Chapter 4
Society: The Interactions of Mankind
Cultural Differences
 In an ideal world ...
the policemen would be English
the car mechanics would be German
the cooks would be French
the lovers would be Italian,
The government would be run by the Swiss
 In a living hell ...
the policemen would be German
the car mechanics would be French
the cooks would be English
the lovers would be Swiss
the government would be run by the Italians
I. Culture: The Ways of Society
 Society– the relationships among human beings.
 What is culture?
 Total way of life, not just clothing, food, sports, etc.
 Traditions
 Customs society passes down
 Institutions
 Formal organizations by which traditions are transmitted
Traditional Dress
Traditional Dress
 The foundation of culture
 Primary instrument for transmitting culture
 Spoken Languages
 Approx. 6600 languages
 Can’t be exact because of Dialect
 Speech patterns within a spoken language
 10 Major Language Families
 Share common characteristics
 99% of people speak these 10
 Look at Map on pg. 80
Written Languages
 Advanced societies have written ability
 Literacy
 Around 75% of the world is literate
 In advanced societies over 95% of the population is literate
Regions- The Locations of Culture
 Culture Region: human society that shares the same basic culture
 Countries can change names, grow and shrink; but the cultural aspects remain
mostly intact
 If you learn the characteristics of the regions, you will be able to better
understand the events in your lifetime
 World is divided into 8 different culture regions
 Africa
 Asia
 Central Eurasia
 Europe
 Latin America
 The Middle East
 North America
 Oceania
Institutions-The Transmission of
 Western tendency:
 Eastern tendency:
The Family
 Foundation of Society- God’s Plan
 Every society honors the family
 Western culture focuses on the nuclear family
 Eastern cultures focus on extended family
 Both systems can fall apart …
 Ancestor worship
 Broken families, one parent households, abortion
 Definition: People’s beliefs regarding the supernatural
person or powers that created and sustain the universe.
 Also includes a system of practices used to show respect and
reverence to that person or power
 Give people a sense of purpose, formal code of conduct, holidays,
dress, even food preparation (even the rejection of religion does
 Many world cultures have fallen into Idolatry
 Worship of something other than God
 North Korea- Communist “cult of personality”, worship Kim Il Sung
the founder of communism there
 Look at Religions Chart on pg. 84
The Nation
 Definition: A large group of people with a common
history and language with a strong sense of identity
 Does a Nation have to have a specific place they live?
 Nation- people
 Country- land
 State- institutions that govern
 Tribe- common group of ancestors
 Nation-State- people who have established their own
 Empire- when one nation conquers another beyond its borders
Political Maps
 Political Boundaries are a fundamental feature of culture
maps because they mark the limit of a state’s authority over
the lives of people
 Can follow natural boundaries or geometric
 Natural: Rio Grande
 Geometric: boundary between Canada and U.S.
 Disagreements over a state’s authority leads to violence
usually– war
 When people within a state fight their own government, its
called : ________ War
 When independent states fight each other: International
II. Demography: The Statistics of
 Demography: the study of human populations and their
 3 Basic Methods of Getting Demographic Info
 Vital Statistics
 Official records of birth, marriage, divorce, death
 Censuses
 Official gov. counts of the entire populations within the nation’s
 Surveys
 Counts of small samples of the total population
Vital Statistics
 Vital = Related to Life
 Life signs of a society
 3 Basic Vital Statistics
 Natural Increase
 Comparing number of births a year to the number of deaths a year
 US- births 14.1 deaths 8.2 = 6, natural increase of .6%
 Life Expectancy
 Number of years a person can expect to live
 Advances in tech and medicine help a lot
 US- 77.6 years
 Women live about 5.4 years longer
 Infant Mortality
 Health improvements are most apparent here
 Measured by comparing number of live births to the number of babies
that die within one year
 Before Industrial Revolution (1800s) nearly ½ died before 1st birthday
 Now, US has a rate of 6.5 (6.5 die for every 1000)
Community Statistics
 2 categories for populated areas
 Urban areas
 Rural areas
 200 years ago, 95% of people lived on farms, now 5% do
 Urbanization
 Growth of urban areas at the expense of rural
 More than 80% of Americans and about 42% of the world live in urban
Suburbs– area between the two
Population Density
 Population Density is the average # of people who live
each square mile of land
 Arable Land- (land that can be used for crops) The amount
a country has is important
III. Politics: The Governance of Society
 Human government: rule of man over man
 Primary purpose: restrain violence
 Duties of Government
 Preserve order
 Protect citizens
 (Justice and Defense)
 Whenever there is no government = Anarchy
Types of Government
 Classified by where the ruler gets power
 Authoritarian Government
 Claim authority higher than citizens
 Absolute Monarchs—claim birth as authority
 Still exist- Saudi Arabia, Jordan
 Dictatorship
 Some public support, small group, allow no opposition
 Totalitarian Government
 Make decisions about every area of life (China, North Korea)
Types of Government
 Elected Government
 Rely on consent of the people governed
 Direct Democracy- originally whole population ruled
 Indirect Democracy- Representative Democracy
Constitutional Monarchy
o Monarch is figurehead, real power is with elected legislators
o Elect national leaders (President)
Relations Among Governments
 Foreign Policy: set of regulation regarding international
Nation can influence others through foreign trade and
foreign aid (gifts, money, technology)
Active troop strength measures military strength
Militarized States-lots of active soldiers, spend lots of $$
on weapons
Rogue Nations-reject capitalism and democracy, ignore the
basic principles of foreign relations, just want to increase
their own power
Negotiating Peace
 Diplomacy- art of negotiating agreements between nations
 Treaties- formal agreements
 Alliances
 Two Important International Alliances
 UN
 North Atlantic Treaty Organization
 Most powerful and successful alliance in history
 Formed in 1947, to protect from Soviet Union
 Canada, US, most of Western Europe
 So intimidating to USSR, they never had to fire a shot
 United Nations
 Formed after WWII
 Neutral place to talk about peace
 Much less successful than NATO
 All member nations vote, but the real power lies with the Big 5:
US, China, United Kingdom, France, Russia
 Permanent members of the Security Council
 Can all veto any decision

Chapter 4