Tourism Marketing:
Producing
Places/Consuming Places
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Lecture Outline:
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Elements of Tourism Industry
Historical Development of Tourism
Theories for Understanding (Post)Modern Place
Marketing
Examples: Tourism Marketing as Representation
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Concepts of Tourism
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A complex phenomenon
A human experience
 A worldwide industry
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Characteristics of tourism
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Time
Distance
Travel
Away from home
Purpose in non-work related (leisure)
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Components of the tourism industry
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Transportation
Accommodation
Tourist attractions: natural, built, created
Travel agents
Tour operators
Travel-related services
Government bodies – national and
international
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Experience Economy: Tourism as
consumption
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Tourism, like leisure, can also be thought of
in terms of CONSUMPTION!
The tourist ‘product’ – e.g., a package
holiday
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Tourism and Leisure
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Tourism can be considered to be a form of
leisure
Tourism (as leisure activity) has developed
as a commercial activity
Is now a major earner, makes major
contribution to the economy
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Development of tourism
Can trace its progressive development :
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from INDIVIDUAL TRAVEL
through groups and expeditions
to MASS TOURISM
to (INDIVIDUALIZED) MASS TOURISM
(postmodern tourism)
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Developmental factors
Tourism requires people with:
• ABILITY (money and time)
• MOBILITY (transport) and
• MOTIVATION (desire, determination)
to travel
A history of tourism is a history of the
development of these three factors
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Travel in Ancient Societies
(Egypt and Greece)
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Empires grew, and ‘business travel’
increased (administration of the regions)
Evidence also of pleasure trips - festivals,
and Olympic Games
Pyramids, tombs and temples were the
wonders of the ancient world
Prompted travel to see them – ‘gazed upon’
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Travel in the Roman Empire
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Travel flourished
Trade and military activity encouraged
excellent roads (some still in existence)
Common language and currency
Romans sought to escape the cities in
summer heat
Moved to seaside and hillside villas
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Travel in the Middle Ages
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500 AD - Fall of the Roman Empire - roads
fell into disrepair
Travel became dangerous and difficult
Undertaken largely on foot
Undertaken for purposes of trade or religion
only - e.g., pilgrimages
Endured rather than enjoyed - “travail”!
Most ordinary people would spend their lives
in one fixed locality
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16th – 17th Centuries
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Establishment of “The Grand Tour” - an
aristocratic concept
“Taking a year out”
Aristocratic young men in the presence of
their tutors
Cultural and political education on a
prescribed route
France, Italy, Switzerland, Germany and the
Netherlands
Befitting men for life in politics at court13
17th – 18th Centuries
Main focus : Development of Health Tourism
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Health resorts evolved across Europe
Based on the supposed health-giving
properties of the sea and mineral waters
Led to the growth of seaside and spa
resorts still popular today
Spa towns - primarily for invalids
e.g., Baden-Baden (Germany), Bath
(England)
Became fashionable resorts for those with
leisure, money and transport
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18th – 19th Centuries
Period of Industrialisation
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Major effect of industry on leisure and
tourism
Prior to this period, only the upper
classes had ability, mobility and
motivation to travel (horses and
carriages)
INDUSTRIALISATION created :
Working class with income
 Desire to escape from the city
 Steam transport for travel (trains, boats)
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18th – 19th Centuries
Mass Seaside Tourism
Began due to :
• Development of steam boats and trains
(1832) linking urban and coastal areas
• First for freight, later, passengers
• Introduction of holidays (intended to improve
productivity)
• Public holidays - when whole communities
would travel en masse to the coast
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Portugal
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South-East England
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East-German Seaside Resort
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Mass Seaside Tourism
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Development of a tourism infrastructure
Small fishing villages developed into
resorts
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Blackpool, Ruegen, Biarritz
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Promenades
Accommodation
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Mass Seaside Tourism
Package Trips
Development of ‘package trips’
• 1841 - Thomas Cook’s first package trip
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Mass Seaside Tourism in England
Social differentiation
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Social differentiation of resorts
depended on transport links
Resorts linked to the northern industrial
base were mainly working-class Blackpool
Southern resorts mainly middle-class Bournemouth, Torquay
Middle classes also discovered Europe the Alps, the Riviera
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Early 20th Century
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1920s and 30s saw legal holidays acts all
over Europe - ensured week-long holidays,
stimulated mass tourism
Also, development of ‘holiday camps’
Development of countryside holidays
In 1939:
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30000 weekly campers on English camp grounds.
Even more in Germany (although numbers difficult
to decipher)
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Post Word War II
Further growth in Tourism Activity
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Social change
War experience widened perspectives
Stimulated desire to travel
Increased leisure time and income
Growth in car ownership
Spread of five-day week
Invention of ‘the weekend’
new unit of free time
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Post Word War II
Further growth in Tourism Activity
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Development of hotel chains
1960s and 70s in Europe:
Tourism Acts
Created national tourist boards for
domestic and overseas tourism promotion
The Canadian Tourism Commission was founded
in 1992
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Post Word War II
Further growth in Tourism Activity
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Increased foreign travel
1950s - 2 million Europeans took holidays
abroad
1970s - 10 million abroad
France and Spain (Costas) made up 1/3 of
the market
Product - sun, sea and sand
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Trends in the 1980s and 1990s
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Move towards more flexible holiday
formats
Villas, timeshares, self-catering
Diverse Travel Formats:
Specialised Interest Areas
Further technological improvements in
Transportation
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Trends in the 1980s and 1990s
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Personalised packages:
• Long-haul destinations for mass package
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holidays (e.g., Florida)
Eco-tourism - environmentally aware
tourism
Growth in cultural and activity tourism
Growth in short-break tourism
• demise of the two-week summer holiday
• postmodern lifestyles
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Late 90’s and 21st Century
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Novelty and specialist tourism
New destinations, ‘man-made’ resorts
Greater segmentation of the market
ABILITY has increased - many have
more free time, greater disposable
income
MOBILITY has increased - improved
and cheaper travel technology
MOTIVATION has increased
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Late 90’s and 21st Century
Tourist Motivation
MOTIVATION to participate in tourism has
increased due to :
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Substantial media exposure - has greatly
raised consumer awareness
Perceived ‘need’ to escape the stress of
‘postmodern’ urban lifestyles
Recognition of frequent holidays as a
necessity, rather than a luxury
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Postmodern Tourism
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Postmodern culture, leisure and lifestyles –
new forms of consumer-orientated,
commodified leisure
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Leisure users are defined by their consumption
patterns
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Characteristics of Postmodernism
and Postmodern Leisure and Lifestyles
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Commodification
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Simulation and
hyperreality
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Consumer
sovereignty
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Fragmentation
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Time compression
Individualisation
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Style replaces
substance
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Characteristics of Postmodernism
with leisure examples
INDIVIDUALISATION
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Central leisure institutions
disappear
Postmodern leisure focuses
increasingly on individual
consumption at the expense
of traditional social group
and community activity
Relationships fluid. Networks
instead of community.
Socialities void of emotional
dependence
Leisure example
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Individualistic sports
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Independent and single travelling
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Electronic leisure games
(Playstation, Nintendo, GameBoy,
X-Box)
Videos and interactive DVDs
Home computing
Much home-based leisure – home
is compartmented into individual
‘leisure spaces’
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Characteristics of Postmodernism
with leisure examples
INDIVIDUALISATION
Leisure examples
(cont)
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Children having their own
rooms, TVs and PCs
Leisure shopping as
personal consumption
Personal trainers and
individualised fitness
workouts
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Lifestyle advisers
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Solitary consumption of
fast food replacing
traditional communal
family meal-times
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Relationships until further
notice
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Characteristics of Postmodernism
with leisure examples
FRAGMENTATION
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The inability to maintain established
boundaries, categories and
relationships
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Leisure examples
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Consumption and production
Work and home
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Private and public
Vast amounts of leisure choice (20screen multiplex cinemas; numerous
TV,satellite and cable channels)
Built-in obsolescence (fast cars,
designer clothes, consumer
electronics and software)
Ever more specialized consumer
products
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Shopping as leisure
Homeworking, housework,
DIY and leisure
Arts/entertainment
continuum
Leisure spaces in the home
High, low and popular
culture – blurring of
boundaries
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Characteristics of Postmodernism
with leisure examples
SIMULATION AND HYPERREALITY
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In postmodern leisure,
simulated, man-made,
contrived and inauthentic
experiences predominate
over the traditional and
authentic
Leisure examples
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Virtual reality in leisure
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Man-made tourist attractions and
resorts (Center Parcs, Sun City)
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Modern theme parks
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Disneyland
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Paintball
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‘Gladiators’
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Characteristics of Postmodernism
with leisure examples
COMMODIFICATION
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The transformation,
packaging and
marketing of a leisurerelated service into a
saleable ‘product’
Arts products, leisure
products, sports
products, tourism
products, etc.
Leisure examples
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Tourist package holidays
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Gym fitness packages
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Celebrity signings of CDs
at concerts
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The sale of sports
packages by cable, satellite
and internet
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Shopping as leisure
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Characteristics of Postmodernism
with leisure examples
COMMODIFICATION OF TIME
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Time in postmodern life is always in short supply
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Time can be exchanged for money through the purchase of
labour-saving devices, employing home helps, buying
convenience foods, etc
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This frees up time for use for leisure
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Time can be ‘bought’
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So time itself becomes a commodity
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BREAK!
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Postmodern Tourism: Staging
Authenticity
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Catering to the postmodern tourist who
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Seeks rapidly changing art/enter-/edutainment
Seeks extraordinary and individualistic experiences
Who expects experiences to be produced but
presented as real
Has not always time to cross the globe to visit.
Who has been socialized into consuming by gazing the tourist gaze is demanding
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The development of the tourist gaze
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Tourist landscapes are ‘consumed’ by
the tourist who ‘gazes’ upon them
The idea is of
• seeing as discovering
• interpreting the seen as aesthetically
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significant
and determine its difference to the mundane.
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The tourist gaze
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The ‘gaze’ is defined in terms of difference
Perceived strangeness (but only to tourist)
Exotic, pleasurable
Distinguished by semiotics - ‘signifiers’ and
symbolic icons – e.g., Eiffel Tower, the
Pyramids, Taj Mahal
rational work and seeks efficiency
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Authenticity
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The gaze is a construct
How authentic are the images consumed?
Tourism as pilgrimage – a quest for the
authentic
Authenticity versus ‘staged authenticity’
Staged authenticity protects hosts from
intrusion, yet allows commercial benefits
of tourism
Can any form of tourism be totally
inauthentic?
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Caves at Lascaux
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Caves at Lascaux
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Caves at Lascaux
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Romeo and Juliet in Verona
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Still there:
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Capello and Montecchi, the families that
Shakespeare turned into the Capulets
and Montagues
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Evidence is overwhelming:
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Shakespeare’s characters are fictitious.
Most scholars believe that Shakespeare simply
reworked an old drama by an Italian
playwright.
Lack of factual basis offset by imagination to fill
in the gaps left by documentation.
Entire package tours of tourists insist to see
the site of the most romantic episodes in all of
literature – the immortal balcony scene.
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Casa di Guilietta, situated at No.
27 Via Cappello
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Authenticity?
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Authenticity?
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Staged Authenticity?
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Hawaii
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1920
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Today
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Also Today: Hula Contest
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Staged Authenticity and Pseudo-Events:
Tourism as the Production and Consumption
of Simulation
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Producing the Lake District
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Nothing natural about it says “beautiful
tourist site”
So how come it is?
Answer: symbolic construction of
difference though signs and images and
cultural production in general.
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The “place myth” in three
stages:
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Discovery
Interpretation (capacity of being in, seeing, and
experiencing the site)
Management of the discourse
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What activities are allowed or appropriate
Physical and perceptual capacity
Aesthetic dimensions
Cultural hegemony (of taste, of language, mobility)
Create attractions
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Established place myths
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Stonehenge
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Lake District
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Place myth under construction:
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Summary
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History of tourism as the formation of the
tourist gaze
The patterns of tourism consumption TODAY
are indebted to the forces socializing the tourist
gaze.
The production of place requires symbolic and
cultural work!
Authenticity is a historical and cultural
construct.
Authenticity as attraction superseded by
staged authenticity as the attraction.
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Authenticity is a floating (ie., non-essential) concept
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