Seminar on
Study of ICT Pilot projects
in India
CS671: ICT for Socio-Economic Development
K. Venkateshwar Rao
06427803
Pavan Kumar Thatha
06927805
Seminar Plan…
 Background of study area
 ICTs in Development Agenda
 ICTs interventions
 ICT Experiments in India
 ICTs role on key issues
 Review of Literature on ICTs
 Conclusion
Background of the study
Rural India: profile at a glance
Source: 2001-Census of India report. http://planningcommission.nic.in/
Total Population
:
1.028 billion
Households
:
191.9 million
Districts
:
593
Sub-districts
:
5470
Towns
:
5161
Villages
:
638,588
Rural Population
:
85 per cent
Population density :
<400 per sq km
Work Area
:
75 per cent in Agriculture
Village population
:
<5000 on average
ICTs in Development Agenda
 ICT Tools for Rural development Areas:





Provide decision support to public administrators for
improving planning and monitoring of programs.
Improve services to citizens and bring in Transparency.
Empower citizen’s through access to information and
knowledge.
Provide Training to improve the functioning of
developmental organisations.
Expand employment opportunities in rural areas.
 Attention paying key factors:

for whom?

what bundle of (multi-purpose) services?

how well they are managed?
ICTs in Development Agenda

ICT enabled Rural development (major) Services:

Online services for information, transaction, processing,
education, training and monitoring.

Market linkages between producers, traders, retailers and
suppliers.

Facilitation among Researchers, Knowledge workers and
Farm communities.

Facilitation of Land records and on-line registration services.

Tele-education for rural citizens of all age groups and
gender.
ICTs in Development Agenda
Functionaries of knowledge transmission Technologies
 Capturing Technologies:
Devices that collect and convert information
into digital form. Ex: Input devices.
 Storage Technologies:
Devices that store and retrieve information
in digital form. Ex: Memory Devices
 Processing Technologies:
Creating systems & applications software for
the performance of digital ICT. Ex: S/W tools.
 Communication Technologies:
Producing the devices, methods and Networks to
transmit information in digital form. Ex:LAN, WAN.
 Display Technologies:
Creating a variety of output devices for the display
of digitised information. Ex: output devices.
ICTs in Development Agenda
Spread of ICTs presence in India w.r.to other Asian neighbours
* (per 100 persons) Source: TRAI (2004:10)
Parameters
India
Korea
Malaysia
China
No of PCs
0.8
78.6
15.0
2.8
No of Cable TVs
6.0
43.0
--
9.0
NO of Fixed Telephone lines
3.9
51.0
18.5
18.0
No of Mobile Phones
2.6
75.0
43.9
18.3
No of Internet connections
0.4
26.0
12.0
2.5
0.02
25.0
0.4
1.4
No of Users (Internet)
1.0
65.5
34.0
6.2
GDP (US $ per capita)
465
10,000
4,000
965
*
No of Broadband connections
ICTs in Development Agenda
Development is directly proportional to Tele-density or Broad-band
connectivity spread: As per World Telecom development report (2003).
Year-wise Teledensity of Rural & Urban India
Teledensity
20
15
Rural
10
Urban
5
0
1998-99
1999-00
2000-01
2001-02
2002-03
Rural
0.51
0.68
0.93
1.21
1.49
Urban
6.92
8.33
10.16
12.2
14.32
Years
ICTs in Development Agenda
Connecting rural people through ICTs

Existing process implications to be eliminated,
such as NO

loss of Time

loss of Income

loss of Opportunity

non-availability of Information in-time as
per need, requirement to the rural livelihoods
ICTs in Development Agenda
Bridging the divide through ICTs
In New Economy:
Metcalfe’s formula states that,
2
The value of a network = (nxn) = n ,
where n -> no of people connected.
Kelly’s New law states that,
n
The value of a Network = n ,
where n-> people make multiple, simultaneous connections
between groups of people.
Example: B2B – where buyers and sellers come together, communicate
and trade with each other.
ICTs in Development Agenda
Steve’s SIX-Cs for on-line services: (with respect to Marketing)
 Content:
trading data, pricing, product info, etc.
 Context:
specialization on a vertical.
 Community:
value added services that hold & attract users.
 Communication:
the ability for members to meet & communicate each other
on-line.
 Connectivity:
use of open, web-based applications so that members
connect to each other.
 Commerce:
the Centralised marketplace.
ICTs interventions
 ICT kiosks interventions: Initiator based

National Government initiated Projects
Ex: CICs in NE and J&K states.

State Government promoted Projects
Ex: e-Seva of AP, Bhoomi of Karnataka, Setu of Maharastra.

Private corporate Sector promoted Projects
Ex: Chiraags of n-Logue, e-Chowpals of ITC, EID’s Parry corners.

Non-Government Sector promoted Projects
Ex: Wired Villages of WARNA, DRISTI, MSSRF, TARAHAT, Agri-watch.
 Upcoming Large scale ICT initiatives in India






Panchayat Raj Ministry
Department of IT
Private sector (by 2007)
ITC e-Chowpal
Department of Posts
State Govt. initiatives
:
:
:
:
:
:
2,37,000
1,00,000
1,00,000
1,00,000
8,00,000
@3000-5000 per state
Interventions of ICT experiments in India
Source:
http://www.ictforchange.org/ visited on: 23rd Sep., 2007.
Till date, 174 total pilot projects are registered under EIGHT categories.
Type of ICT Pilot Projects in India
5%
Zone w ise ICT pilot projects in India
17%
4%
9%
1%
30%
0%
18%
10%
4%
e-Governance
Tele-Centers
CBT/Employment
Hardw are
radio, Video and TV
Research/Advocacy/Projects
13%
24%
Application/Content
45%
20%
South
North
West
East
NEast
National
Central
Interventions of ICT experiments in India
e-Governance
National Application/Content
21%
South
National
2%
NEast
2%
South
East
0%
North
South
40%
Central
2%
West
Central
East
West
12%
NEast
North
23%
National
North
West
NEast
2%
Central
East
East
0%
NEast
National
Central
10%
West
14%
North
19%
South
53%
Interventions of ICT experiments in India
CBT/Em ploym ent
Tele-Centers
South
National
NEast
East
Central
0%6%
6%0%
South
North
West
17%
West
South
55%
North
16%
Central
East
NEast
National
National
13%
North
NEast
0%
Central
West
East
NEast
East
0%
National
Central
3%
South
42%
West
16%
North
26%
Interventions of ICT experiments in India
State wise e-Gov pilot Projects
Sate wise ICT projects underCBT/Employment
Industry/NGOs
Universities
3%
21%
Karnataka
AP
29%
Maharastra
3%
2%
5%
7%
Universities
AP
3%
12%
7%
Maharastra
10%
Karnataka
6%
7%
AP
GOI/Central Depts.
Karnataka
Kerala
Maharastra
MP
Chatisgarh
Industry (keltron)
Others (each)
Industry/NGO
s
85%
Interventions of ICT experiments in India
State wise ICT pilot projects under
Application/Content
AP
2%
NGOs/Orgs.
Industry
State Govt.
Depts.
6%
Universities
GOI/Central Depts.
State Govt. Depts.
GOI/Central
Depts.
10%
Universities
13%
Industry
27%
AP
NGOs/Orgs.
42%
ICTs role on Key Issues
Management of Rural Development Programs:
Key Issues
 Targeting about development of People rather than Poverty
elevation methods.
 Problems in implementation of development programs:

Centralised Planning

Multiplicity of Agencies

Bureaucratic and Administrative setups

Monitoring Large Programs

Inadequate Resources
Contributions of ICTs to Rural development
 Offer opportunities for two-way horizontal communication among communities as
well as supporting agencies.
 Support bottom-up articulation of development needs and perceptions.
 Facilitating the merging of local, national and global information and knowledge.
 Support, create and strengthen interactive and collaborative networks.
 Support policy and advocacy by meeting information needs of all members of society.
 Help build consensus through the provision of information on programs, policies,
decisions and issues to advocates.
Literature on ICTs says……
 Establishing micro-enterprises in Agriculture, food processing,
animal husbandry, handicrafts, IT-based services in villages, one
can achieve significant impact on rural economy.
 Roger’s Framework for analysing the observed characteristics of
kiosk users in terms of:

Adopter categories

Innovation attributes

Adoption decision

Communication channel

Nature of Social system
Literature on ICTs says……

Roman’s Perceived attributes of innovations in the context of
Tele-centers are:

Relative advantage
Innovation of benefit-cost effects.

Compatibility
Potential adopters to technologies.

Complexity
Understanding and using the technologies.
Literature on ICTs says……

Kenneth Keniston’s preliminary hypothesis on Indian ICT
projects: Major gaps are

Financial sustainability

Scope of IT

Grassroot consultation

Information uses

Local relevant content

Local standardization of code

Commercial funding

Wishful thinking

e-Commerce / e-Governance

Impact of technical decisions on Common man!
Kenneth’s hypothesis on Indian ICT projects……

HOPE: “The use of ICT’s could enable even the poorest of developing
nations to “leapfrog” traditional problems of development like:











Poverty
Illiteracy
Disease
Unemployment
Hunger
Corruption
Social inequalities, so as to move rapidly into the Modern Information Age.
Hopes built on an empirical vacuum.
Does Not know the factors that make for effectiveness or
ineffectiveness of grassroots ICT projects in developing nations.
ICTs introduction into communities otherwise unchanged will merely
heighten existing inequalities.
Instead of comparative research to counter or address such claims,
we have “Success Stories” – from which trustworthy generalisations
are impossible.
Kenneth’s hypothesis on Indian ICT projects……
Kenneth’s observations on Indian projects:

Few projects are publicised. Eg: Dhar, SF’s Pondichary.

Great majority NOT and these projects have rarely been studied.

NO comparisons have been made between them.

They are NOT in touch with each other.

Lessons learned in one project are NOT shared with others.

Appropriate technologies are rarely evaluated.



Financial Sustainability, Scalability and Cost recovery are seldom
addressed.
The opportunity to learn from the Diverse, Creative Indian Experience
is so far almost entirely wasted.
Cost of creating a working Internet connection in developing nation is
the same as --Providing immunization against SIX factor childhood diseases to
thousands of children.
Kenneth’s hypothesis on Indian ICT projects……
Kenneth’s Preliminary Hypothesis on Indian ICT projects:
1.
There is more Talk than Action:
Plans abound; on the ground realities are much fever. Few
Conferences, only a few have substance so far.
2.
3.
4.
Nothing is anywhere nearly as simple as it seems:
Almost every project is late and runs into unexpected difficulties.
Eg: Land records where dead or illegible etc.
The Goal of Financial Sustainability is rarely achieved:
Granting the initial start-up costs have to be borne by someone,
VERY FEW projects even plan for long-term sustainability, and even
fewer achieve it. Once the initial public or NGO funding disappears,
simply projects disappear as well.
IT should not be simply identified with computers and Internet:
Some inventive uses of IT involve radio, TV, satellite inventories
etc. Eg: Automated butterfat assessment equipment – radically
simplified the process of evaluating milk & paying dairy farmers.
Kenneth’s hypothesis on Indian ICT projects……
Kenneth’s Preliminary Hypothesis on Indian ICT projects:
5.
Starting by consulting at the Grass-roots is essential:
Top-down projects simply do not work, and end up by providing
information that people don’t really need or use.
The information people initially say they need, may not always be
what they end up using:
Eg: MS Swaminathan’s project – male farmers ask originally about
agriculture; in fact, they started looking about government
programs.
6.
Local language content is a pre-requisite for any successful project:
7.


Standardization of Code for the major Indian languages in NEED of the
hour. Every major Indian language suffer from multiple scheme of coding
and fonts, since absence of inter-operability between programs involving
distinct codes.
This Technical problem dramatically complicates the development of
local S/W and of local IT use throughout India.
Kenneth’s hypothesis on Indian ICT projects……
Kenneth’s Preliminary Hypothesis on Indian ICT projects:
8.
The development of Locally relevant content is essential, and the
nature of that content varies from region to region:


ICT for the common man projects are bound to fail, without accessible
local content that addresses the real problems of local people in their
own language, so they can understand better.
This is evident from Radio programs success in spreading massage in the
areas of Agriculture practices, family planning services etc.
E-governance is one of the most promising uses of ICTs:
9.
i.
ii.
Computerisation of Govt. functions themselves:
Eg: Linking Central State Govts. To district officials, and computerising
registrations, legal proceedings, land records etc for the benefit of
administrators.
Govt.-to-People and People-to-Govt. Connections:
Citizens can obtain direct access to records, rules, and information about
entitlements that they need or what in their daily lives.
Kenneth’s hypothesis on Indian ICT projects……
Kenneth’s Preliminary Hypothesis on Indian ICT projects:
10.
E-Commerce, in the sense of Customer-to-Business on-line buying
within India, is probably many years away for a majority of Indians:


11.
Success is seen in railway reservation system and banking sectors.
If small business S/W packages were made available in local languages,
there is a chance of small & medium size merchants would quickly adopt
them.
Commercially funded ICT networks have considerable promise:
Commercial interests may justify the experience of establishing
rural info-kiosks, which can, also provide much general information
in addition to specify product information.
12.
The markets for “indigenous crafts” is a niche market in a few rich
countries:
E-commerce from India to Europe, US or Japan has enormous
logistic problems. Applying IT for poverty alleviation for any but a
tiny fraction of Indians is NOT realistic.
Kenneth’s hypothesis on Indian ICT projects……
Kenneth’s Preliminary Hypothesis on Indian ICT projects:
13.
A successful commercial IT sector does not necessarily “trickle down” to
ordinary Indians:


It for masses places emphasis on developing STPs, improving education at the higher
levels of IT etc..
It make astonishing growth rate is IT, but what about general/ordinary Indians
impact such as: improved living conditions, more schools, greater justice, better
health, more jobs or other benefits for ordinary Indians.
Apparently “Technical decisions” concerning IT regulations, bandwidth
allocation, pricing mechanisms, transmission standards etc, can have
profound effects on whether or not IT benefit ordinary Indians:
14.


Compared to the speed of satellite television rapidly in India, ISP spread is not that
encouraging.
Analysing of the impact of technical, regulatory, and technological decisions on “IT
for the Common Man” is largely absent.
The wheel is constantly reinvented:
15.


The people of the projects are NOT usually in touch with each other, rarely publish or
write anything about what they are doing.
Little possibility of learning from the success or failure of projects.
Kenneth’s hypothesis on Indian ICT projects……
Kenneth’s Preliminary Hypothesis on Indian ICT projects:
16.
You cannot believe a lot of what you are told:
A visit to a project site can be found that-
Project have closed.

Project NOT yet to be in operation.

Project to have deteriorated from the stated original Goals
Until the costs of the “Last Mile”, of basic IT devices, and of local
languages S/W are brought down, the goal of “Wiring India” will
remain unachieved:
17.

Low cost technological solutions above are off-course not solutions to
the problems of development, but they are pre-requisites for IT in India.
Eg: Simputore, India-Linux movement etc.
The “IT for the Masses”, “Bridging the Digital Divide” movement
has an inordinate amount of exaggeration and wishful thinking:
18.

We need to define the characteristics of those projects (meet poor’s
basic needs & assets fundamental rights) and try to spread the word
about what works and what does NOT.
Conclusion
 The challenge is to learn if, when, how and where ICTs (of all kinds) can be most
cost-effective means to help rural people.
 Pilots highlighted the multi-sectorial development interventions using different
technology options.
 How the benefits of pilots to be integrated is the study of the future.
 Have to be found the sustainability mantra for ICT projects in India to deliver needed
objectives.
 An integrated ICT model as accepted by people to be found using SWOT analysis on
pilot projects experiences.
 Rogers, Roman and Kenneth proposals are measured for further studies.
Thank you
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