Past participles used
as adjectives
Mosaicos, p. 481
English past participle
The past participle of most English verbs are formed by adding –ed to
the infinitive form of the verb:
walk → walked
close → closed
talk → talked
● However, many English past participles are irregular:
sing → sung
write → written
eat → eaten
drink → drunk
Spanish past participle
The past participle is formed in Spanish by adding –ado to the stem of –
ar verbs and by adding –ido to the stem of –er, -ir verbs.
(-ar) verbs
cantar (to sing)
Past participle
(-er, -ir) verbs
Past participle
cantado
beber (to drink)
bebido
comprender
comprendido
bailar (to dance) bailado
(to understand)
andar (to walk)
andado
vivir (to live)
vivido
saltar (to jump)
saltado
reír (to laugh)
reído
Spanish irregular past participle
The Spanish verbs also have irregular past participle:
infinitive
Past
participle
infinitive
Past
participle
abierto
morir (to die)
muerto
cubrir (to cover)
cubierto
poner (to put)
puesto
decir (to say,tell)
dicho
abrir (to open)
descubrir (to
discover)
resolver (to
resolve)
descubierto romper
(to
roto
visto
break)
escribir (to
escrito
ver (to see)
hacer (to do)
hecho
volver (to come
write)
back)
resuelto
vuelto
Past participle used as an adjective
In Spanish as in English, the past participle can be used as an
adjective to modify a noun. The past participle as an adjective, must
agree in number and gender with the noun that it modifies:
Las puertas están cerradas
Los ejercicios están hechos
La ventana está rota
La cama está hecha
ESTAR + Past participle
The past participle in Spanish is normally used with the verb ESTAR to
describe conditions that are the result of a previous action.
Yo abrí la ventana. Ahora, la ventana está abierta.
Yo hice mi tarea. Ahora, mi tarea está hecha.
Yo pinté mis casas. Ahora mis casas están pintadas.
Práctica
Complete the following sentences with the correct verb:
Lucía está _____________ en el sofá.
A. dormido
B. dormida
C. hecho
D. hecha
Práctica (cont.)
Complete the following sentences with the correct verb:
Lucía está _____________ en el sofá.
A. dormido
B. dormida
C. hecho
D. hecha
Práctica (cont.)
Complete the following sentences with the correct verb:
Los estudiantes están _____________ en las sillas.
A. rotos
B. rotas
C. sentados
D. sentatas
Práctica (cont.)
Complete the following sentences with the correct verb:
Los estudiantes están _____________ en las sillas.
A. rotos
B. rotas
C. sentados
D. sentatas
Práctica (cont.)
Complete the following sentences with the correct verb:
Las matemáticas están _____________ en la pizarra.
A. escritos
B. escritas
C. bailados
D. bailadas
¡Buen trabajo!
Hoy hemos aprendido a usar los participios como
adjetivos.
Descargar

Past participle