HOW HAVE TRADITION AND
DIFFUSION INFLUENCED MODERN
CULTURAL PRACTICES AND
PRODUCTS?
Activity 1F
CULTURE AND CULTURAL DIFFUSION
Culture


Refers to a people’s
entire way of life.
It includes a peoples
language, foods,
literature, music, art,
and religious beliefs.

When people think of
American culture they
think of hot dogs,
hamburgers, and
baseball.

It is so much more!!!
Cultural Diffusion
The spread of ideas
and products from
one place to
another.
 One of the major
forces that cause
cultures to change.


All cultures tend to
change and at the
same time to resist
change.
WHY CULTURES CHANGE
Sometimes people
change because
they come into
contact with other
cultures with
different products
and ideas.
Some people in a
society welcome
change to improve
their position, while
others resist change
and cling to old ways
and traditions
Why
Cultures
Change
Sometimes
certain aspects of
society will
change more
quickly than
others.
Sometimes
people change
because they are
introduced to
new discoveries
and events
within a culture.
WHY CULTURES CHANGE- CONTINUED

In modern times:


Tastes in popular music, movies, and clothing tend
to change quickly.
Other features:

Such as a culture’s deepest values and beliefs
change more slowly.
CHINA’S CULTURAL INFLUENCE ON JAPAN

200 A.D.
China was more prosperous and technologically
advanced than Japan.
 Chinese scholars and merchants introduced many
aspects of their culture to the Japanese.
 The Japanese readily adopted many features of
Chinese culture to their society.

CHINA’S CULTURAL INFLUENCE ON
JAPAN- CONTINUED

Written Language
Japan lacked a writing system upon their first
contact w/ China.
 Japan adopted the Chinese method of writing,
characters, or symbol writing.
 Spoken Japanese and Chinese are entirely
different from one another, yet their writing
systems are very similar.
 Many Japanese characters are adopted from the
Chinese.

CHINA’S CULTURAL INFLUENCE ON
JAPAN- CONTINUED

Belief Systems

Buddhism and Confucianism were key to the
Chinese.

Both were introduced to the Japanese.
From Buddhism, the Japanese learned to abandon
selfish desires.
 Confucianism emphasized the importance of order
in government and society AND inspired loyalty
and obedience to one's family and ruler.

CHINA’S CULTURAL INFLUENCE ON
JAPAN- CONTINUED

Imperial Government
The organization of China’s Imperial Court was also
adopted in Japan.
 Japan’s ruler, like the Chinese emperor, claimed
to be an absolute ruler.
 The Japanese Imperial Court, and their bureaucracy,
came to be modeled after Confucian teachings.

CHINA’S CULTURAL INFLUENCE ON
JAPAN- CONTINUED

City Planning

Several cities in Japan were build along the same
plans that the Chinese used.


Nara, Japan’s 1st permanent capital, is modeled after
China’s capital city of Xi’an.
Japanese cities are based on a system of fields and
irrigation systems divided into even
rectangles…just like the Chinese model of city
planning.
CHINA’S CULTURAL INFLUENCE ON
JAPAN- CONTINUED

Other Chinese Influences

Music, architecture, art, dance, pottery,
weaving, and cooking all influenced Japanese style
& taste.

The Japanese were even more impressed with the quality of
Chinese goods, especially silk and ceramics.
Japan created a unique civilization based on a
blend of their own local traditions and a selective
borrowing of Chinese practices.
 Even in Japan today, you will still see many Chinese
influences.


The use of written characters, gowns made from silk,
beautiful ceramics, and the eating of rice and drinking of
tea.
THE INFLUENCE OF ISLAM ON MIDDLE
EASTERN ART AND ARCHITECTURE

Art and architecture have also been influenced
by cultural diffusion.

Middle Eastern countries haven been greatly
influenced by the Islamic religion.
Centered around God, Allah.
 Forbidden to portray direct images of Allah.
 Art and architecture do not include living things,
especially humans.
 Focuses on geometric, floral, Arabesque, and
calligraphy designs.
 Repetition of geometric patterns with bright colors
and symmetrical shapes.

THE INFLUENCE OF ISLAM ON
MIDDLE EASTERN ART AND
ARCHITECTURE- CONTINUED

The Horseshoe Arch
Used in architecture
 Has been used in
Islamic structures
since the 5th century.
 Popular feature in
many Islamic
structures stretching
from the Middle East
to North Africa.

THE INFLUENCE OF ISLAM ON
MIDDLE EASTERN ART AND
ARCHITECTURE- CONTINUED

Water Fountains
Symbolizes the origin of life.
 Water is seen as life-giving and purifying.



The Garden of Eden
Key to Islamic architecture
Allow worshippers to wash their feet before entering the
mosque.
 Seen in courtyards, gardens, and other structures
throughout North Africa and the Middle East.

THE INFLUENCE OF ISLAM ON
MIDDLE EASTERN ART AND
ARCHITECTURE- CONTINUED

Minaret Tower
Consists of a tall
spire w/ a pointed
crown.
 Built to be seen from
afar.
 Followers are called to
prayer at a mosque.
 Spread throughout
the world to
wherever mosques are
found.

THE INFLUENCE OF ISLAM ON
MIDDLE EASTERN ART AND
ARCHITECTURE- CONTINUED

Domes
Its use extends over many centuries.
 First designed for Roman buildings.



Shows the influence of Ancient Rome on the Middle East.
Used in 691 w/ the construction of the Dome of the
Rock

Have repeatedly appeared and widely used in mosques
throughout the Middle East, as well as the Taj Mahal in
India.
THE SPREAD OF SILK TEXTILES
According to Chinese legend, the wife of
Emperor Huang Ti was the first to
accidentally discover silk fibers.
 Their source- a silkworm in mulberry trees.


Cocoons of a silk caterpillar could be unwound and
the filaments could be woven into fabric.
Soon after this, the empress began cultivating
silkworms.
 This legend is unlikely true; however, what
remains true is that China maintained a
monopoly on silk production for nearly three
centuries.

THE SPREAD OF SILK TEXTILESCONTINUED

Demand for this product created profitable
trade along the Silk Road.
Carried to the West, while gold, silver, and
wooden textiles were brought East.
 At a time, silk was valued to be worth more than
gold (5x).

THE SPREAD OF SILK TEXTILESCONTINUED

The Chinese realized the value of silk and kept
the way it was manufactured a secret.

When people would leave China they would be
searched, this lasted for centuries.

Anyone caught smuggling eggs, cocoons, or silkworms out
of China was executed.
THE SPREAD OF SILK TEXTILESCONTINUED

The secret of silk-making eventually spread to
other countries.
By the 1950’s the Japanese were the largest
producers of raw silk.
 In the 1970’s China regained their position of the
world’s top producer and exporter of raw silk and
silk yarn.
 Currently, the countries of India, Japan, Korea,
Thailand, Vietnam, Uzbekistan, Italy, France, and
Brazil, all produce silk.
 Men and women all over the world wear silk
dresses, neckties, embroidery, and pajamas.

THE SPREAD OF THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE
AND AMERICAN POP CULTURE

Language can spread from one culture to
another.

For example, if you walk down the street of many
Asian cities today you will see signs in English as
well as American fast-food franchises.
McDonalds
 KFC
 Starbucks
 Taco Bell

THE SPREAD OF THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE
AND AMERICAN POP CULTURE

In the early 20th century American culture was
promoted by new technologies.
Radio, record player, movies, and television.
 After WWII, American music and movies became
quite popular in Europe and later spread to other
continents.

THE SPREAD OF THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE AND
AMERICAN POP CULTURE- CONTINUED

English Language

Influence of American culture has been made easier
due to the spread of English as an international
second language.

Part of this is due to British imperialism (extending the
rule or influence of a country over other countries or
colonies)
 British colonized not only part of North America, but
also parts of Africa and the Middle East.
th century, Britain ruled over almost ¼ of the
 Early 20
world.
THE SPREAD OF THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE AND
AMERICAN POP CULTURE- CONTINUED
The use of English in former British colonies, like
Egypt and India, the spread of American culture
since WWII, the locations of worldwide businesses,
and the increasing use of the Internet, have all led to
the adoption of English as a global language.
 English is the chief language of communication
between individuals from different countries and
even those speaking different languages within the
same country.

THE SPREAD OF THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE AND
AMERICAN POP CULTURE- CONTINUED

400 million now speak English as their primary
language.
Plays a key role in linking people who do not share a
common first language in this global era.
 Enables people to share ideas and cultures.
 In most countries, people learn English as a second
language.
 More than a billion people understand and use English.

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How have tradition and diffusion influenced modern