1
Introduction to Information Systems
Essentials for the Internetworked E-Business Enterprise
Eleventh Edition
James A. O’Brien
Chapter
4
Computer
Software
Irwin/McGraw-Hill
Copyright © 2002, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
James A. O’Brien
Introduction to Information Systems
Eleventh Edition
2
Chapter Objectives
• Describe several important trends occurring in
computer software.
• Give examples of several major types of
application and system software.
• Explain the purpose of several popular
software packages for end user productivity
and collaborative computing.
• Outline the functions of an operating system.
• Describe the main uses of high-level, fourthgeneration, object-oriented, and Web-oriented
programming languages and tools.
Irwin/McGraw-Hill
Copyright © 2002, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
James A. O’Brien
Introduction to Information Systems
Eleventh Edition
3
Categories of Computer Software
Computer
Software
System
Software
Application
Software
GeneralPurpose
Programs
Irwin/McGraw-Hill
ApplicationSpecific
Programs
System
Management
Programs
System
Development
Programs
Copyright © 2002, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
James A. O’Brien
Introduction to Information Systems
Eleventh Edition
4
Trends in Computer Software
First
Second
Third
Generation Generation Generation
Fourth
Generation
Fifth
Generation
Trend: Toward Easy-to-Use Multipurpose Network-Enabled Application
Packages for Productivity and Collaboration
User-Written
Programs
Machine
Languages
Packaged
Programs
Symbolic
Languages
Operating
Systems
High-Level
Languages
DBMS
Fourth-Generation
Languages
Microcomputer
Packages
Natural &
Object-Oriented
Languages
Multipurpose
Graphic- Interface
Network-Enabled
Expert-Assisted
Packages
Trend: Toward Visual or Conversational Programming Languages and
Tools
Irwin/McGraw-Hill
Copyright © 2002, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
James A. O’Brien
Introduction to Information Systems
Eleventh Edition
5
Common General- Purpose Applications
•
•
•
•
•
•
Electronic Mail
Word Processing
Presentation Graphics
Multimedia
Personal Information Manager
Groupware
Irwin/McGraw-Hill
Copyright © 2002, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
James A. O’Brien
Introduction to Information Systems
Eleventh Edition
6
Web Browsers
Discussion
Groups
Surf the Net
Launch
Information
Searches
Typical uses of a Web
Browser in Internet,
Intranet, and Extranet
Environments
Multimedia
File
Transfer
Irwin/McGraw-Hill
E-Mail
Copyright © 2002, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
James A. O’Brien
Introduction to Information Systems
Eleventh Edition
7
Database Management Packages
Database
Development
Database
Interrogation
Primary Tasks of
Database Management
Packages
Database
Maintenance
Irwin/McGraw-Hill
Application
Development
Copyright © 2002, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
James A. O’Brien
Eleventh Edition
Introduction to Information Systems
8
Multimedia Technologies
Video Capture
Card
Authoring
Language
Compact Disk
Interactive
Storyboard
Sound Board
Key
Technologies
of
Multimedia
MIDI
Interactive
Video
Irwin/McGraw-Hill
Digital Video
Interactive
Compressed
Audio
Computer
Edit System
Digital Audio
Copyright © 2002, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
James A. O’Brien
Eleventh Edition
Introduction to Information Systems
9
Business Enterprise Application Software
Accounting and
Financial
Management
Customer
Relationship
Management
Human
Resource
Management
Irwin/McGraw-Hill
Supply
Chain
Management
Business
Decision
Support
Enterprise
Resource
Planning
Copyright © 2002, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
James A. O’Brien
Introduction to Information Systems
Eleventh Edition
10
Functions of an Operating System
User
Interface
Resource
Management
Irwin/McGraw-Hill
Task
Management
File
Management
Utilities
and Other
Functions
Copyright © 2002, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
James A. O’Brien
Introduction to Information Systems
Eleventh Edition
11
Categories of Programming Languages
Machine Languages High Level Languages Markup Languages
Use binary coded
Use brief statements
Use embedded
instructions
control codes
1001 1001
<H1>First heading</H>
Compute X = Y + Z
<!ELEMENT Product
1100 1101
(#Item | manuf)>
Assembler Languages Fourth Generation
Object-Oriented
Use symbolic coded Languages
Languages
Use natural statements Define objects that
instructions
LOD Y
ADD Z
Irwin/McGraw-Hill
SUM THE FOLLOWING
NUMBERS
contain data and actions
Document.write
(“Hi There”)
Copyright © 2002, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
James A. O’Brien
Introduction to Information Systems
Eleventh Edition
12
Programming Language Translation
IF A := B
THEN
• Compiler
• Interpreter
• Assembler
Language
Translator
Program
1001101
1110101
0010110
Source
Program
Written in
BASIC,
COBOL,
etc.
Irwin/McGraw-Hill
Language
Translation
Process
Machine
Language
Object
Program
Copyright © 2002, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
James A. O’Brien
Introduction to Information Systems
Eleventh Edition
13
Chapter Summary
• Computer software consists of two major types
of programs: application software that directs
the performance of a particular end user task,
and system software that controls and
supports the operations of a computer system.
• Application software includes a variety of
programs that can be segregated into generalpurpose and application-specific categories.
Irwin/McGraw-Hill
Copyright © 2002, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
James A. O’Brien
Introduction to Information Systems
Eleventh Edition
14
Chapter Summary (cont)
• System software can be subdivided into
system management programs and system
development programs. The former is used to
manage hardware, software, networks, and
data resources. The latter is used by IS
specialists to develop computer programs.
• An operating system is an integrated system of
programs that supervises the operations of the
CPU.
Irwin/McGraw-Hill
Copyright © 2002, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
James A. O’Brien
Introduction to Information Systems
Eleventh Edition
15
Chapter Summary (cont)
• There are 5 major levels of programming
languages. Language translator programs
convert programming language instructions
into machine language instructions.
Irwin/McGraw-Hill
Copyright © 2002, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
Descargar

Chapter 4: Computer Software