Unit XXII – Colonialism
and Independence in India
and Pakistan
The Colonial Period (1-4)
The Independence Movement (5-11)
Kashmir (12-17)
Copyright 2006; C. Pettinato, RCS High School, All Rights Reserved
1. Colonial India
2. The Early Colonizers
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A. The Portuguese Traders - late 1400’s, and
early 1500’s
B. The British East India Company – early
1600’s, obtained trading rights from the
Mughal Empire (Muslim Indian Empire)
3. Video
4. Conquering India

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A. How were the British able to conquer
such a large area is South Asia?
1. India had many different cultures and
languages which divided India when the
Mughal Empire fell.
2. Indians could not unite against the
newcomers because of ethnic differences.
3. The British had superior weapons
4. The British played the princes against one
another.
5. British Policy in India

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A. What was the main goal of the
British East India company?
B. In what ways did the British try to
change India?
C. How did Indians feel about British
interference and domination?
6. Rebellion

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A. The Sepoy Rebellion
B. unequal British colonial policy
C. A clash of cultures
D. growing nationalism in the 1800’s
E. The Indian National Congress
(1885)
F. The Muslim League
7. Mohandis Gandhi and
Muhammad Ali Jinnah
8. Video
9. The Amritsar Massacre
and the Salt March
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A. What was the Amritsar Massacre and
when did it take place?
B. Why was it considered a turning point for
many Indians?
C. What was the Salt March and when did it
take place?
D. Why was it important in the
independence movement?
10. The Amritsar Massacre
of 1919
11. The Salt March
12. Indian Independence
and a Separate Muslim State

A. The British begin to give in.

B. Independence in 1947

C. Hindu – Muslim violence

D. Independence for Pakistan
13. A Divided India 1947
14. The Problems Today
in Kashmir

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A. Northern India was claimed by both
Pakistan and India with both Muslims and
Hindus living there. It was divided.
A Muslim guerilla war to get India out of its
portion of Kashmir began and continued until
recently. At times these two nations had battles
and brought the world close to nuclear war
(both countries possessed nuclear weapons)
15. The Division of Kashmir
16. Reasons for Muslim –
Hindu Hatred
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A. What are the reason for MuslimHindu hatred?
1. Hindu resentment of Islam
2. Mughal domination
3. religious differences
4. religious persecution
5. unwarranted fears
6. religious extremism
17. The Earthquake of
2005


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A. In October of 2005 a massive
earthquake struck the Muslim section
of Kashmir killing tens of thousands in
very remote regions.
B. India was quick to send generous
relief teams, supplies, and money.
Pakistan was very thankful for the help
C. Tensions are temporarily better.
18. The 2005 Earthquake
19. 2005 Earthquake Map
20. Important Terms and
People
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A. British East India
Co.
B. Sepoy Rebellion
C. Indian National
Congress
D. Amritsar
Massacre
E. Salt March
F. peaceful civil
disobedience
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G. Mohandis Gandhi
H. Muhammad Ali
Jinnah
I. Muslim League
J. the partition of
India
K. Kashmir
L. religious
extremist
M. guerilla warfare
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