Introduction to MIS
Chapter 7
Integration of Information
Copyright © 1998 by Jerry Post
Introduction to MIS
1
Sales
Terminals
Changes
1970s
Management
sales
data
Sales
Terminals
Central
computer:
create reports
3 reports
(printed)
Manager:
Integrate, graph
analyze
weekly reports
Secretary:
type & revise
1980s
Sales
Terminals
sales
data
Sales
Terminals
Management
3 reports
Central
Manager:
(printed)
computer:
Integrate, graph
create reports
analyze
1990s
Sales
Terminals
weekly reports
personal computer
Management
query
sales
data
Sales
Terminals
Introduction to MIS
DBMS:
On-line data
data
Personal Computer
Weekly reports &
ad hoc queries
(applications)
3
Integration
Strategy
Tactics
Operations
data
data
data
data
data
Company
Introduction to MIS
4
Business Integration
Design feasibility
& production costs
Design &
Engineering
Designs and Quality
product planning
planning
& monitoring
Marketing
Manufacturing
planning
& monitoring
Vendors
Distribution
Purchasing Demand-pull Mass
Customization
Just-in-Time
partnerships
& joint
development
Introduction to MIS
Administration & Management
HRM Accounting Finance
Quality control
& Custom orders
MIS
Customers
Quick
Response
partnerships
& joint
development
7
Enterprise Resource Planning
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
Integrated systems
Examples





SAP
Peoplesoft
Lawson
J.D. Edwards
Basic features included




Accounting
Purchasing
HRM
Investment management

International environment






Multiple currencies
Multiple languages
Procedures and practices
Follows local (national) rules
Follows consolidation rules
Example
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

Introduction to MIS
U.S. firm with European
subsidiaries.
Data is entered once
European reports are
generated for subsidiaries
following local rules
Results are converted and
consolidated to U.S. firm
following international and
U.S. rules
9
Advantages of ERP

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Eliminates costly, inflexible legacy systems
Improved technology infrastructure
Improved work processes
Increased data access for decision making
Disadvantages of ERP
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Expense & time
Radical change
Integrating with other systems
One vendor risks
Introduction to MIS
18
Disadvantages of ERP
Introduction to MIS
19
Workgroup Example
Consulting HQ
California
Client HQ
Connecticut
3
Cost Design
Supplier
Message
Analyses
Proposals
Contact
Database
Finance & Management Team
Cost Analysis
Changes &
Suggestions
Cost targets
& comments
Costs & Budgets
Changes &
Costs
2
Singapore
Design Plans
Problems &
Suggestions
Design Project
origination
Introduction to MIS
Message
Design
Supplier Proposals
Contact
Database
4
Design Team
Changes
& Corrections
Changes
Message
1
20
GDSS

Group Decision Support Systems

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
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Brainstorming
Shared access
Voting
Record of comments
Anonymity?
Drawbacks



Typing
Facilitator
Costs
Introduction to MIS
21
GDSS Room
Group decision support systems can be used to coordinate meetings,
record notes, take votes, and encourage participation. As shown in this
system by Ventana corporation, each participant enters data in a PC,
with summary results displayed on the central screen.
Introduction to MIS
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

Copy the objects to the
document.
Changes to the original do
not affect the copies.
Original
spreadsheet
object
Original
graph
object
Introduction to MIS
Static Integration
Container
Document
Document
Static copy
of spreadsheet
object
Static copy
of graph
object
25


Objects are linked to the
document.
Document requests
changes and updates
copies as needed.
Original
spreadsheet
object
Dynamic Integration
request changes
send data
request changes
Original
graph
object
Introduction to MIS
send data
Document
Container
Document
Dynamic display
of spreadsheet
copy
Dynamic display
of graph copy
26
Dynamic Links

Advantages



Data references are always
up-to-date.
Computer & document know
the source of all
components.
Updates and changes are
automatic, with less user
training.

Disadvantages


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

Introduction to MIS
Moving a document forces
links to be rebuilt or dropped.
Cannot make radical
changes to underlying
components
Software upgrade problems.
File deletions, moves and
major alterations affect
other (unknown) users.
Data changes can cause
reformats that require finetuning of layouts.
28
Sales
Network Links
Accounting
Marketing
Integrated Data
Marketing Forecast
Graph
Sales Table
Cost of Goods Sold
Spreadsheet
Introduction to MIS
29
Integration over Networks


Share data
Support links




Data
Software availability
Joint Authorship
Transmit reports
File Server
Server
Applications
Container
Document
Circulated
Report
Computer 1
Computer 2
Introduction to MIS
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




Request data
Send data
Fill spreadsheet
Data changes
Send new data (1) Query to
Spreadsheet link to DBMS
Spreadsheet
request data
DBMS
(3) Fill spreadsheet
(2) Send data
data
(5) Send new data
(4) Data changes
Introduction to MIS
31
Microsoft Pivot Table
Sum of SalePrice
ModelTypeSaleState
Hybrid
Mountain
Race
Road
Tour
Track
Grand Total
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Quarter
Quarter1
49,111.21
138,419.65
215,602.55
145,108.33
79,222.71
7,703.77
635,168.22
Month
Quarter2
38,365.38
150,297.45
231,187.01
112,108.20
89,869.80
7,450.00
629,277.84
Quarter3
58,022.29
133,240.00
243,694.51
111,749.85
81,602.01
15,125.00
643,433.66
Quarter4
53,507.33
141,669.80
238,500.00
120,901.80
95,506.07
4,750.00
654,835.00
Grand Total
199,006.21
563,626.90
928,984.07
489,868.18
346,200.59
35,028.77
2,562,714.72
Data - Pivot table report.
Select data using a database query (Rolling Thunder).
Choose data for rows, columns and table computations (row:
ModelType, SaleState; column: Month(SaleDate); Table: SalePrice.
Create additional groups (Mark quarters, Data - Group and outline Group.
Hide or show detail.
Introduction to MIS
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Protected Changes

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Tools - Protect the document.
Save the file and allow others to make changes.
Changes are automatically marked in color for each user.
Tools - Unprotect the document.
Tools - Track Changes - Accept or Reject Changes.
Introduction to MIS
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Recorded (wave)
comment
Annotation
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Insert - Comment
Insert - Object - Wave
Make sure you and your
colleagues have a sound
card and microphone.
Set up and test the
multimedia tools.
Know what you want to say
and keep it short.
Video can be used also but
you need a camera, video
capture card, and editing
software.
Comment
Introduction to MIS
34
Problems with Sharing

Same software



Same environment, fonts, devices, drivers


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Data conversion tools weak.
Exact layouts require same versions.
Hardware conversions not exact.
Missing devices might cause crashes.
Need access and network paths.
Transmission time.
Concurrency



Tracking.
Locking.
Replication.
Introduction to MIS
35
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Introduction to MIS - Pennsylvania State University