous, and
relevant programs, curricula, and resources are
provided, and
– all students have access to high quality educational
practitioners (Martin & Schaeffer, 2007).
RTI Conference Wilmington, Ohio 2010
Components of CPS
Positive School Culture Initiative
• Pyramid Of
Interventions
• Big Ideas of PBS
& CRP
Framework
Content
Process
Alternative
Disciplinary
Response
• Collaborative
Strategic
Planning
• Alternative to
Suspension and
Expulsion
Programs
RTI Conference Wilmington, Ohio 2010
Framework
RTI Conference Wilmington, Ohio 2010
Positive School Culture
Standards & Practices
• Clear Expectations
• Comprehensive
Instruction
• Consistent
Encouragement
• Consistent
Correction
• Data Collection
Content
• Data Analysis
• Leadership
• Professional
Learning
• Classroom PSC
• Tiers of Support
• Community
Connections
RTI Conference Wilmington, Ohio 2010
RTI Conference Wilmington, Ohio 2010
Alternative to
Suspension/Expulsion Programs
Alternative
Disciplinary
Response
Extend the continuum of supports for students removed
from their regular school because of behavior infractions.
• Program Components:
Educational
Social and Behavioral Supports
• These programs allow students to:
 Continue receiving academic instruction
 Benefit from services to strengthen their social
competencies and study skills.
RTI Conference Wilmington, Ohio 2010
Suspension/Expulsion
Year: CPS
Year
Suspensions Data by Expulsions
2002-2003
722
12,774
2003-2004
963
15,649
2004-2005
20
1,155*
2005-2006
14
322*
2006-2007
10
478
2007-2008
NR
566
2008-2009
NR
744
RTI Conference Wilmington, Ohio 2010
The Stages of Implementation Are:
•
•
•
•
•
•
Exploration and Adoption
Program Installation
Initial implementation
Full Operation
Innovation
Sustainability
RTI Conference Wilmington, Ohio 2010
Exploration & Adoption
• The purpose of Exploration and Adoption is to
assess the potential match between
community needs, evidence-based practice
and program needs; and community resources
and to make a decision to proceed [with the
selection of a specific evidence-based
practice/intervention].
NIRN 2009
RTI Conference Wilmington, Ohio 2010
Critical Steps in the Exploration an
Adoption Process
• Identify the need for an intervention
considering the information available
• Acquire information via interactions with one
another and research
• Assess the fit between the intervention
program and learning community context
• Prepare the organization, staff, and resources
by mobilizing information and support.
RTI Conference Wilmington, Ohio 2010
District Example
RTI Conference Wilmington, Ohio 2010
Identifying the Need: Decrease the number of
suspensions & expulsions
Baseline
(Prior to 2004)
Over
15,000 Suspensions
900 Expulsions
RTI Conference Wilmington, Ohio 2010
The Vision
To create and maintain a safe and
orderly educational community
that keeps students in school and
engaged in learning.
RTI Conference Wilmington, Ohio 2010
Acquire Information &
Assess The Fit
• District-wide Discipline
Committee
• Researched Evidenced
and Promising Practices
• “Tested” 3 Approaches
(2001)
• Adopted PBS Framework
as District-wide
Intervention
RTI Conference Wilmington, Ohio 2010
Prepare the Organization
• Presented to district-wide
committee
• Provided information to
key district level &
community leaders
• Provided team training to
selected “Test” buildings
RTI Conference Wilmington, Ohio 2010
Program Installation
• Resources and structural supports necessary to
initiate the program are put in place or
preparations are made to begin putting them into
place.
• Including ensuring the availability of funding
streams, human resource strategies, and policy
development as well as creating referral
mechanisms, reporting frameworks, and
outcome expectations.
NIRN,2008
RTI Conference Wilmington, Ohio 2010
Policies
People
Practices
RTI Conference Wilmington, Ohio 2010
District Example
RTI Conference Wilmington, Ohio 2010
Preparing for Program Installation:
Making the Contextual Fit
Contextualizing Variables
District Emphasis
1.
Objective
2.
Present Structures
3.
District Language
3.
4.
Present Policies
5.
Concurrent Related District
Initiatives
4.
5.
6.
6.
District History with Change
Initiatives
1.
2.
Decrease suspension and expulsion
District-wide Discipline Committee, PD
partner, school-based behavior
committees
De-emphasize “behavior management”
focus on positive culture/climate
District Strategic Plan/Code of Conduct
Pyramid of Intervention Framework
Many changes initiatives. Planning seen
as “all talk and no action” Emphasis on
involving the community.
RTI Conference Wilmington, Ohio 2010
The First Charge of
the District PSC Committee
To develop shared values and
social/behavioral expectations for staff
and students in Cincinnati Public
Schools and to prepare a format that
schools can use as a template for
implementing district identified
practices.
RTI Conference Wilmington, Ohio 2010
Program Installation
2003-2004
•Systematic use of PBS Blueprint
•Expanding district-level team
•Forming sub-committees
•Development of implementation plan & support documents
•Broad awareness training
•Beginning implementation
RTI Conference Wilmington, Ohio 2010
District Structure for Supporting PSC Installation
DistrictWide PSC
Committee
Data
Reporting
Code of
Conduct
Schoolbased PSC
Committees
Professional
Development
Plan
Alternative to
Suspension/
Expulsion
Program
School
Staff
PSC Framework,
Data System,
Supports, School
Connection
RTI Conference Wilmington, Ohio 2010
Other Key
Stakeholders
Program Installation
External Consultant Support
• Facilitate subcommittees
• Products & workbooks
to guide the work
• Assisting with district
PD/TA planning
RTI Conference Wilmington, Ohio 2010
Initial implementation
• Implementation requires changes in the context of
personal, administrative, educational, economic, and
community factors.
• Implementation also includes changes in skill levels,
organizational capacity and organizational culture; and
requires education, practice, and time to mature Joyce &
Showers (2002).
• Implementers must combat compelling forces of fear of
change, inertia, and investment in the status quo combine
with the inherently difficult and complex work of
implementing something new.
RTI Conference Wilmington, Ohio 2010
NIRN, 2008
Student Benefits
Performance Assessment (Fidelity):
Coaching
Systems Intervention
Training
Facilitative Administration
Decision Support Data
System
Selection
RTI Conference Wilmington, Ohio 2010
© Fixsen & Blase, 2008
District Example
RTI Conference Wilmington, Ohio 2010
Initial implementation
•
•
•
•
Distribution of support documents
Customization of district data systems
Action planning at building level
Collaboration with internal and external
partners
• District-wide PD/TA planning
RTI Conference Wilmington, Ohio 2010
Customization of District Data Systems
• Cognos Reports
–Confidential Building Referrals
–SWIS-like Reports
• Pyramid Data
• Implementation Guide Online Reports
• Online Needs Assessment Data (in progress)
RTI Conference Wilmington, Ohio 2010
District-wide PD/TA Roll Out
Phase I: District-wide PD
Training
Principal
Awareness
Team of 3
School
Teams
RTI Conference Wilmington, Ohio 2010
Targeted
groups
Use of Support Documents
• PSC Manual – Implementation Tools
– Code of Conduct
– Alternative to Suspension and Expulsion Program
Description
– Positive School Culture Guide and Action Planning
Document
• PSC Implementation Assessment Tools
• PSC Principal Briefs
• Narrated Powerpoint Presentations
RTI Conference Wilmington, Ohio 2010
Initial Team Training
Train-the-trainer
Topics
3 Member Team: (1)
Principal (2)
Members of School’s
PSC team
Session 1:
Foundations of SW PBS
Establishing PSC
Using district documents to plan
Session 2:
Revisit documents for planning
Review role of team of 3 & Building Committee
Accessing data through SASI data systems
Using data to inform action planning
Session 3:
Using PSC data graphs for decision making
Examples of encouragement & correction systems
Session 4:
Characteristics and examples of targeted tier supports
Evaluating school-wide plans
Action Planning at Building Level
The PSC building team met regularly to:
•Review data
•Develop and implement action steps
•Monitor plans and outcomes
•Engage the entire school community involved in
the process
RTI Conference Wilmington, Ohio 2010
Full Operation
• Full implementation occurs once the new learning becomes
integrated into practitioner, organizational, and community
practices, policies, and procedures.
• Once an implemented program is fully operational practitioners
carry out the evidence-based practice or program with proficiency
and skill, managers and administrators support and facilitate the
new practices, and the community has adapted to the presence of
the innovation.
• The innovation becomes “accepted practice”.
• Anticipated benefits are realized and the new evidence-based
procedures and processes become routinized.
RTI Conference Wilmington, Ohio 2010
Moving towards full operation through
implementation & monitoring
Impact on
Overall School
Discipline and
Climate
Adult
Implementation
of PSC Strategy
Improved
Academic
Achievement
Student
Performance of
Expected
Behavior
RTI Conference Wilmington, Ohio 2010
Student Benefits
Performance Assessment (Fidelity):
Coaching
Systems Intervention
Training
Facilitative Administration
Decision Support Data
System
Selection
RTI Conference Wilmington, Ohio 2010
© Fixsen & Blase, 2008
Student Benefits
Performance Assessment (Fidelity):
PSC Implementation Assessment Tools
Coaching: Expert Cadre
Systems Intervention:
PBS + CRP= PSC
Facilitative Administration:
District Level Committee, Building
Level PSC Committee
Training: District-wide PD
Plan, PSC Team Training,
Principal Leadership
Decision Support Data
System: Customized
Cognos Data System
Selection:
District-wide PSC
Team
RTI Conference Wilmington, Ohio 2010
© Fixsen & Blase, 2008
The Non-Linear Path of School
Improvement
90%
RTI Conference Wilmington, Ohio 2010
Most schools cannot improve
instruction and achievement
without some outside help,
whether from the district office or
some other external partner.
MacIver & Farley-Ripple, 2008
RTI Conference Wilmington, Ohio 2010
Adding Coaching Support to:
District-wide PD Plan
Training
Steps
Knowledge
Mastery
Skill
Mastery
On-the-Job
Application
Theory
20-30%
10%
2-5%
Plus
Demonstration
30-50%
10-30%
5-10%
Plus
Practice &
Feedback
50-70%
40-70%
10-15%
Plus
Coaching
90%
90%
80-90%
(% of Staff Demonstrating Mastery and Application, from Joyce & Showers, 1995)
RTI Conference Wilmington, Ohio 2010
District Example
RTI Conference Wilmington, Ohio 2010
Ongoing
PD &
Coaching
Support
Data
Systems &
Resources
School
Based
Leadership
School-based Implementation
RTI Conference Wilmington, Ohio 2010
Full Operation
• Integrating multiple initiatives into a
comprehensive strategic plan
• Strengthening tiers of support
• Continuing PSC/PBS implementation
efforts through expanding internal
capacity building structures
• Revising support products
• Continued Team Training
RTI Conference Wilmington, Ohio 2010
2nd Phase - PSC Team Training
Topic
Location
Establishing and Teaching Clear School-wide Expectations
In-building Prep
Facilitated Teamwork to Plan for Establishing and Teaching Clear
Schoolwide Expectations
Onsite Training
Consistent Systems of Encouragement, Correction, Data Collection &
Analysis, Leadership and Professional Development
In-building Prep
Facilitated Teamwork to Plan Systems for Encouragement, Correction, Data Onsite Training
Collection & Analysis, Leadership and Professional Development
Positive School Culture in the Classroom for Elementary Schools
Onsite Training
Secondary School Positive School Culture in the Classroom
Onsite Training
RTI Conference Wilmington, Ohio 2010
District-wide PD/TA Roll Out
Phase I: District-wide Awareness and Basic Training
Principal
Awareness
Phase II: Team & PSC Coaching Support
Team of 3
School
Teams
PSC Teams
Targeted
groups
Instructional
Support Team
(2005-2007)
RTI Conference Wilmington, Ohio 2010
PSC Expert Cadre
(2008 – Current)
Preparing IST & Expert Cadre
• Instructional Support Teams
– Received training in use and facilitation of the PSC
Implementation Guide
– Regular collegial support and problem solving meetings
• Expert Cadre
– 1st year Preparation Training
• Basic Consultation & Facilitation
• PSC/PBS Foundations
• Presentation Skill Development
– 2nd year Quarterly Meetings
• Team training Prep
• Collegial Support
• Entry skills and rapport building
RTI Conference Wilmington, Ohio 2010
District-wide PD/TA Roll Out
Phase I: District-wide Awareness and Basic Training
Principal
Awareness
Team of 3
School Teams
Phase II: Team & Support Personnel Training
Phase III: Building Team Training
PSC Teams
Instructional
Support Team
PSC Team
Targeted
groups
Expert Cadre
RTI Conference Wilmington, Ohio 2010
Staff
Use of Support Documents
• PSC Manual – Implementation Tools
– Code of Conduct
– Alternative to Suspension and Expulsion Program
Description
– Positive School Culture Guide and Action Planning
Document
• PSC Implementation Assessment Tools
• PSC Principal Briefs
• Narrated Powerpoint Presentations
RTI Conference Wilmington, Ohio 2010
3rd Phase PSC Team Training
Topic
Location
Using Data-based Decision Making
to Sustain PSC Practices
Implementing Tier II PSC Supports
RTI Conference Wilmington, Ohio 2010
Onsite
Onsite
“The effect sizes of principals
promoting and participating directly
with teachers in the formal and
informal learning of the use of data
to influence appropriate
instructional activities was more
than twice as powerful as any other
leadership dimension.”
Fullan, 2008
RTI Conference Wilmington, Ohio 2010
The Work of the PSC Team
 Reviews implementation and
student impact data regularly
 Ensures data are valid and
reliable
 Determines decision rules to
decide whether sufficient
progress is being made
 Determines whether the plan
is having a positive impact on
student behavior
 Decide if and how to improve
the plan
 Modify implementation
actions if needed
Data-based
Action Planning
Evaluation
RTI Conference Wilmington, Ohio 2010
Implementation
Monitoring District-Wide
Implementation Data
RTI Conference Wilmington, Ohio 2010
Degree of Implementation
PSC Standard
Mean
Standard Deviation
Clear Expectations
89.7%
15.6
Comprehensive
Instruction
Consistent
Encouragement
Consistent Correction
79.7%
16.3
82.0%
16.0
78.8%
18.2
Data Collection
80.6%
17.6
Data Analysis
80.6%
19.4
Leadership
85.2%
17.2
Professional
Development
83.7%
17.8
RTI Conference Wilmington, Ohio 2010
RTI Conference Wilmington, Ohio 2010
RTI Conference Wilmington, Ohio 2010
Monitoring District-Wide
Impact Data
RTI Conference Wilmington, Ohio 2010
RTI Conference Wilmington, Ohio 2010
RTI Conference Wilmington, Ohio 2010
Top 5 Incidents by Enrollment
RTI Conference Wilmington, Ohio 2010
Administrative Consequences
RTI Conference Wilmington, Ohio 2010
Top 5 Locations
RTI Conference Wilmington, Ohio 2010
Goal: PSC in Every Classroom, in Every
School, for Every Student!
RTI Conference Wilmington, Ohio 2010
Next Steps: Continue Progressing
Towards Sustainability
Sustainability
Innovation
Full Operation
Program
Installation &
Initial
Implementation
Exploration &
Adoption
RTI Conference Wilmington, Ohio 2010
instructional
change
leading to
improved
student
outcomes
revisions
reshape
original
design
many
users
instructional
change
maintained
over
substantial
time
many users
who feel
empowered
to make new
changes
RTI Conference Wilmington, Ohio 2010
Cynthia Coburn, 2009
District Example
RTI Conference Wilmington, Ohio 2010
Next Steps
PD
Coaching
Support
Resource
Development
• Continued Team Training
• Emphasis on Tier II & Tier III Supports
• Classroom Supports
• Continued Support of Expert Cadre
• Training for Turn Around Teams
• Tier II & III Planning Workbooks & Resources
• Addition of Tiers I & II to Implementation Guide and Needs
Assessment Tools
RTI Conference Wilmington, Ohio 2010
Lessons Learned
The knowledge and skills needed by consultants
supporting urban systems require specific
professional learning in the areas of systems
level change, developing collaborative working
relationships with diverse stakeholders,
acknowledging and building on strengths while
courageously addressing barriers to high
performance.
RTI Conference Wilmington, Ohio 2010
Effective external consultant services to urban
school systems
• Understanding unique
characteristics of
complex urban systems
• Demonstrating crosscultural competence
• Supporting
development of internal
system capacity
RTI Conference Wilmington, Ohio 2010
Effective external consultant services to
urban school systems
• Competencies in
collaborative consultation
• Application of systems
change theories in urban
schools
• Planning for sustaining
change from multiple points
of entry
• Applying cultural reciprocity
within consultation for
systems change
RTI Conference Wilmington, Ohio 2010
Effective external consultant services
to urban school systems




Flexibility
Persistence
Tolerating ambiguity
Focus on strengths and
assets
 High standards and
expectations
 Humility
 Knowing & validating the
culture of the system
 Meeting people where
they are
 Walking with them
through the process
 Improvisation & creativity
 Contextualizing
RTI Conference Wilmington, Ohio 2010
Contact Information & Acknowledgements
Empowering Education Consultation & Systems
Support Services
1 (888) 892-5133
www.empoweringeducation.net
We greatly appreciate those who have worked to develop resources from which we have
borrowed and learned. Much thanks goes to the OSEP Center for Positive Behavior
Interventions and Supports (www.pbis.org) and to all of their contributors. Thanks also to
The National Center for Culturally Responsive Educational Systems NCCRESt.
RTI Conference Wilmington, Ohio 2010
Descargar

Slide 1