Hector Brual “As an Asian-Deaf American, I realize the importance of developing lessons for diverse Deaf students.” (Hector Brual, Graduate student Lamar University) To the Teacher: • Introduce students to reading about Pearl Harbor, an important historical event in American history • Lesson is built on literacy theory and includes ASL/English bilingual strategies • Lesson build on “thematic unit” combining multiculturalism, Deaf Culture, history, geography, literacy and language arts • Lesson includes interactive activities for students • Content is appropriate for junior high/high school • Reading level about 3rd to 4th grade • Includes ASL glosses for English print Teachers know that… • Teaching literacy is more than TRANSLATING English texts to ASL • Teaching literacy means teaching specific reading and language skills in ASL and in English Notes to Teacher (con’t) • Experienced reading teachers know that every good reading lesson includes: – Techniques to build background knowledge using both languages (Eng+ASL summaries) – Teach both languages (ASL + English) by using ASL – Extensive use of fingerspelling – ASL/English bilingual strategies – Mini-grammar lessons in English – Mini-grammar lessons in ASL – Activities to assess comprehension – Writing activities Interactive PowerPoint • To be presented to the Deaf students in class. • Students follow along and do the 7 activities recommended for class and homework. • Activities include use of cooperative learning, thematic units, and integrated use of technology (student use of the web) Written by: Stephen Krensky Illustrated by: Larry Day Publisher: Aladdin Paperbacks, Simmon & Schuster Children’s Publishing Division Genre: non-fiction Activity #1: Building Background Knowledge: Students will • look at the cover of the book and discuss the pictures. • discuss what genre means? What is the difference between fiction and non-fiction? • identify author and illustrator • search the web for titles of other books written by this author English version: Japanese aircraft began the attack. Along with the ships in Pearl Harbor, the air stations were attacked. This attack was a big surprise to the United States of America. Japanese aircraft bombed and shot up these military targets. When the second wave returned to their carriers, a few thousand people had been killed and wounded. Numerous ships had been sunk or damaged. Also, some U.S. planes had been destroyed. Some Japanese aircraft were shot down by American return fire. Congress had declared war on Japan. That’s when U.S. started to join World War II. American Sign Language version: (ASL Gloss of English print is given here. Teachers can consult with Deaf professional to make sure the ASL rendition is accurate.) NOW SUMMARY fs: PEARL HARBOR. WHERE fs: HAWAII THERE LONG AGO 1940’S THAT TIME. fs: JAPAN CL:GG INVOLVE WAR GROUP PEOPLE ARMY CL: 5:LOCATE NOT KNOW. COME OR NOT. ATTACH SURPRISE BIG. US NOT KNOW. AIRCRAFT JAPANESE BOMB SHOT-UP TARGET ARMY. SECOND ATTACK. AIRPLANES RETURN SHIPS BOMB. SHIP MANY MANY SUNK DESTROY. SOME US PLANE DESTROY ALSO. US PLANE SHOT DOWN JAPANESE PLANE MANY. CONGRESS DECLARE WAR AGAINST JAPAN. US ENTER WW TWO. US ENTERS WORLD WAR II • Bombing of Pearl Harbor by Japanese • Turning point for US to enter war against Japan. Flags of Japan and America Activity #2: Deaf Culture and Multiculturalism • Search the web for Deaf people involved in World War II. Give a report in ASL to your class. Multicultural activity • Search web for children’s books about how Asian-Americans were treated by the US during World War II • Give a report in ASL to your class about these books. Prepositional phrases: Phrases; Prepositions and their objects Essential English Grammar Written by: Philip Gucker • Definition: In the American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition, Preposition is a word or phrase placed typically before a substantive and indicating the relation of that substantive to a verb, an adjective, or another substantive, as English at, by, with, from, and in regard to. American Sign Language version: Teacher gives ASL translation of definition of preposition. ASL GLOSS: NOW FOCUS CL: 5: WHAT fs: MINI GRAMMAR SPECIFIC ENGLISH. Fs: PREPOSITIONAL PHRASE THAT I PICK FROM THAT ENGLISH BOOK GRAMMAR. NOW fs: PREPOSITIONAL PHRASES MEAN CL: 5: WHAT. THAT PHRASE ++ CL: BABY C++. TEND “TO THE STORE” “TO THE MOVIE”. BY THE RIVER fs: river….. Examples: Commonly used prepositions: in English Aboard, about, above, across, after, against, along, among, around, at, before, behind, below, beneath, beside, between, beyond, by, down, during, except, for, from, in, into, like, of, off, on, over, past, since, through, throughout, to, toward, under, underneath, until, up, upon, with, within, without, etc. Activity #3: Students find examples of prepositions from the book, Pearl Harbor • Page 1: – The American secretary of state Cordell Hull stood angrily beside his desk. • Page 1 – …Hull had kept the diplomats waiting for fifteen minutes. • Page 7: – “We shall fight in the fields and in the streets” • Page 8: …now Japanese ships and troops were moving to strategic locations throughout Southeast Asia. Student Activity #4: (Students applying knowledge from what they learned) • 1) Students are asked to get their favorite books. • 2) Students are asked to find 7 different prepositions in their books and to make the list of them. • 3) Students are asked to create sentences using those prepositions about their summer vacation. Loan Signs Linguistics of American Sign Language Written by: Clayton Valli & Ceil Lucas Definition: ASL borrows signs from other sign languages including foreign sign languages. For example, In ASL sign, Australia- CL:B on the right foreheadHold- palm down Movement- palm up (flip) In Loan sign, Australia- CL: 8 in front of chestHold- handshape-8 Movement- CL:5 palm down Examples: Japan, Italy, China, Germany, etc. American Sign Language version: Teacher gives ASL translation ASL Gloss: NOW CL:5:WHAT. fs: ASL AMERICAN SIGN LANGUAGE fs: MINI GRAMMAR LESSON. FOCUS CL:WHAT. Fs: LOAN SIGN BORROW SIGN. Fs: ASL AMERICA TEND BORROW FEW SIGNS FROM OTHER SIGN LANGUAGE OR OTHER COUNTRY. ONE EXAMPLE. fs: AUSTRALIA CL:5:WAY SIGN “AUSTRALIA”(SPACE) BUT AMERICA CL:LF IX: POINT “AUSTRALIA”(ON THE HEAD). WE SHOULD RESPECT OTHER COUNTRY SIGN?….. Activity #5: Look for these ASL loan signs in the book, Pearl Harbor •Page 1: China and Indochina •Page 7: Germany, Poland, France and England •Page 8: India Page 13: Holland Student Activity #6: Includes themes related to Geography and Language Arts • 1) • 2) Teacher posts up the world map or the globe stand. Students are divided in four groups. – a. – b. – c. • d. The first group- European countries. The second group- Asian countries. The third group- North/Central/South America The four group- African countries. • 3) Students are asked to make a list of signs for each countries (both in ASL and in loan signs). • 4) If students can’t find any loan signs for specific country, they will be asked to find signs in the internet or ask any friends from their countries thru internet or in person. • 5) Each group is asked to sign in both ASL and Loan sign. Activity #7: Writing Activities After completing the mini-grammar lessons in ASL and in English, the student will pick TWO WRITING ACTIVITIES. One activity to do in class; one to take home for homework 1. Students divide into pairs. The work on signing an ASL summary of the book. Then the students work together to write the summary in English. (using the English mini-grammar lesson as a support). 2. Students divide into groups. Each group signs an ASL narrative of “What if….the Japanese won the war. What would USA life be like today. 3. Students divide in groups. They search the web for sites related to the bombing of Pearl Harbor with graphics and text. They write a webliography of three to four sentences describing each site. They share with the class as a group. Activity #8: Students Portfolio • Teachers develop a portfolio assessment: – 1. a videotape of each student signing a summary of the book in ASL. – 2. Answering 10 comprehension questions in ASL on the content of the book. – 3. Answering 10 written English comprehension questions on the content of the book. – 4. a sample of their work during the group activities (activities # 1-7) That’s all folks!