Prehistory • Primary sources • First hand accounts: letters, diaries, speeches • Secondary sources • Written after the fact: textbook • Hunters and Gatherers • Weapons and tools made of stone • Discovery of fire and wheel Neolithic Revolution • The change from hunting and gathering to farming – – – – – Leads to the development of: Communities Governments Advances in arts and sciences Written system • Domestication of animals Civilization Ancient River Valleys Mesopotamia • • • • • “Cradle of Civilization” “Land between the rivers” Modern day Iraq in Middle East Tigris and Euphrates Rivers Important city-states • Sumer • Ur • Babylon • Religion • Polytheistic • Ziggurats Contributions of Mesopotamia • • • • • • • Wheel Sailboat Copper and bronze tools and weapons Cuneiform 12 month calendar Number system based on 60 Code of Hammurabi – “an eye for an eye” – Goal was to ensure justice and protect the weak Ancient Egypt • Egypt it in Africa • Nile River – “lifeblood of ancient Egypt” – “Egypt is the gift of the Nile” – Yearly flooding provided fertile soil • Pharaoh – Leader who was believed to be a god and had control over all of Egypt Contributions of Egyptians • Writing • Hieroglyphics • Papyrus • Architecture • Pyramids • Temples • Sciences • Math – geometry • Medicine – Embalming – Medical procedures: setting broken bones • Astronomy – 365 day calendar based on the movement of stars India • Subcontinent of Asia • Indus River • Earliest civilizations in India developed here • Harrappans – Trade • Earliest settlers in cities such as Mohenjo-Daro and Harrappa – Very advanced cities: public sewers and water supply • Indo Aryans • Brought the culture to area that is still practiced today • Caste system China • Located in Asia • Earliest civilization developed along the Huang He River (Yellow River) • Grew millet,soybeans • Shang dynasty – Built Anyang (first capital city of China) – Ruled with the aid of rich nobles Bronze casting, silk and calligraphy China Gobi Desert Huang He Himalaya Mts. Classical Civilizations Greece • Greece is made up of 3 peninsulas • Hilly terrain which caused people to settle in city-states Male, native born, – Athens land owners • Direct democracy: every citizen takes a direct part in government • Women, slaves and foreigners not allowed to participate – Sparta Typically conquered people or those that owed a debt • Totalitarian: complete control over every aspect of life • Oligarchy: government run by a select few Golden Age of Athens • Period of peace, prosperity and growth Socrates Conquered people used as slaves Socratic Method: teaching by asking questions Pericles: Athenian leader who rebuilt Athens and is responsible for the building of the Parthenon. Plato Aristotle Polytheistic Alexander the Great: Created an empire that stretched from the Med Sea to the Indus River. Also created a new culture: Hellenistic Blending of Greek and Middle Eastern cultures Contributions of the Greeks Democracy: Rule of the people Comedies, tragedies, play and historical writings Ionic Corinthian Rome Alps Mt. • Italian peninsula • Shaped like a boot • Protected by Alps in the north and seas all around • Roman Republic citizens – Type of government that has a leader, not a king or queen, who is elected – Patricians: Rome’s wealthy landowning class – Plebeians: small farmers, merchants and artisans Senate: lawmaking body Consuls: elected officials Tiber River Twelve Tables: civil, criminal and religious laws that were written down and placed in the Forum. Senate and the People of Rome SPQR Julius Caesar Declared dictator for life, killed March 15 44 BC: the Ides of March Supported by the poor for his reforms Rome Augustus Caesar Member of Second Triumvirate as Octavian, first emperor of Rome Pax Romana: Period of peace and prosperity in Rome Constantine: Legalized Christianity in Rome Prior to this Chrisians were persecuted by Romans due to the fact that they refused to worship the emperor as a god. Rome • Rome divides into 2 empires Roman Contributions Western Roman Empire Eastern Roman Empire Latin: becomes basis for many modern languages Constantinople is capital Becomes Byzantine Empire Rome is capital Falls 476 AD Law: “innocent until proven guilty” Christianity: beginning of the spread of the religion Corrupt emperors Bad economy Lack of loyalty from troops Roman Empire relied on slave labor Engineering: roads and aqueducts India and China Indo-Aryans invade and develop a civilization Golden Age of India was brought about by Gupta Empire -zero -infinity -decimal system Hinduism and Buddhism develop in India Hinduism remains the religion of choice Caste system is put in place for social ordering. Zhou dynasty uses Mandate of Heaven to acquire power to rule All dynasties after Zhou claim Mandate as reason for rule Qin dynasty comes to power under Qin Shi Huangdi: first emperor of China -responsible for the building of the first Great Wall of China Civil Service examinations are implemented under Han dynasty -find the best minds to work in government -Confucius thought is the main focus of these exams The Middle Ages Feudalism in Europe Barbarians settle much of Europe after the fall of the Roman Empire Vikings leave Scandinavia to look for a new food supply The need for order grows from this chaos. Hence the development of Feudalism: a political system based on the ownership of land and loyalty to those that gave the land. Developed out of the need for social organization, leadership and goods. fief: land given to a lord in return for his loyalty. Charlemagne is crowned Holy Roman Emperor in 800 AD. Medieval Manor Manors were self sufficient Feudaliam con't • The shogun (like the king) ruled the country through the daimyo (like the nobles), who were the heads of the samurai (like the knights). • Peasants farmed the land in exchange for protection by the samurai, who operated under a code of conduct known as bushido (like chivalry). •Feudalism also took hold in Japan –Emperor • Shogun: real power in Japan – Daimyo: noble landowners Samurai: equivalent to a knight Magna Carta 1215 • “Great Charter” • King John forced to sign – Took away some of the king’s power • No longer raise taxes without the consent of the Great Council – Guaranteed freemen the right to trial by jury of peers King Edward I set up a group of people who were to advise him called Parliament. House of Lords House of Commons Established the idea that people have certain rights and the power of government should be limited Growth of the Roman Catholic Church • Faith – People deeply religious • Wealth – Tithes (church tax) – Europe's largest landowner • Education – Officials typically the only ones who could read and write • Crusades – Holy wars wages against Islam – Wanted to gain control of the Holy Land (Jerusalem) • Effects of the Crusades – Trade increased due to desire for exotic goods – New ideas and goods are brought to Europe – Intolerance for religions such as Judaism and Islam Byzantine Empire • Survived for 1,000 years • Natural center for trade – Silk, spices and furs imported – Grains, olives and wines exported • Greatly influenced by Greek culture • Emperor Justinian created a comprehensive code of laws – Justinian’s Code • Corpus of Civil Law – Becomes the basis for western civilization laws Sample Seventh Grade Schedule Islam Golden Age of Islamic Culture Mathematics -Arabic numerals -alegebra and geometry Medicine -discovered blood moves to and from the heart diagnose measles and smallpox Arts -images of people forbidden -geometrical designs Architecture -mosques Decline of Feudalism • • • • • Rise of powerful kings Development of gunpowder Growth of a middle class Growth of towns Growth of trade Black Death: also known as the Bubonic Plague entered into Europe through trade. Fleas on goods that were shipped by boats carried the disease. Depleted much of Europe's workforce. Helped bring an end to feudalism due to the fact that many serfs left the manors to work in the towns Renaissance and Reformation Renaissance • “Rebirth of learning” • Began in Italy – Venice and Florence – Located near major sea routes – Wealthy from trade and banking – Embraced “classical” past of Greece and Rome • Characteristics – Growth in secularism: looking at the world from a non religious viewpoint – Humanist: believed that each person was unique Renaissance Thinkers William Shakespeare: wrote plays that have endured to modern times Dante: Wrote the Divine Comedy which helped create the Italian language Leonardo da Vinci: he was the definition of a “Renaissance Man.” Mona Lisa and Last Supper Michelangelo: commissioned by the church to paint the Sistine Chapel. Most works were or religious nature. Pieta Filippo Brunelleschi's dome Renaissance thinkers con't Miguel Cervantes: wrote Don Quixote Johann Gutenberg: inventor of movable type. This allowed for the mass production of books which led to increase in learning. The Bible was the first book mass printed. Copernicus: believed that the planets revolved around the sun Galileo: helped develop the scientific method Machiavelli: wrote The Prince which told that a leader must do whatever is necessary to rule. Believed that “the ends justify the means” Reformation and Counter Reformation • Martin Luther – Objected to sale of indulgences – Posted Ninety Five Theses – Broke away from the church • Other Protestant religions started – John Calvin – Henry VIII of England started Church of England and became the head of it • Weakened the church's power • Wars fought between Catholics and Protestants Counter Reformation: begun by the Catholic Church in response to the Reformation. At the Council of Trent the sale of indulgences was ended. Inquisition was begun to try heretics or those that held beliefs that went against the Catholic Church. Africa and the Americas Medieval Africa Kingdom of Ghana: Controlled major trade routes and gained wealth through taxes and trade. Kingdom of Mali: Mansa Musa, leader of Mali, who helped spread Islam throughout West African kingdoms. Timbuktu becomes the center of learning and trade. Kingdom of Songhai: Askia Muhammed divides the empire and ruled according to Muslim law. Gold and Salt trade Beginning of West African Slave Trade Americas Maya Civilization: Aztec Civilization: Inca Civilization: Chichen Itza: important city that had pyramids Tenochititlan: capital city Machu Picchu: best example of an Incan city Tikal: capital city Worshipped sun god plus many others United empire with roads Practiced human sacrifice Constant warfare led to the decline of the Mayan Began cultivation of corn Needed human sacrifice to appease sun god. This was done on massive scale. Quipu: knotted rope that kept records Typically lived in cities in the Andes Mountains Typical social structure of nobles, merchants and farmers Mississippian Civilizations: developed along Mississippi River, mound builders, farmers who grew corn on a large scale and developed trade networks that extended to the Rocky Mountains Effects of European Conquest of the Americas Triangular Trade Commercial Revolution • Mercantilism – The theory and system of political economy prevailing in Europe after the decline of feudalism, based on national policies of accumulating bullion, establishing colonies and a merchant marine, and developing industry and mining to attain a favorable balance of trade.