```Introduction
The word “Computer” comes from compute.
Compute means calculation. But the definition
of computerComputer is an electronic device that
receives data or set of instructions, process
them and then gives the information. These
data or instruction are also known as input,
whereas information is termed as output.
Computer Architecture and Organization
History of Computer
 Near about 2000 years ago Greek mathematician invent
ABACUS for quick calculation.
 In the year of 1614 Napier invent logarithm.
 In the year of 1646-1716 Gottfried Leibniz invent Stepped
wheel calculation machine.
 In the year of 1791-1871 Charles Babbage invent a
calculating machine known as Difference Engine. With
help of this machine Addition, Subtraction, Multiplication,
Division & root over can possible. How can this machine
remember calculation he give an idea about Analytical
Engine. And new generation computer based on that
theory. So that Charles Babbage known as “FATHER OF
COMPUTER”.
History of Computer Hardware
Hardware
 Blaise Pascal, Used gears, could add
and subtract
1670's - Mechanical Calculator
 Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz, Could add,
subtract, multiply and divide
1801 - Jaquard's Loom
 Joseph-Marie Jacquard metal
punched cards, First "stored program"
program device
1822 - Difference Engine
 Charles Babbage. Designed to
compute polynomials. Used a stored
program. Abandoned in 1833.
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Charles Babage's (1791-1871)
Difference Engine
History of Computer Hardware
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183? Analytic Engine
Charles Babbage. General purpose algebraic
calculator. Used punched card program. Had a "store"
to hold Intermediate results and data. Supported by
Ada Augusta, the Countace of Lovelace.
1890 - Census Tabulator
Herman Hollerith invented modern punched card for
use in machine to help tabulate census. Formed
tabulating company that became IBM in 1924.
1942 - First Electronic computer
John Atanasoft at Iowa State University
1944 Mark I
Howard Aiken (supported by IBM). Electromechanical
computer. First realization of Babbage's Analytic
Engine.
1946 ENIAC (Electronic Numerical Integrator and
Computer)
J.P. Eckert and J.W. Mauchly at U. of Penn.
Used18000 vacuum tubes. Programmed by rewiring
circuits. 1000 x faster than Mark I
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Augusta Ada Byron, the Countess of
Lovelace, the first computer
programmer
History of Computer Hardware
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1890 - Census Tabulator
Herman Hollerith invented modern punched card
for use in machine to help tabulate census.
Formed tabulating company that became IBM in
1924.
1942 - First Electronic computer
John Atanasoft at Iowa State University
1944 Mark I
Howard Aiken (supported by IBM).
Electromechanical computer. First realization of
Babbage's Analytic Engine.
1946 ENIAC (Electronic Numerical Integrator and
Computer)
J.P. Eckert and J.W. Mauchly at U. of Penn.
Used18000 vacuum tubes. Programmed by
rewiring circuits. 1000 x faster than Mark I
1951 - UNIVAC (Universal Automatic Computer)
Eckert & Mauchly First commercially available
general purpose computer
ENIAC, a general purpose computer, designed
and built by Eckert and Mauchly and
completed in 1946.
History of Computer in India
 first time computer come to India in the year of
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1946.
But in the year of 1950 it established in Indian
Statistical Institute of Kolkata.
Personal Computer introduce in India in 1985.
Super Computer, PARAM is developed by CDAC, Puna.
Use of Micro-processor different company
Generation
of
Computer
Mainly it divided in two five part.
First Generation
 First generation time (1942-1956)
 In the 1st generation of computer
Vacuum tube was used.
 But it release heat and bigger in size.
 So that it proceed to next generation.
 Example of first generationEDVAC,EDSAC,UNIVAC etc.
Second Generation
 Second generation time (1956-1975)
 In the second generation computer
Transistor replaced Vacuum Tube.
 It was small size then 1st generation
but it also release heat.
 So it proceed to next generation.
 Example-IBM-1401 & LARC,IBM-7090
Third Generation
 Third Generation time (1946-1975)
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In 3rd generation computer Integrate circuit replaced
Transistor.
First time software introduce at this time.
But it was not satisfy the user.
So it was turn towards Third Generation.
Example of this generation computer-I.B.M.360.
Fourth Generation.
 Fourth Generation time (1975-1985).
 In this generation LSI (Large scale
integration), VLSI (Very large Scale
integrate) replaced Integrate Circuit.
 But it need something more.
 So it turn to last generation.
Fifth Generation
 Scientist research on that type of computer
which was work with your brain order and
mental condition.
 We can’t know the shape and work procedure.
But we guess that it’s technology based on
KIPS (knowledge Information Processing
System).
 JAPAN & USA work on this project.
Some Information About Modern Computer: Computer system may be categorised into two part-
Hardware- Hardware means the physical components of
computer.
Ex-Monitor, Mouse, CPU etc.
Software- Software includes all program or instruction that
are fed into the computer.
Ex- Narton Anti Virus, MS- Office etc.
 Computer Device are
Input Device- It transform data into a digital form that the
computer can process.
Ex-Keyboard. mouse. Trackball etc.
Output Device- it convert the electrical signals representing
information within a computer into a form that can exit
or be sensed outside the Computer.
Ex- Monitor, Printer, Sound Box etc.
History of the Programming Languages
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1940's - Rewire Circuits
Early 1950's - Machine Language: zeros and ones
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See Fritz Ruehr's simulator
1950's - Assembly Language
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Symbolic Version of Machine Language, Not Portable. Translated by
Assembler
Late 1950's - FORTRAN,
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Backus at IBM
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FORMula TRANSlator
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First High-Level Programming Language
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First Compiler
1960's - Simula
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Elements of Object-Oriented Languages
1970's
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Pascal, N. Wirth, Teaching Language
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C
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Language for Systems Programming.
Small and Fairly Portable.
Used to Implement Unix on PDP-11.
Thompson and Ritchie at Bell Labs.
History of the Programming Languages
 Small Talk
Fully Object-Oriented
 Interpreted and Slow
 Xerox Park
 1980's, C++
 Stroustrup at Bell Labs
 Evolved from C
 Large, Complex but Fairly Portable
 Java Programming Language
 Sun Microsystems 1995
 Evolved from C++ and SmallTalk
 Object-Oriented
 Completely Portable
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