Struggle for the Hearts and Minds
on Both Sides of the Iron Curtain
PSC783 Cold War Propaganda: Part I
©2008 Olga Zatepilina, Syracuse University
•
Pre-Cold War Establishment
• 1919 WWI, President Wilson; Commission on Public
Information (CPI) a.k.a. the Creel Commission
• 1938 WWII, President Roosevelt; Office of War Information;
USIS; cultural exchange
• 1942 Voice of America
First broadcast:
http://www.voanews.com/english/about/beginning-of-an-american-voice.cfm
First broadcast in Russian:
http://www.voanews.com/english/About/2007-Post-WWII-history.cfm
• 1946 Fulbright Act, student/
Scholar Exchange
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The enemy is always listening…
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Cold War Establishment
• 1948 President Truman; Marshall Plan; Smith-Mundt
Act; U.S. Advisory Commission on Information; USIA
decision; U.S.-U.K. Fulbright Commission
• 1949-1954 Fulbright & International Visitors Program
& Die Neue Zeitung in Germany;
• 1950 Radio Free Europe
• 1953 USIA (+VOA); DOS (+ Bureau of Educational and
Cultural Affairs, a.k.a. CU); Radio Liberty
http://www.rferl.org/info/books/201.html
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Shades of Red
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Cold War Establishment, cont’d
• 1961 Fulbright-Hays Act (a.k.a. Mutual Educational
and Cultural Exchange Act)
• 1973 Board of International Broadcasting (BIB)
• 1976 RFE+RL
• 1977 or 1979 President Carter; USIA+CU=USICA
• 1980s Radio/TV Marti, Worldnet TV
Listen to Willis Conover:
http://www.voanews.com/english/about/2007-willis-conover.cfm
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Campaign of Truth
“This is a struggle, above all
else, for the minds of men.
Propaganda is one of the most
powerful weapons the
Communists have in this
struggle. … This propaganda
can be overcome by truth—
plain, simple, unvarnished—
presented by newspapers,
radio, newsreels, and other
sources that people trust…”
President Truman, 1950
in Tuch, 1990, p. 15
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Post-Cold War Establishment
• 1988 Sec. Gen.Gorbachev ends jamming
1994 President Clinton; International
Broadcasting Act; International Broadcasting
Bureau (IBB) at USIA
• 1996 Radio Free Asia
Listen:
http://www.rferl.org/Howtolisten.aspx
• 1998 USIA+State merger
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U.S. vs. Soviet
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Behind the Iron Curtain
• Department of Campaigns and Propaganda (a.k.a.
Agitprop)
• 1920s-1930s Agitprop Theater in Europe & Trains in
USSR
• 1922 Radio Moscow in English, French, Italian,
German
• 1939 Radio Moscow in Arabic
• 1941-1961 Советское информационное бюро
(a.k.a. Sovinformburo)
• 1944 Propaganda Bureau for foreign countries at
Sovinformburo
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Behind the Iron Curtain, cont’d
“The point of censorship is
that you wouldn't deviate
one word from the official
party line… But they spent
about as much money on
jamming foreign stations as
on broadcasting from
here…”
Joe Adamov, Mailbag ,
Radio Moscow,
http://pbs.org/redfiles
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Behind the Iron Curtain, cont’d
• 1950 Radio Moscow relays in Vladivostok
• 1961 Sovinformburo transformed into Novosti Press
Agency (today RIA Novosti)
• 1961 Radio Moscow in Amharic, Swahili & Hausa
• 1970 Radio Moscow World Service, 70 languages
• 1989 Voice of Russia
• 1991 World Service of the Voice of Russia
Listen: http://www.ruvr.ru/index.php?lng=rus
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Soviet Peace Posters
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Us vs. Them
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Us vs. Them, cont’d
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Us vs. Them, cont’d
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Us vs. Them, cont’d
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Us vs. Them, cont’d
Watch video:
http://thinkinganimationbook.blogspot.com/2006/11/animated-soviet-propaganda.html
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Cold War Propaganda and Public Diplomacy