AIM: What have archeologists discovered
about the early cities of the Indus River
valley?
Do Now: What is archeology? Why is it
important in studying history?
HW: Choose three objects that if found by
archeologists would describe who you are.
Draw these objects and explain why you
chose them.
Chapter 3:
Ancient Indian Civilizations
Harappan Excavations
Section 1: Indus River Valley Civilization
The Story Continues
Thousands of years ago near the Indus
River valley there existed a village called
Amri, whose citizens were makers of fine
pottery. Indus River valley people like
those in Amri helped lay the foundation for
cultures in the modern countries of
Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Nepal,
Pakistan, and Sri Lanka.
I. Geography and Climate
Indian civilization developed in the Indus
River valley about 4,500 years ago
A. Physical Geography
The Indian subcontinent extends south from
central Asia into the Indian Ocean
A. Physical Geography
High mountain ranges cut India off from
immigrants and invaders
A. Physical Geography
Two great rivers - the Ganges and Indus – rise
in the mountains and drain Indo-Gangetic Plain
A. Physical Geography
South of the I-G Plain is the Deccan Plateau,
bordered by the Eastern and Western Ghats
A. Physical Geography
Narrow coastal plains lie along the Arabian
Sea and the Bay of Bengal
A. Physical Geography
The peoples of these coastal plains became
sea traders
B. Climate
Two features dominate India’s climate:
monsoons and high temperatures
B. Climate
Monsoons - seasonal winds that blow from the
NE Nov. to Mar. and from the SW June to Oct.
B. Climate
The NE (dry) monsoon drops moisture on the
Himalayas before reaching India
B. Climate
The SW (wet) monsoon carries warm, moist
air from the Indian Ocean and brings heavy
rains
B. Climate
The wet monsoon brings most of the year’s
rainfall and is important for agriculture
20cm = 7.9in
100cm = 39.4in
400cm = 13.2ft
800cm = 26.3ft
1000cm = 32.8ft
B. Climate
If the wet monsoon arrives late or brings little
rain, crops fail; too much rain, flooding
destroys the countryside
B. Climate
Temperatures can reach 120ºF in the IndoGangetic Plain
Aurangabad, India
15 C = 59 F
30 C = 86 F
45 C = 113 F
II. Early Civilizations in the Indus River Valley
2500 BC to 1500 BC – the Harappan
Civilization developed in the Indus River valley
An artistic conception of ancient Lothal
II. Early Civilizations in the Indus River Valley
The named derives from one of the two
discovered cities - Harappa and Mohenjo
Daro ("Mound of the Dead“)
Early
settlements
date to 7000 BC
II. Early Civilizations in the Indus River Valley
Both cities were planned with wide streets,
water systems, public baths, and brick sewers
Ruins of Harappa
This map shows the layout of Mohenjo-Daro, one of the principal
cities of the Indus Valley civilization. The larger eastern area
contained the residential and commercial sections of the city, which
were laid out in a grid of large rectangular blocks. Rising more than
twenty feet to the west stood the citadel, built on a mound of mud
brick and rubble. Fortified by a brick wall and towers, the citadel
contained the city’s shrine, assembly hall, baths, and granary.
The Great Bath was entered using two wide staircases, one from the
north and one from the south. The floor of the tank is watertight due
to finely fitted bricks laid on edge with gypsum plaster.
II. Early Civilizations in the Indus River Valley
Each city had a strong central fortress, or
citadel, on a brick platform
Excavated ruins of Mohenjo-daro
II. Early Civilizations in the Indus River Valley
Storehouses for grain indicate careful
planning and a strong central government
Harappa granary
II. Early Civilizations in the Indus River Valley
Harappan farmers grew crops in irrigated
fields and raised livestock
Ceramic sculpture of a small cart
with vases and tools pulled by
oxen, from Mohenjo-daro
II. Early Civilizations in the Indus River Valley
As early as 2300 B.C., the Harappans traded
with the people of the Tigris-Euphrates valley
This seal, found in
Mesopotamia, indicates a
product was made in
Harappa, indicating trade
took place between the
two regions
Indus Valley Seals
II. Early Civilizations in the Indus River Valley
A written language was developed but it has
not been deciphered or connected to other
languages
II. Early Civilizations in the Indus River Valley
No temples or religious writings have been
found, just animal images and some evidence
of a mother goddess of fertility
Terracotta Figurines
II. Early Civilizations in the Indus River Valley
The Harappan civilization disappeared theories include changes in the Indus River,
earthquakes, or invasion
II. Early Civilizations in the Indus River Valley
Harappan Excavations
A Walk through Mohenjo-Daro
A Walk around Harappa
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Chapter 3: Ancient Indian Civilizations