2010
INTERDISCIPLINARY
CONFERENCE
JUNE 23-25, 2010 – UCM MADRID
Special Roundtable Discussion
Panel Organizer: Ronnie Wilbur
Moderator: Ronnie Wilbur
ROUNDTABLE
An introduction to novel ways of analyzing verbs
of motion applied to Spanish and Sign Language
Motion verbs in Spanish.
Some typological differences.
Violeta Demonte & Isabel Pérez-Jiménez
Centro de Ciencias Humanas y Sociales - CSIC
With the colaboration of Juan Romeu
2
Outline

1. Motion verbs across languages. Typological
differences.



1.1.
Verb-framed languages [VFL] vs. Satellite-framed
languages [SFL].
1.2.
Basic syntactic differences between VFL and SFL.
2. A classification of motion verbs: Directed motion
verbs vs. Manner of motion verbs.

2.1.





3.
4.
Directed motion verbs in Spanish.
2.1.1. Directed motion verbs that lexicalize Source/Goal.
2.1.2. Directed motion verbs that lexicalize Route.
2.2.
Manner of motion verbs in Spanish.
The role of prepositions.
Some very preliminary conclusions.
3
1. Motion verbs across languages.
Typological differences.
 Semantic components of a basic motion event (Talmy 1985).

Motion refers to the fact that some entity changes its location.

The Figure is the entity whose location is at issue.

The Ground is the reference landmark for the location of the
Figure.

The Path is the course followed by the Figure with respect to the
Ground.

Manner describes the way in which the Figure moves.
4
1. Motion verbs across languages.
Typological differences.
Path
(1) The pencil rolled off
Figure
Manner
the table
Ground
[Talmy 1985: 6, (4)]
5
1.
Motion verbs across languages.
Typological differences.
 Path Functions: Source, Goal and Route
(Jackendoff 1983)
Source
Route
Goal
(2) Floyd went from Rochester via Batavia to Buffalo
Rochester
Batavia
Buffalo
[Bohnemeyer et al. 2007: 503, (9)]
6
Outline

1. Motion verbs across languages. Typological
differences.



1.1.
Verb-framed languages [VFL] vs. Satelliteframed languages [SFL].
1.2.
Basic syntactic differences between VFL and SFL.
2. A classification of motion verbs: Directed motion
verbs vs. Manner of motion verbs.

2.1.





3.
4.
Directed motion verbs in Spanish.
2.1.1. Directed motion verbs that lexicalize Source/Goal.
2.1.2. Directed motion verbs that lexicalize Route.
2.2.
Manner of motion verbs in Spanish.
The role of prepositions.
Some very preliminary conclusions.
7
1.1. Verb-framed languages vs.
Satellite-framed languages
 Verb-framed languages [VFL]
(Spanish and most Romance languages, Japanese, Turkish, Tamil, Semitic
languages, Polynesian, Bantu, Nez Perce, Caddo, Korean, etc.)
• Verb roots can express both Motion and Path at the
same time.
(3) uscire EX IRE
ex ‘out’: Path
ire ‘go’: Motion
8
1.1. Verb-framed languages vs.
Satellite-framed languages
 Manner is expressed by an ‘external’ syntactic element.
Motion + Path
Manner
(4) a. La botella salió de la cueva flotando.
The bottle went-out from the cave floating
a’ . The bottle floated out of the cave.
b. *La botella flotó de la cueva
The bottle floated from the cave
•
Spanish is a double-marking verb-framed language (Bohnemeyer et al. 2007)
•
Path functions (sources, goals and routes)
• lexicalized in the verb: salió
• expressed outside the verb, in complement PPs: de la cueva
9
1.1. Verb-framed languages vs.
Satellite-framed languages
 Satellite-framed languages [SFL]
(Indoeuropean languages, except for Romance languages and Russian, and
Chinese, Finno-Ugric, Ojibwa, Warlpiri, etc.)
• Verb roots can express both Motion and Manner at the same time.
• Path is expressed in a satellite
Motion + Manner
Path
(5) The bottle floated out of the cave
(6) *La botella flotó fuera de la cueva
10
Outline

1. Motion verbs across languages. Typological
differences.



1.1.
Verb-framed languages [VFL] vs. Satellite-framed
languages [SFL].
1.2.
Basic syntactic differences between VFL and SFL.
2. A classification of motion verbs: Directed motion
verbs vs. Manner of motion verbs.

2.1.





3.
4.
Directed motion verbs in Spanish.
2.1.1. Directed motion verbs that lexicalize Source/Goal.
2.1.2. Directed motion verbs that lexicalize Route.
2.2.
Manner of motion verbs in Spanish.
The role of prepositions.
Some very preliminary conclusions.
11
1.2. Basic syntactic differences between VFL
and SFL.
1 SFL have a number of satellite particles that
combine with verbs that have a basic meaning of
direction to express different types of path
movements.
(7) go down, go up, get out, get off, get in
baja,
sube,
sal, baja, entra
12
1.2. Basic syntactic differences between VFL
and SFL.
2 SFL have a whole series of verbs that express
motion occurring in various manners. (Talmy 1985: 62)
(8)
John 1. stumbled/ 2. tiptoed/ 3. shrank/ 4. staggered/ 5. hurried
into / out of the room
1. John {entró/ salió} de la habitación desmayándose
(*se desmayó a la habitación).
2. John {entró/ salió} de la habitación de puntillas
(*puntilleó a la habitación).
13
1.2. Basic syntactic differences between VFL
and SFL.
3 Verb-framed languages lack resultative constructions.
(9)
a. Mary wiped the table clean.
Mary frotó la mesa limpia
b. John wiped the crumbs off the table.
John frotó las migas fuera (de) la mesa
c. Sue danced the night away.
Sue bailó
la noche fuera
14
Outline

1. Motion verbs across languages. Typological
differences.



1.1.
Verb-framed languages [VFL] vs. Satellite-framed
languages [SFL].
1.2.
Basic syntactic differences between VFL and SFL.
2. A classification of motion verbs: Directed
motion verbs vs. Manner of motion verbs.

2.1.





3.
4.
Directed motion verbs in Spanish.
2.1.1. Directed motion verbs that lexicalize Source/Goal.
2.1.2. Directed motion verbs that lexicalize Route.
2.2.
Manner of motion verbs in Spanish.
The role of prepositions.
Some very preliminary conclusions.
15
2.
A classification of motion verbs.
2.1. Directed motion verbs in Spanish.

Directed motion verbs:
(10) [V MotionGO+ Goal/ Source/ Route]
(11) a. Goal of the Path: llegar (arrive), entrar (go-in), irrumpir
(burst), penetrar (enter), venir (come), caer (fall), subir (go-up),
bajar (go-down), descender (go-down), volver (go-back),
dirigirse (go), desplazarse (move), acercarse (approach),
aproximarse (approach)
b. Source of the Path: salir (go out), partir (leave), volver (goback), venir (come), regresar (return), retroceder (go-back),
bajar (go-down), alejarse (go-away), distanciarse (move-away)
(12) Route of the Path: atravesar (cross), bordear (go-around),
cruzar (cross), pasar (pass-by)
16
2.1. Directed motion verbs in Spanish.
2.1.1. Directed motion verbs that lexicalize
Source/Goal
(11) a. llegar  [V MotionGO+ Goal]
Juan llegó al aeropuerto.
Juan arrived to-the airport
‘Juan arrived at the airport’
b. partir  [V MotionGO+ Source]
El tren partió de la estación.
The train left from the station
‘The train left the station’
(13)
a. Goal: a (to), hasta (until).
b. Source: de, desde (from).
17
2.1. Directed motion verbs in Spanish.
2.1.1. Directed motion verbs that lexicalize
Source/Goal

Properties of these verbs:
1 Syntactic Properties: Unaccusative
(14)
a. El tren llegó a la estación.
The train arrived to the station
a’. Llegado el tren a la estación, …
Participial construction
Arrived the train to the station
b. Juan sonrió.
Juan smiled
b’. *Sonreído Juan, …
*Participial construction
Smiled Juan
18
2.1. Directed motion verbs in Spanish.
2.1.1. Directed motion verbs that lexicalize
Source/Goal
2 Aspectual Properties: Telic
(15)
•
a. *Llegó
a la ciudad durante una hora.
Arrived-3s to the city for
an hour
b. Llegó
a la ciudad en una hora.
Arrived-3s to the city
in an hour
Except for iterative reading / duration of a resultative state:
(16)
Luisa subió a la terraza durante una hora.
Luisa went-up to the terrace for
an hour
19
2.1. Directed motion verbs in Spanish.
2.1.1. Directed motion verbs that lexicalize
Source/Goal
3 Combination with Spanish prepositions.
(17) Telic: a (to), hasta (until), de (from), desde (from).
(18) Atelic: hacia (towards), para (towards), por (through), vía (via), a lo
largo de (along), alrededor de (around), a través de (across), por
encima de (over), por debajo de (under).
(19) a. *Llegó hacia la terraza (Arrived-3S towards the terrace)
b. *Volvió a lo largo de Madrid (Came-back-3S along Madrid)
(20) Subieron hacia la cima (Went-up3P towards the top)
(21) Gradual accomplishments:
subir, bajar,
descender, acercarse,
alejarse
go-up, go-down, go-down,
go-near (approach), go-away
20
2.1. Directed motion verbs in Spanish.
2.1.2. Directed motion verbs that lexicalize
Route-Path
 Directed Motion verbs that lexicalize the Route-Path
in the verbal base:
(22) cruzar, recorrer, atravesar, etc. (‘cross’, ‘go across’)
[V MotionGO+ Route]
(23)
El forastero atravesó la ciudad.
The outsider crossed the city
21
2.1. Directed motion verbs in Spanish.
2.1.2. Directed motion verbs that lexicalize
Route-Path
(23)
El forastero atravesó la ciudad.
The outsider crossed the city
• Incremental theme:
Its internal structure is homomorphically related to
the structure of the event.
City
Event
• It defines a Route that is coextensive with the Path.
22
2.1. Directed motion verbs in Spanish.
2.1.2. Directed motion verbs that lexicalize
Route-Path
 Incremental themes vs. Route PPs headed by por (vía)
(24)
a. El forastero atravesó la ciudad por la calle principal.
The outsider crossed the city through the main street
b. Juan fue de Madrid a Barcelona por/vía Valencia.
Juan went from Madrid to Barcelona through/via Valencia
c. El niño fue a su casa por la calle principal y por una calle estrecha.
The kid went to his house through the main street and through a narrow street
d. El niño fue a su casa por la calle principal por la acera.
The kid went to his house through the main street on the sidewalk
23
2.1. Directed motion verbs in Spanish.
Summary
a. llegar  [V MotionGO+Goal]
Juan llegó al aeropuerto.
Juan arrived to-the airport
‘Juan arrived at the airport’
b. partir  [V MotionGO+Source]
El tren partió de la estación.
The train left from the station
‘The train left the station’
El forastero atravesó la ciudad.
c. atravesar  [VMotionGO+Route-Path] The outsider crossed the city
24
2.1. Directed motion verbs in Spanish.
Summary
 The syntactic representation of Direct motion verbs that lexicalize
Source/Goal.
25
2.1. Directed motion verbs in Spanish.
Summary
 The syntactic representation of Direct motion verbs that lexicalize
Route-Path.
26
2.1. Directed motion verbs in Spanish.
Summary
 Source/Goal vs. Route-Path in Japanese
(25)
John-wa
eki-ni
modotta [Beavers 2008, (1)]
John-TOP
station-to
went
‘John went up to the station’
(26)
Jun-wa
kawa-o watatta [Muehleisen e Imai 1997, (5)]
Jun-TOP the river
crossed
‘Jun crossed the river’
27
Outline

1. Motion verbs across languages. Typological
differences.



1.1.
Verb-framed languages [VFL] vs. Satellite-framed
languages [SFL].
1.2.
Basic syntactic differences between VFL and SFL.
2. A classification of motion verbs: Directed motion
verbs vs. Manner of motion verbs.

2.1.





3.
4.
Directed motion verbs in Spanish.
2.1.1. Directed motion verbs that lexicalize Source/Goal.
2.1.2. Directed motion verbs that lexicalize Route.
2.2.
Manner of motion verbs in Spanish.
The role of prepositions.
Some very preliminary conclusions.
28
2. A classification of motion verbs.
2.2. Manner of motion verbs in Spanish.
 Manner of motion verbs:
(27) [V Motion + Manner]
(28) Temblar class: Temblar (tremble), tiritar (shiver), etc.
(29) Flotar class: Flotar (float), bailar (dance), tambalearse
(wobble), retorcerse (squirm), resbalar (slide/slip), etc.
(30) Volar class: Volar (fly), nadar (swim), caminar (walk),
correr (run), etc.
29
2. A classification of motion verbs.
2.2. Manner of motion verbs in Spanish.
1
The temblar class: They describe a motion without change of
location that originates due to internal properties of the subject
(Morimoto 2001)
•
This motion activity cannot be associated with a Path:
(31) a. *{Tembló / Tiritó}
{a / hasta} la puerta
Trembled-3S / Shivered-3S to/until the door
b. *Tembló
{hacia/por}
la habitación
Trembled-3S towards/through the room
•
Atelic verbs:
(32) Juan {tembló/tiritó} {durante cinco minutos/*en cinco minutos}
John trembled/shivered for five minutes / in five minutes
30
2. A classification of motion verbs.
2.2. Manner of motion verbs in Spanish.
2
The flotar class: they describe a motion activity that can be
associated with an external point of reference
•
These verbs can be combined with a PP headed by hacia
denoting the orientation or point of reference towards which the
Figure is moving.
(33)
Los cuerpos flotaron hacia la costa.
The bodies floated towards the coast
•
These verbs cannot combine with PPs denoting a telic goal
introduced by a:
(34)
Los cuerpos flotaron {*a/hasta} la costa.
The bodies floated
to/until the coast
31
2. A classification of motion verbs.
2.2. Manner of motion verbs in Spanish.
3
The volar class: they describe an agentive process of motion
•
These verbs can be combined with a non-goal PP headed by
hacia:
(35)
Volar, caminar, nadar, correr {hacia la orilla}
Fly,
walk,
swim, run {towards the shore}
•
These verbs can become accomplishment (telic) predicates if a
goal PP headed by a is added (they can also be combined with
directional PPs introduced by hasta):
(36)
a. Luisa voló a/hasta Barcelona.
Luisa flew to/until Barcelona
b. Juan nadó a/hasta la orilla.
Juan swam to until the shore
32
2. A classification of motion verbs.
2.2. Manner of motion verbs in Spanish.
(36)
Juan nadó a la orilla.
Juan swam to the shore

Parallel to English structures in (37)?:
(37) John {floated/swam/walked} to the shore.

Telic but unergative vs. parallel verbs in Italian:
(38)
a. Gianni a corso (per mezz’ora).
‘Gianni has run (for half an hour)’
b. Gianni è corso a casa.
Gianni is run to home
‘Gianni has run home’
33
2. A classification of motion verbs.
2.2. Manner of motion verbs in Spanish.

The syntactic representation of Manner of motion verbs.
•
English:
•
Spanish:
34
Outline

1. Motion verbs across languages. Typological
differences.



1.1.
Verb-framed languages [VFL] vs. Satellite-framed
languages [SFL].
1.2.
Basic syntactic differences between VFL and SFL.
2. A classification of motion verbs: Directed motion
verbs vs. Manner of motion verbs.

2.1.





3.
4.
Directed motion verbs in Spanish.
2.1.1. Directed motion verbs that lexicalize Source/Goal.
2.1.2. Directed motion verbs that lexicalize Route.
2.2.
Manner of motion verbs in Spanish.
The role of prepositions.
Some very preliminary conclusions.
35
3. The role of prepositions.
 Preposition a (to)
• It marks the Goal of the Path.
• It combines with Directional Verbs with Path (Goal) as in (39a)
and also with Manner of Motion verbs from the volar class (39b),
not from others (39c):
(39)
a. Los chicos llegaron a la cima de la montaña.
The kids arrived to the top of the mountain
b. Juan voló a Barcelona.
Juan flew to Barcelona
c. *Los cuerpos flotaron a la costa.
The bodies floated to the coast
36
3. The role of prepositions.
 Preposition hasta (until)
• It marks a specified limit of the Path.
• It combines with Directional Verbs with Path (Goal) as in (40a)
and also with Manner of Motion verbs of the volar (40b) and flotar
(40c) classes:
(40)
a. Los chicos llegaron hasta la cima de la montaña.
The kids arrived until the top of the mountain
b. Juan voló hasta Barcelona.
Juan flew until Barcelona
c. Los cuerpos flotaron hasta la costa.
The bodies floated until the coast
37
3. The role of prepositions.
 Preposition hacia (towards)
• It marks the orientation of movement.
• It combines with Directional Verbs with Path (Goal) which are
gradual accomplishments as in (41a) and also with Manner of
Motion verbs of the volar (41b) and flotar (41c) classes:
(41) a. Los chicos {*llegaron/subieron} hacia la cima de la montaña.
The kids arrived/went-up towards the top of the mountain
b. Juan voló hacia Barcelona.
Juan flew towards Barcelona
c. Los cuerpos flotaron hacia la costa.
The bodies floated towards the coast
38
3. The role of prepositions.
 Prepositions por (through) and vía (via)
• Por marks one or more intermediate points of the Path (coextensive
or non coextensive Route).
• Vía marks an intermediate point of the Path (non coextensive Route)
• They both combine with Directional verbs with Path (42a, b).
• Por also combines with Manner of Motion Verbs, volar and flotar
classes, (42c).
(42) a. Los chicos llegaron a Madrid {por/vía} Barcelona.
The kids arrived to Madrid via
Barcelona
b. Los chicos llegaron a Madrid {por/*vía} la autopista
The kids arrived to Madrid through/via the highway
c. Los cuerpos volaron/flotaron {por/*vía} el aire.
The bodies flew/floated through/via the sea
39
Outline

1. Motion verbs across languages. Typological
differences.



1.1.
Verb-framed languages [VFL] vs. Satellite-framed
languages [SFL].
1.2.
Basic syntactic differences between VFL and SFL.
2. A classification of motion verbs: Directed motion
verbs vs. Manner of motion verbs.

2.1.





3.
4.
Directed motion verbs in Spanish.
2.1.1. Directed motion verbs that lexicalize Source/Goal.
2.1.2. Directed motion verbs that lexicalize Route.
2.2.
Manner of motion verbs in Spanish.
The role of prepositions.
Some very preliminary conclusions.
40
Selected references








Beavers, John (2008): “On the nature of goal marking and event delimitation:
Evidence from Japanese”. Journal of Linguistics 44, 283-316.
Bohnemeyer, J., Enfield, N., Essegbey, J., Ibarretxe, I., Kita, S., Lüpke, F., and F.
K. Ameka (2007). “Principles of event encoding: The case of motion events,”
Language 83(3), 495-532.
Jackendoff, Ray (1983): Semantics and Cognition. Cambridge: MIT Press.
Jackendoff, Ray (1990): Semantic Structures. Cambridge: MIT Press.
Mateu, Jaume / Gemma Rigau (2002): “A Minimalist Account of Conflation
Processes: Parametric Variation at the Lexicon-Syntax Interface”. In: Artemis
Alexiadou (ed.): Theoretical Approaches to Universals. Amsterdam: John
Benjamins, 211-236.
Morimoto, Yuko (2001): Los verbos de movimiento. Madrid: Visor.
Muehleisen, Victoria/ Mutsumi Imai (1997): “Transitivity and ground in Japanese
path verbs”. In: M. Verspoor/ K. Lee/ E. Sweeter (eds.), Lexical and Syntactical
Constructions and the Construction of Meaning. Amsterdam: John Benjamins,
329-361.
Talmy, Leonard (1985): “Lexicalization patterns: semantic structure in lexical
forms”. In: Timothy Shopen (ed.): Language Typology and Syntactic Description,
Grammatical Categories and the Lexicon. Vol. 3. Cambridge: Cambridge
University Press, 57-149.
The research underlying this work has been mainly supported by the Spanish Ministerio de Ciencia e
Innovación through a grant to the Projects HUM2007-30541-C and FFI2009-07114 (subprograma FILO).
41
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An introduction to novel ways of analyzing verbs of …