ROBERT L. MATHIS
JOHN H. JACKSON
Chapter 5
Managing Equal Employment
and Diversity
SECTION 2
Staffing the
Organization
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All rights reserved.
PowerPoint Presentation by Charlie Cook
The University of West Alabama
Learning Objectives
• After you have read this chapter, you should be able to:
 Evaluate several arguments supporting and opposing affirmative
action.
 Describe how women are affected by work/family and job
assignment issues in organizations.
 Explain the two types of sexual harassment and how employers
should respond to sexual harassment complaints.
 Identify two means that organizations are using to deal with the
aging of their workforces.
 Discuss how reasonable accommodation is made when
managing individuals with disabilities and differing religious
beliefs.
 Define diversity management and discuss why it is important.
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5–2
Race, National Origin, and Citizenship
Issues
Special Issues
and HR Problems
Racial/Ethnic
Demographics
Immigrants and
Foreign-Born Worker
Requirements
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Bilingual Employees
and English-Only
Requirements
5–3
Racial/Ethnic Composition of U.S. Population,
1990 and 2003
Source: U.S. Census Bureau, 2003.
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Figure 5–1
5–4
Affirmative Action
• Affirmative Action Plan (AAP)
 A requirement for federal government contractors with more than
50 employees and over $50,000 in government contracts
annually to formally document the inclusion of women and racial
minorities in the workforce.
 Covered employers must submit plans describing their attempts
to narrow the gaps between the composition of their workforces
and the composition of labor markets where they obtain
employees.
 Focuses on hiring, training, and promoting protected-class
members who are under-represented in an organization in
relation to their availability in the labor markets from which
recruiting occurs.
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5–5
AAP Measures
• Availability analysis
 Identifies the number of protected-class members
available to work in the appropriate labor markets for
given jobs.
• Utilization analysis
 Identifies the number of protected-class members
employed in the organization and the types of jobs
they hold.
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5–6
Components
of an
Affirmative
Action Plan
(AAP)
Figure 5–2
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5–7
HR Perspective: Affirmative Action
• Affirmative Action Is Still Needed
 To overcome past injustices or eliminate the effects of
those injustices.
 To create more equality for all persons, even if
temporary injustice to some individuals may result.
 Raising the employment level of protected-class
members will benefit U.S. society in the long run.
 Properly used, affirmative action does not
discriminate against males or whites.
 Goals indicate progress needed, not quotas.
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5–8
HR Perspective: Affirmative Action (cont’d)
• Affirmative Action Is No Longer Needed
 It penalizes individuals (males and whites) even
though they have not been guilty of practicing
discrimination.
 It creates preferences of certain groups that result in
reverse discrimination.
 It results in greater polarization and separatism along
gender and racial lines.
 It stigmatizes those it is designed to help.
 Goals become quotas by forcing employers to “play
by the numbers.”
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5–9
Affirmative Action
• Reverse Discrimination
 Occurs when a person is denied an opportunity
because of preferences give to protected-class
individuals who may be less qualified.
• Cases
 Bakke v. University of California
 Hopwood v. State of Texas
 University of Michigan
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5–10
Requirements for Immigrants and
Foreign-Born Workers
• Visas and Documentation Requirements
 Visas are granted by U.S. consular officers

B1 for business visitors, B2 for pleasure visitors, H-1B for
professional or specialized workers, and L-1 for intracompany transfers.
• Identity “Mismatch”
 If an employee provides a false Social Security
number, that person may be an illegal alien and not
qualified to work in the U.S.

Mismatch could be an unreported name change, marital
status change, stolen identity, or clerical error.
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5–11
Language Issues and EEO
• English-Only Requirements
 EEOC guidelines allow employers to require workers
to speak only English at certain times or in certain
situations at work as a business necessity.
• Bilingual Employees
 Employers find it beneficial to have bilingual
employees so that foreign-language customers can
contact someone speaking their languages.
• Racial/Ethnic Harassment
 Employers should adopt and enforce policies against
harassment of any type, including ethnic jokes, vulgar
epithets, racial slurs, and physical actions.
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5–12
U.S. Civilian Labor Force Composition by Sex,
1950–2010 (projected)
Source: U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics, 2003.
Copyright © 2005 Thomson Business & Professional Publishing. All rights reserved.
Figure 5–3
5–13
Sex/Gender Issues
• Pay Inequity
 To guard against pay inequities considered illegal
under the Equal Pay Act, employers should follow
these guidelines:

Include benefits and other items that are part of remuneration
to calculate pay for the most accurate overall picture.

Make sure people know how the pay practices work.

Base pay on the value of jobs and performance.

Benchmark against local and national markets so that pay
structures are competitive.

Conduct frequent audits to ensure there are no gender-based
inequities and that pay is fair internally.
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5–14
Sex/Gender Issues
• Nepotism
The practice of allowing relatives to work for the same
employer.
• Job Assignments and “Nontraditional” Jobs
Women are increasingly entering jobs traditionally
occupied only by men.
• The “Glass Ceiling”
Discriminatory practices that have prevented women
and other protected-class members from advancing to
executive-level jobs.
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5–15
Nontraditional Occupations for Women
Source: U.S. Department of Labor, Women’s Bureau, 2003, available at www.dol.gov/dol/wb.
Copyright © 2005 Thomson Business & Professional Publishing. All rights reserved.
Figure 5–4
5–16
Sex/Gender Issues (cont’d)
• “Glass Walls” and “Glass Elevator”
The tendency for women to advance only in a limited
number of functional fields within an organization.
• Breaking the Glass
Establishing mentoring programs
Providing career rotation
Increasing top management and boardroom diversity
Establishing goals for diversity
Allowing for alternative work arrangements
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5–17
Sex/Gender Issues (cont’d)
• Individuals with Differing Sexual Orientations
 Federal court cases and the EEOC have ruled that
sex discrimination under Title VII applies to a person’s
gender at birth.
 Sexual orientation or sex-change issues that arise at
work include:
Clarification of HR policies
 Reactions of co-workers
 Continuing acceptance

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5–18
Sexual Harassment and
Workplace Relationships
• Consensual Relationships and Romance at Work
Workplace romances are risky because they can
cause conflict or result in sexual harassment.
• Types of Sexual Harassment
Quid pro quo
Linking
employment outcomes to the harassed individual’s
granting of sexual favors.
Hostile environment
Allowing
intimidating or offensive working conditions to
unreasonably affect an individual’s performance or
psychological well-being.
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5–19
Potential Sexual Harassers
Figure 5–5
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5–20
Sexual Harassment and
Workplace Relationships (cont’d)
• Legal Standards on Sexual Harassment
Tangible employment actions (e.g., termination) that
result from sexual harassment create a liability for the
employer.
Affirmative defense for employers in dealing with
sexual harassment incidents includes:
Establishing
a sexual harassment policy
Communicating the policy regularly
Training employees to avoid sexual harassment
Investigating and taking actions when complaints arise
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5–21
Sexual
Harassment
Liability
Determination
Source: Virginia Collins, PhD, SPHR,
and Robert L. Mathis, PhD, SPHR,
Omaha, Nebraska.
Figure 5–6
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5–22
Age Issues and EEO
• Job Opportunities for Older Workers
 Discrimination against “overqualified” older
employees in hiring
 Instances of age discrimination in the workforce
reduction when layoffs impact largely older workers
 Older Workers Benefit Protection Act (OWBPA) of
1990 and equal treatment of older workers in
retirement situations.
 Attracting, retaining, and managing older workers

Phased retirement—an approach in which employees
gradually reduce their workloads and pay.
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5–23
HR Managers’ Views of Older Workers
Figure 5–7
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5–24
Individuals with Disabilities in the Workforce
Recruiting Individuals
with Disabilities
Employees Who
Develop Disabilities
Reasonable
Accommodations
Individuals with LifeThreatening Illnesses
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Individuals with
Mental Disabilities
5–25
Religion and Spirituality in Workplaces
Title VII of Civil Rights Act of 1964
prohibits discrimination of religion
Managing Religious
Diversity in Workplaces
Accommodation
of religious
beliefs in work
schedules
Respect for
religious
practices
affecting dress
and appearance
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Accommodation
of religious
expression in the
workplace
5–26
Reasons for Diversity Efforts
Organizational
Performance
Reduction in
Discrimination
Complaints and
Costs
Diversity
Efforts
Recruiting and
Retention
Diverse Thinking
and Problem
Solving
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5–27
Indicators of Diversity
Figure 5–8
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5–28
Various Approaches to Diversity and Their Results
Figure 5–9
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5–29
Diversity: The Business Case
• The “business case” for diversity can be argued
based on the following points:
 Diversity allows new talent and new ideas from
employees of different backgrounds.
 Diversity helps recruiting and retention, as people
tend to prefer to work with others “like” themselves.
 Diversity allows for an increase of market share, as
customers tend to prefer to buy from people of the
same race or ethnic background.
 Diversity leads to lower costs because there may be
fewer lawsuits.
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5–30
Common Diversity
Management
Components
Figure 5–10
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5–31
Diversity Training
• Three Components of Diversity Training
 Legal awareness training focuses on the legal
implications of discrimination.
 Cultural awareness training builds a greater
understanding of widely varying cultural backgrounds.
 Sensitivity training “sensitizes” people to differences
and how words and behaviors are seen by others.
• Backlash Against Diversity Efforts
 Protected-group individuals view diversity efforts as
inadequate—“corporate public relations.
 Nonprotected-group individuals feel like scapegoats.
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5–32
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Human Resource Management 11e.