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Introduction to the Robotic
Name:
Núria Rosillo Guerrero
Faculty:
Computer Science Engineering
Department:
Mathematics Science and Computation
Universidad Cardenal Herrera CEU
Halmstad, 03.10.15
Núria Rosillo Guerrero
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Introduction
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Introduction
Definition:
A reprogrammable and multifunction machine designed to move
materials, tools or specialized instruments, by programmed movements to
carry out a variety of tasks.
Characteristics:
• Versatile
• Flexibility
• Environment adaptable
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Introduction
Types of robots
Androids
Historic Review
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Classification
Mobiles
Applications
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Introduction
Types of robots
Industrial Robots
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Medical
Applications
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Types of robots
Tele operators
• Poliarticulated
•Mobiles
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•Androids
•Zoomorphic
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•Hybrids
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Historic Review
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Greek mythology has featured many mechanical beings.
Machines designed for human comfort we recurrent in Arab civilizations.
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First person who employed the word Robot was Karel Capek
Historic Review
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Historic Review
Isaac Asimov coined the term robotic and he published three famous
robotic laws :
• A robot can't damage a human being, nor allow this to be damaged.
• A robot must obey a human order, except when these orders clash with
the first law.
• A robot must always protect themselves as long as this protection
doesn’t clash with the first and second laws.
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Historic Review
The first version were the programmable machines in the XVIII and XIX
century.
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Introduction
Historic Review
Robots Components
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Núria Rosillo Guerrero
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Historic Review
Introduction
Historic Review
Robots Components
Robots Specifications
Classification
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Introduction
Historic Review
Robots Components
Robots Specifications
• External sensors.
• Dynamic Control.
• Redundant robots.
Classification
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Historic Review
Waited increasing at the robotics industry
Year
AR
MMR
TR
RA
PR
ROU
1994
11.2
25.5
28.5
18.5
10.7
5.5
1995
11.1
26.4
28.9
18.1
10.1
5.4
1996
11.5
27.0
28.0
17.6
10.1
5.8
1997
11.8
27.7
27.0
17.0
10.2
6.3
1998
11.7
28.0
26.6
17.0
10.1
6.6
Table 1: Acquisition Robots Percentages according to its function in U.S
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Historic Review
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Historic Review
Robots Components
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Current robotics limits
• Six precisions joints between the robots base and the manipulator extreme
• Simple and intuitive programming.
• Adaptation to the environment by sensorial stimulations.
• Movement margin in ranges of 0.3 mm.
• Capability to manipulate weights until 150 kg.
• Point to point movement control and trajectory follow-up.
• To synchronize with with mobiles targets.
• Compatibility with PC’s.
• High reliability (during at least 400 work hours).
• Artificial vision that includes at least orientation and recognition capability.
• Tactile sensors.
• Coordination of the different parts of the unit.
• Capability of trajectory correction on-line.
• Mobility.
• Movement optimization.
• Energy conservation.
• General purposes appendices.
• Voice communication
• Security according the Asimov laws.
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Robots Components
• The manipulator.
• The sensors.
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• The control unit.
• The power convert unit.
Applications
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Robots Components
The manipulator
It constitutes the mechanical structure of the robot.
Robots Components
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Classification
Classes of kinematic pairs:
• Revolution pairs.
• Prismatic pairs.
Applications
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Introduction
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Robots Components
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Robots Components
The sensors
Classification:
Robots Components
Robots Specifications
Classification
• Internal sensors
• External sensors
Applications
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Robots Components
The Unit Control
Functions:
Robots Components
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• Beginning and end of the movement of the individual components of the
manipulator in a sequence of specified points.
• Data is stored in its memory, about the position and sequence of
movements.
• It permits the robot to interact with the environment by means of
sensors.
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Robots Components
Power conversion Unit
Its mission is to provide the necessary energy to the engines. It can be a
power amplifier in the case of the systems moved by servos, or it can be a
compressor in the case the robot uses pneumatic o hydraulic system
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Robots Specifications
Main specifications:
• Load capacity.
• Mobility.
• Work Space .
• Agility.
• Precision and repeatability.
• Work Environment.
Applications
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Load Capacity
It’s the maximum weight that it can move under any configuration.
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Mobility
The mobility is determined by the total number of independent
movements that the robot is able to do. The movements can be displaced
or rotations.
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Robots Components
Work Space
It`s the space region composed by all the points that can be reached by
the end of the arm o any point of the wrist, without taking the tool into
account. The volume and the shape of the work space is very important
for industrial applications, because they determine the robots capabilities.
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Work Space
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Agility
It`s measurement by two parameters: maximum velocity and maximum
accelerations
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Precision and Repeatability
Precision: Capability to position the terminal element at a point in its work
space.
Repeatability: it is the measurement of the robot’s ability to situate its
terminal element in the same point several times.
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Work Environment
Robots normally work in contaminated environment or under extreme
temperatures, and it has to be designed to fit this kind of atmosphere..
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Introduction
Historic Review
Classification
Classification based on the mechanical configuration of the robot
Classification based on the type of control.
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Introduction
Classification based on a mechanical
configuration
Robots with cylindrical coordinates
Historic Review
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Introduction
Classification based on a mechanical
configuration
Robots with spherical coordinates
Historic Review
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Introduction
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Robots Components
Classification based on a mechanical
configuration
Robots with articulated arms
• Spherical.
• Parallelogram.
• Cylindrical.
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Classification based on a mechanical
configuration
Spherical
Historic Review
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Introduction
Classification based on a mechanical
configuration
Spherical
Historic Review
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Introduction
Classification based on a mechanical
configuration
Parallelogram
Historic Review
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Introduction
Classification based on a mechanical
configuration
Parallelogram
Historic Review
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Introduction
Classification based on a mechanical
configuration
Cylindrical
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Classification based on a mechanical
configuration
Cylindrical
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Classification based on a mechanical
configuration
Robots with Cartesian coordinates
• Type Projection.
• Type Portico.
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Introduction
Classification based on a mechanical
configuration
Projection
Historic Review
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Introduction
Classification based on a mechanical
configuration
Portico type
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Classification based on a mechanical
configuration
Portico type
Historic Review
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Núria Rosillo Guerrero
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Introduction
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Robots Components
Classification based on type of control
Classification based on the kind of control
• Not servo controlled.
• Servo controlled.
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Classification based on type of control
Not servocontrolled
Characteristics:
• High velocity due to the small dimensions.
• Low cost, easy maintenance and operation. Extremely reliable .
• High precision and repeatability.
• Not flexible respect the applications.
Applications
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Classification based on type of control
Servocontrolled
Historic Review
ENTRY
Robots Components
Robots Specifications
EXIT
CONTROL
SYSTEM
PROCESS
Classification
Applications
DESIRED
STATE
FOR THE EXIT
SENSOR
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Núria Rosillo Guerrero
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Introduction
Classification based on type of control
Servocontrolled
Historic Review Characteristics:
Robots Components • High storage capacity.
• The terminal element can have one of two types of movement: point to
Robots Specifications point and continuous trajectory.
• Inside the physical limits, the precision of the position can be modified
Classification fiddling with the amplifiers of the servo control system.
• The programming can be carried out by apprenticeship or by a
Applications programming language like VAL, ARLA…
• It’s possible to program the movement of each axis to situate the
terminal element in any part of the work space.
• More expensive, low reliability, unlimited flexibility.
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Introduction
Classification based on type of control
Point to point robots servo controlled
Historic Review
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Núria Rosillo Guerrero
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Introduction
Classification based on type of control
Robots servo controlled with continuous trajectory
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Applications
Smelting
Soldering
Materials Applications
Rectified
Maintenance
Assembly Operations
Inspection
Cut
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Introduction
Applications
Smelting
Historic Review
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Applications
Soldering
Historic Review
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Applications
Materials Applications
Historic Review
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Applications
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Applications
Rectified
Historic Review
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Applications
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Applications
Maintenance
Historic Review
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Applications
Introduction
Assembly Operations
Historic Review
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Introduction
Applications
Inspection
Historic Review
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Introduction
Applications
Cut
Historic Review
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