The Nation Expands
By: Julie B., Marika W., Jack
L., Jen Z., Michael H., Joey
C., Shawn D.
Rupert’s Land- Canada’s
Interest In It
Hudson bay Co. Formed trading furs only in Rupert’s Land.
1800 Eastern Canada (Ontario)- develop land- Canada believed land had
economic value.
1857 expanded Rupert’s land.
1869 Canada bought land- 10x amount = 1500000.
Canada in return got one tenth of Hudson Bay Co.
The Rupert’s Land Act
Paid $1,500,000 to Hudson’s Bay Co. for land
After the Canadian government gained control, they
called it the North-West Territory
The Rupert’s Land Act allowed the British government to
transfer Hudson’s Bay Co. lands to the Canadian
In 1869, the transfer took place, and the government did
not plan to make it any part of it a province
The act was passed in 1868, and Canada wanted to buy
Rupert's Land
The Hudson’s Bay Co. kept its fur fort and was given some
large land grants in the west
Rupert’s Land (North-West Territory) covered more than
half of Canada
The Red River
Resistance & Louis Riel
The Red River Resistance began at the Red River settlement; surveyors trespassed on the farms and
lands of the Métis in the Red River Resistance.
The Métis were extremely angered by the surveyors and the person who sent them, Sir William
McDougal the lieutenant governor of the Northwest Territories.
A National Committee of Métis was set up by Louis Riel to resist the surveyors, the National
Committee also bargained with the Canadian Government for the lands and Métis rights.
The Métis believed that William McDougal had no right to enter the settlement until the transfer of
Rupert’s Land officially took place. The Métis had informed William McDougal that he could not
enter the settlement without the permission of the inhabitants.
The Métis soon made a List of Rights for themselves, which were the conditions by which they
would join Canada.
Métis List Of Rights
To elect own legislative- Assembly pass all local laws
To elect local sheriffs and constables
Those treaties signed between federal governmentNative people around
Both English-French be used in provincial legislature and
courts all provincial documents and acts
All existing customs, rights and privileges remain after
joining Canada
All existing customs, rights and privileges remain after
joining Canada
The Manitoba Act
 The area around the Red River settlement were to
join Canada as a province
 On July 15th, 1870, Manitoba became a province
 The rest of Rupert’s land stayed a Territory
 Many points from the Métis list of rights became
part of the Manitoba Act
 English and French were to be its official
 There were 2 government funded school systems;
The Roman Catholic, and the Protestant
 The federal government retained control of the
Crown Islands
New Caledonia
 After the British claimed the Pacific coast, large
companies were actively searching for furs in the area
 Vancouver Island became a British colony in 1849
 There were fewer than 1000 settlers living on the
island at that time
 The mainland, called New Caledonia had only a few
 A gold rush in 1858 brought over 30 000 miners to
New Caledonia, many were from the United States
 In 1858 New Caledonia became another British colony
and was renamed British Columbia
 In 1866 Britain united the two colonies with the name
British Columbia
 By 1868 the colony was in debt
 British Columbia was in debt so they joined Canada
and preserved British ties
 The joining of British Columbia to Canada is important
to Canada’s nationhood because the colony brought
natural resources, industry, etc. and helped make
Canada what it is today
(Now British
Newfoundland and the AntiConfederation Song
NFL not invited to Charlottetown conference in 1864 because no one thought NFL would
support it
2 important groups from population: business community and the Roman Catholics were
strongly anti-Confederation
Business group strongly anti-Confederation because they did not trade often with
Canadians and were against political changes that might increase taxes or restrict freedom
to choose their own trading partners
1874: Conservatives returned to power and would not force Confederation on N.F.L.
Government started program of railway building
Many business community members against railway because they thought it would lead to
1894: colony facing bank because prices for fish and seal oil dropped
Delegation sent to Ottawa to negotiate terms so that NFL could join Confederation
Terms did not work out and NFL did not join Confederation until 1949
Created Anti-Confederation Song
Prince Edward Island
 July 1, 1873: PEI joined Canadian Confederation
 Because PEI joined the Confederation, Canadian
Government gave PEI $800 00 to buy back land from
absentee lords
 government paid all railway debts
 provided a $50 grant for every person living on the island
 ferry and telegraph services provided between PE.I. and
The Pacific Scandal
The Pacific Scandal was an event based on the Canadian Pacific Railway; the scandal was mainly
centered on the contract to build the railway.
The Liberal Party of Canada accused the Conservative Party of accepting bribes from Hugh Allan;
this accusation became a massive factor in the election of 1872.
The Conservative Party of Canada and its leader; John A. MacDonald received bribes from Hugh
Allan in exchange for the contract to build the Canadian Pacific Railway.
The Conservatives claimed that they received “donations” from Hugh Allan for the 1872 election.
The total amount of “donations” received by the Conservative Party was estimated to be around
Evidence of the scandal was found six days before the 1872 election; John A. MacDonald resigned as
Canada’s Prime Minister as a result of the scandal.
Alexander Mackenzie
Mackenzie was born in perthshire, Scotland, 1822
He was the Second Prime Minister of Canada, and the
first Liberal Prime Minister
In 1873, Mackenzie became the leader of the liberal party
and Prime Minister
During the 1870s, the country began having issues, and
Mackenzie’s Government was blamed
Mackenzie lost the 1878 election to returning Prime
Minister, Sir John A. Macdonald
Mackenzie remained in parliament until the year he died, in
Sir John A. Macdonald Returns:
National Policy
Alexander Mackenzie prime minister, liberals in control since 1873, but were experiencing economic
The Conservative party, under control of Sir John A. Macdonald, introduced a National Policy.
National Policy had three parts: protective tariffs, National Railway and Settlement in the west.
The Protective Tariffs were designed so that goods from other countries were more expensive than
Canadian goods, so that Canadian industries would sell more of their own manufactured goods.
The National Railway would take settlers to the West, and their crops to the East.
Macdonald planned to help immigrants from other countries settle in the west.
Canadian voters responded positively to these ideas, and voted Macdonald back into power, along
with the conservative party.
The Canadian Pacific
Railway (CPR)
 During the years from 1881- 1885, the CPR was built
 Stretching from Vancouver to Montreal, with
headquarters in Calgary, Alberta, The CPR also
served major cities in the United States
 It was Canada’s first transcontinental railway,
which is now a freight railway
 The CPR is a national symbol of Canadian
Need For The North
West Mounted Police
August 1873, parliament created special police for the west called North West Mounted Police
The Canadian Government was concerned that American settlers would try to make the North West
part of the United States
An incident in Cypress Hills showed the great need for a police force, when a group of American
traders shot and killed 30 Assiniboine people.
In 1873, 300 men were sent to the west to patrol
Respected highly by Canadians and Americans by the 1880s
The NWMP gave friendly advice to new settlers, carried mail, fought fires and prevented open
conflict among Native peoples, between Natives & non-Natives, and amongst settlers
The Seven Treaties
 People wanted to move the
natives so Europeans could settle
 John A. Macdonald believed that
the First People should be
assimilated into the Canadian
 In order to settle, the government
had to isolate natives to reserves
 The “numbered treaties” were
made by the government to
resolve the land claims of the
First People
 Seven treaties were signed form
1871 to 1877 between the
government and the natives living
between Lake Superior and the
Rocky Mountains
 Between 1889 and 1921 four
more treaties were signed

Canadian History Project