Brigitte T. Sicat, Pharm.D, BCPS
Assistant Professor of Pharmacy
VCU School of Pharmacy
 What
do you feel your specific
discipline brings to the health care
team?
 What
don’t you know that you look to
others for?
After this learning session, you should
be able to:
• Discuss how pharmacists are trained
• Explain what pharmacists do
• Discuss career paths of pharmacists
• Discuss governmental and voluntary
oversight of pharmacy
• Discuss the continuing education
requirements for pharmacists
• Discuss current issues in pharmacy
 Pre-pharmacy
 Pharmacy
School
• 4 years to earn Pharm.D. degree
• Some programs pre-pharmacy & pharmacy
work is combined
 Residency
• Supervised practice
• Specific field of practice
 Fellowship

8 SH General Biology (6 SH lecture and 2 SH laboratory)
8 SH College Chemistry (6 SH lecture and 2 SH laboratory)
8 SH Organic Chemistry (6 SH lecture and 2 SH laboratory)
4 SH Physics (3 SH lecture and 1 SH laboratory)
3 SH Human Anatomy (also, 1 SH lab is preferred)
3 SH Human Physiology
3 SH Microbiology (also, 1 SH lab is preferred)
3 SH Biochemistry
6 SH English (3 SH of composition and rhetoric is required)
3 SH Calculus
3 SH Statistics
3 SH Public Speaking
35 SH Elective Courses1

90 SH Minimum Total
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1
Cell biology, genetics and immunology are highly recommended and are the only science courses that can count towards the minimum of 35 semester hours of electives.
Other highly recommended electives are computer science, economics, psychology, and sociology. Others include political science, anthropology, history, foreign languages,
philosophy and religious studies
 Pre-pharmacy
 Pharmacy
School
• 4 years
• Some programs pre-pharmacy & pharmacy
work is combined
 Residency
• Supervised practice
• Specific field of practice
 Fellowship
Course Title
Course Credit
Basic Pharmaceutical Principles for
the Practicing Pharmacist
3.0
Pharmaceutics & Biopharmaceutics I
3.0
Evidence Based Pharmacy I (Drug Info)
1.0
Health Promotion & Disease Prevention
2.5
Contemporary Pharmacy Practice
3.5
Communications in Pharmacy Practice
2.0
Scholarship I
Continues
Student Pharmacist Professionalism
Continues
Foundations I
1.0
IPPE I: Community I
1.0
Semester Total
17.0
Course Title
Course Credit
Pharmacokinetics*
Pharmaceutics & Biopharmaceutics II
Pharmacognosy
Clinical Chemistry for the Pharmacist
2.0
2.5
2.0
2.0
Clinical Therapeutics Module I: Intro to Medicinal Chemistry
1.0
Clinical Therapeutics Module II: Introduction to Pharmacology
1.0
Clinical Therapeutics Module III: Intro to Special Populations
1.0
Self-care, Alternative and Complementary Treatments*
3.0
The U.S. Health Care System
Managing Professional Patient-centered Practice
2.5
1.0
Scholarship I
1.0
Student Pharmacist Professionalism
Continues
Foundations II
1.0
IPPE II: Community II
1.0
Semester Total
21.0
Course Title
Evidence Based Pharmacy II: Research Methods &
Statistics
Course Credit
2.5
Evidence Based Pharmacy III: Literature Evaluation
2.0
Biotechnology, Pharmacogenomics & Pharmacogenetics2.0
Pharmacy Informatics
Clinical Therapeutics Module IV: Cardiovascular
Clinical Therapeutics Module V: Endocrinology
Clinical Therapeutics Module VI: Neurology I
Scholarship II
Student Pharmacist Professionalism
Foundations III
IPPE III: Hospital
Semester Total
1.5
4.5
2.5
3.0
Continues
Continues
1.0
Continues
19.0
Course Title
Applied Pharmacokinetics
Pharmacoeconomics
Epidemiology & Pharmacy Practice
Patient Medication Safety
Clinical Therapeutics Module VII: Neurology II
Course Credit
2.0
2.0
2.0
2.0
1.0
Clinical Therapeutics Module VIII: Psychiatry
3.0
Clinical Therapeutics Module IX:
Respiratory/Immunology
3.0
Electives
Scholarship II
Student Pharmacist Professionalism
Foundations IV
IPPE III: Hospital
Semester Total
2.0
2.0
Continues
1.0
1.0
21
Course Title
Course
Credit
Pharmacy Practice Management I - Community Practice
4.0
Clinical Therapeutics Module X: Infectious Diseases
4.5
Clinical Therapeutics Module XI: Hematology/Oncology
2.5
Clinical Therapeutics Module XII: Nephrology/Urology
2.5
Clinical Therapeutics Module XIII: Dermatology/EENT
1.5
Electives
2.0 - 3.0
Scholarship III
Continue
s
Continue
s
1.0
Student Pharmacist Professionalism
Foundations V
IPPE IV: Clinical Patient Care
Semester Total
Continue
s
18.0 19.0
Course Title
Course Credit
Pharmacy Practice Management II - Institutional Practice
2.0
Clinical Therapeutics Module XIV: Gastrointestinal/Nutrition 2.5
Clinical Therapeutics Module XV: Women's Health/Bone,
Joint
Clinical Therapeutics Module XVI:Toxicology/Critical Care
2.5
Clinical Therapeutics Module XVII: Special Populations
1.0
Pharmacy Law
Electives
Scholarship III
Student Pharmacist Professionalism
Foundations VI
IPPE IV: Clinical Patient Care
Semester Total
3.0
2.0 - 3.0
2.0
Continues
1.0
1.0
18.5 - 19.5
1.5
Acute Care APPE
10.0
Hospital Pharmacy APPE
Geriatrics APPE
Primary Ambulatory Care APPE
Elective I APPE
Elective II APPE
Advanced Community Practice APPE
Student Pharmacist Professionalism
Annual Total
5.0
5.0
5.0
5.0
5.0
5.0
1.0
41.0
 Pre-pharmacy
 Pharmacy
School
• 4 years
• Some programs pre-pharmacy & pharmacy
work is combined
 Residency
• Supervised practice
• Specific field of practice
 Fellowship
 Governmental
Oversight
• Federal & State laws
 Voluntary
Oversight
• Accreditation of training programs
 E.g. ASHP accreditation of residency programs
• Certification
 Board of Pharmaceutical Specialties (BPS)
 Certified Geriatric Pharmacist (CGP)
 Certified Anticoagulation Care Provider (CACP)
 Drug-Use
Process
• Manufacture
• Distribution
• Prescribing
• Preparation
• Storing
• Dispensing
• Administering
• Monitoring
• Reviewing of drugs and their use
 Pharmacists
help patients make the
best use of their medications
 Community
pharmacy
 Institutional pharmacy
 Long-term care pharmacy
 Managed care, home care, and mailservice pharmacy
 Pharmacy academia
 Other careers
• Industry
• Government
• Associations
• Others
 The
profession of pharmacy has
evolved
 Pharmaceutical
care
• “the functions performed by a pharmacist in
ensuring the optimal use of medications to
achieve specific outcomes that improve a
patient’s quality of life; further, the pharmacist
accepts responsibility for outcomes and ensue
from his or her actions, which occur in
collaboration with patients and other healthcare colleagues”

There is a need to move even more rapidly to redeploy pharmacists from medication order
fulfillment to patient care. This will require:
• Supporting payment mechanism
• Provider status for pharmacists under Medicare
• Commitment to obtaining and maintaining the
knowledge, skills, and abilities required by
increased patient care demands
• Fully embracing the tenets of pharmaceutical care
• Programs in order to grow the total size of the
profession
Knapp DA. AJPE 2002
Pharmacists:
 Help patients make the best use of
their medications
 Receive rigorous education & training
 Practice in a variety of settings
 Are licensed to protect the public from
harm
 Are caregivers, clinicians, advisors,
teachers, and life-long learners
William N Kelly 2004
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The Profession of Pharmacy