Introduction to
Functional Discourse Grammar
Kees Hengeveld & Evelien Keizer
ACLC - University of Amsterdam
keeshengeveld.nl
home.medewerker.uva.nl/m.e.keizer
Functional Discourse Grammar: 3 words
• Functional
– Oriented primarily to linguistic forms that reflect the
instrumentality of language in human interaction
• Discourse
– Not an account of discourse, but of the Discourse Act and its
morphosyntactic and phonological encoding
– Focus on discourse-impacted overt grammatical phenomena
• Grammar
– Concerned with the organizational principles behind the
systematicity of languages
– Form-oriented function-to-form approach (H&M 39)
Introduction to Functional Discourse Grammar
3
Features of FDG
• Top-down organization
• The Discourse Act as the basic unit of analysis.
• Analyses Discourse Acts in terms of four
independent, interactive modules, yielding four levels
of analysis:
–
–
–
–
Interpersonal Level:
Representational Level:
Morphosyntactic Level:
Phonological Level:
pragmatics
semantics
morphosyntax
phonology
• Systematically interacts with three non-linguistic
components
FDG as one of four components
• The grammatical component
– The FDG itself, the central component
– Embraces formulation and encoding
• The conceptual component
– Develops communicative intention
• The contextual component
– The model’s “eyes”, “memory”, “social awareness”
• The output component
– Conversion to acoustic, graphic or signed form
Introduction to Functional Discourse Grammar
5
Function and Form
• Formulation
– Interpersonal Level
• rhetoric and pragmatics (evocation)
– Representational Level
• semantics (designation)
• Encoding
– Morphosyntactic Level
• syntax and morphology
– Phonological Level
• prosody and segmental phonology
Introduction to Functional Discourse Grammar
6
Top-down architecture
• Various top-down pathways through the
grammar
– All communicative utterances involve the
Interpersonal and Phonological Levels
• Three degrees of complexity
– From interpersonal level to phonological encoding
– From interpersonal level to morphosyntactic and
then phonological encoding
– From interpersonal and representational levels to
morphosyntactic and phonological encoding
Introduction to Functional Discourse Grammar
7
Layered architecture
• All levels involve internal layering
–
–
–
–
Discourse Acts group into Moves
Discourse Acts consist of smaller units
These smaller units may themselves have layers
Similarly for other levels, in both formulation and
encoding
– There are default relations between layers across
levels
• Discourse Act (IL) ≈ State-of-Affairs (RL) ≈ Clause (ML) ≈
Intonational Phrase (PL)
Introduction to Functional Discourse Grammar
8
Goals of FDG
• Account of morphosyntactically and/or phonologically
codified phenomena in languages
– correlation with interpersonal or representational formulation
– ... or with inherent properties of encoding mechanisms
• Balance between functionalism and formalism
– not “text grammar” but concerned with impact of textuality
on morphosyntactic and phonological form
– not “syntacto-centric” but keen to display the interplay
among phonology, morphosyntax, semantic and pragmatics
in organizing human languages
– formal, but treating formalisms as subservient to insight
Introduction to Functional Discourse Grammar
9
Link with language typology
• Language user has knowledge of functional and
formal units and the relations between them
– stability > systematicity
– limited variety across the systems > typology
• FDG provides framework for enunciating universals
– absolute vs relative
• FDG provides framework for writing grammars
– these feed into typological investigations
• FDG cannot provide explanations
– but links into 3 flanking components that reflect human
mental and physical capacities
Introduction to Functional Discourse Grammar
10
General architecture
Conceptual Component
G
r
a
m
m
a
r
O
u
t
p
u
t
Frames,
Lexemes,
Operators
Templates,
Grammatical
elements
Formulation
Pragmatics, Semantics
Encoding
Morphosyntax, Phonology
Articulation
Output
C
o
n
t
e
x
t
u
a
l
C
o
m
p
o
n
e
n
t
Conceptual Component
G
r
a
m
m
a
r
O
u
t
p
u
t
Frames,
Lexemes,
Operators
Templates,
Grammatical
elements
Formulation
Pragmatics, Semantics
Encoding
Morphosyntax, Phonology
Articulation
Output
C
o
n
t
e
x
t
u
a
l
C
o
m
p
o
n
e
n
t
Conceptual Component
G
r
a
m
m
a
r
O
u
t
p
u
t
Frames,
Lexemes,
Operators
Templates,
Grammatical
elements
Formulation
Pragmatics, Semantics
Encoding
Morphosyntax, Phonology
Articulation
Output
C
o
n
t
e
x
t
u
a
l
C
o
m
p
o
n
e
n
t
Frames,
Lexemes,
Interpersonal &
Representational
Operators
Templates,
Grammatical
morphemes,
M’syntactic
operators
Templates,
Suppletive forms,
Phon. operators
Formulation
Interpersonal Level
Representational Level
Morphosyntactic
Encoding
Morphosyntactic Level
Phonological
Encoding
Phonological Level
Frames,
Lexemes,
Interpersonal &
Representational
Operators
Templates,
Grammatical
morphemes,
M’syntactic
operators
Templates,
Suppletive forms,
Phon. operators
Formulation
Interpersonal Level
Representational Level
Morphosyntactic
Encoding
Morphosyntactic Level
Phonological
Encoding
Phonological Level
Frames,
Lexemes,
Interpersonal &
Representational
Operators
Templates,
Grammatical
morphemes,
M’syntactic
operators
Templates,
Suppletive forms,
Phon. operators
Formulation
Interpersonal Level
Representational Level
Morphosyntactic
Encoding
Morphosyntactic Level
Phonological
Encoding
Phonological Level
Frames,
Lexemes,
Interpersonal &
Representational
Operators
Templates,
Grammatical
morphemes,
M’syntactic
operators
Templates,
Suppletive forms,
Phon. operators
Formulation
Interpersonal Level
Representational Level
Morphosyntactic
Encoding
Morphosyntactic Level
Phonological
Encoding
Phonological Level
Structure of all layers
(π v1: [head (v1)Φ]: [σ (v1)Φ])
– v1 = variable of relevant layer
– restricted by a head taking that variable as its argument
• “v1, such that “head” of v1”
– subscript index indicates coreference, and thereby also the
position of the variable in a sequence of such variables
– subscript Φ indicates the rhetorical, pragmatic (IL),
semantic (RL) or syntactic function (ML)
– v1 may be specified by an operator
– v1 may be further restricted by a modifier σ that takes the
variable as its argument
Introduction to Functional Discourse Grammar
19
Levels and Layers: Interpersonal Level
(M1: (A1: [(F1: ILL (F1)) (P1)S (P2)A (C1: [(T1) (R1)] (C1))] (A1)) (M1))
M = Move
A = Discourse Act
F = Illocution
P1, P2 = Participants
C = Communicated Content
T = AscripTive Subact
R = Referential Subact
Introduction to Functional Discourse Grammar
20
Levels & Layers: Representational Level
(p1: (ep1: (e1: (f1: [(f2:  (f2)) (x1) ...] (f1)) (e1)) (ep1)) (p1))
p = Propositional Content
ep = Episode
e = State-of-Affairs
f = Property
Configurational Property (f1)
Lexical Property (f2)
x = Individual
... = {l, t, m, q, r}
Introduction to Functional Discourse Grammar
21
Levels and Layers: Morphosyntactic Level
(Le1: (Cl1: (Xp1: (Xw1: [(Xs1) (aff1)] (Xw1)) (Xp1)) (Cl1)) (Le1))
Le = Linguistic Expression
Cl = Clause
Xp = Phrase (of type X)
Xw = Word (of type X)
Xs = Stem (of type X)
aff = Affix
Introduction to Functional Discourse Grammar
22
Levels and Layers: Phonological Level
(U1: (IP1: (PP1: (PW1: (F1: (S1) (F1)) (PW1)) (PP1)) (IP1)) (U1))
U
= Utterance
IP
= Intonational Phrase
PP
= Phonological Phrase
PW
= Phonological Word
F
= Foot
S
= Syllable
Introduction to Functional Discourse Grammar
23
Frames,
Lexemes,
Interpersonal &
Representational
Operators
Templates,
Grammatical
morphemes,
M’syntactic
operators
Templates,
Suppletive forms,
Phon. operators
Formulation
(M1: (A1: [(F1: ILL (F1)) (P1)S (P2)A (C1: [(T1) (R1)] (C1))] (A1)) (M1))
(p1: (ep1: (e1: (f1: [(f2:  (f2)) (x1) ...] (f1)) (e1)) (ep1)) (p1))
Morphosyntactic
Encoding
(Le1: (Cl1: (Xp1: (Xw1: [(Xs1) (aff1)] (Xw1)) (Xp1)) (Cl1)) (Le1))
Phonological
Encoding
(U1: (IP1: (PP1: (PW1: (F1: (S1) (F1)) (PW1)) (PP1)) (IP1)) (U1))
An example
I like these bananas
(id RI)
(prox m xi: [(fi: /bə′nɑ:nə/N (fi)) (xi)Φ])
(Npi: [(Gwi: this-pl (Gwi)) (Nwi: /bə′nɑ:nə/-pl (Nwi))] (Npi))
(PPi: [(PWi: /ði:z/ (PWi)) (PWj: /bə′nɑ:nəz/ (PWj))] (PPi))
Introduction to Functional Discourse Grammar
25
This presentation downloadable from:
keeshengeveld.nl
home.medewerker.uva.nl/m.e.keizer
Introduction to Functional Discourse Grammar
26
Descargar

PowerPoint-presentatie