Technology
Technology is a pool of freely available
information used to produce goods of value
(Public good).
Technology
Technology is a pool of freely available information used to produce goods of
Technology can also be defined
as the knowledge of a process.
value (Public good).
Technology
Technology is a pool of freely available information used to produce
goods of value (Public good). Technology can also be defined as the
This process could be the
process of producing a commodity, the
process of rendering a service, or the
process of managing an institution.
knowledge of a process.
Technology
Technology is a pool of freely available information used to produce
goods of value (Public good). Technology can also be defined as the
knowledge of a process. This process could be the process of
producing a commodity, the process of rendering a service, or the
Therefore it is a
dynamic rather than a static concept.
process of managing an institution.
Technology
Technology is a pool of freely available information used to produce
goods of value (Public good). Technology can also be defined as the
knowledge of a process. This process could be the process of
producing a commodity, the process of rendering a service, or the
process of managing an institution. Therefore it is a dynamic rather than
That is, it is a continuously
evolving process which requires adaptation
and modification on an ongoing basis.
a static concept.
Technology Transfers
Technology transfers occur through:
• Trade (goods and services as well direct
sales of factories and know-how)
• Lifestyle (TV, Movies, Internet)
• Business Methods
Technology: sectoral and regional impact
Technology transfer impacts:
• Urban communities
• Rural areas
Resource Bases for Industrialization
• Internal public resources include
government investments to create
infrastructures and to deliver essential
services
Resource Bases for Industrialization
•
Internal public resources include government investments to create
infrastructures and to deliver essential services
• Internal private resources, comprising local
businesspeople and entrepreneurs
Resource Bases for Industrialization
•
Internal public resources include government investments to create
infrastructures and to deliver essential services
•
Internal private resources, comprising local businesspeople and entrepreneurs
• External public resources include
supranational institutions such as the UN
Resource Bases for Industrialization
•
Internal public resources include government investments to create
infrastructures and to deliver essential services
•
Internal private resources, comprising local businesspeople and entrepreneurs
•
External public resources include supranational institutions such as the UN
• External private resources: the contributions
of international corporations
Technology Transfers: Positive and Negative Effects
Technology Transfer
Positive
Negative
Product Sales
(Consumer)
Upgrades Consumption
know how/consumer
education
Affordable only to affluent
segments
Product Sales
(Industrial)
Upgrades production
process technologies;
technician/engineering
skills; lowers per unit
production costs/prices
Licensing, technology
agreements; corporate R
& D efforts
Broadens, elevates
technology bases and
workforce vocational and
scientific skills
Banking and Financial
institutions
Mobilizes savings to create
investment markets for
public/private sector-stock
market capital;
consumer/installment credit
for individuals and
business
Displaces workers with
more intensive use of
capital
Wall-Mart effects on the
local businesses.
Only the wealthy benefit in
the short term and leads to
power concentrations;
possible unwanted foreign
influences encouraging
buyers to purchase goods
beyond their means.
Technology transfer
positive
negative
Local procurement of
materials and
components
Stimulus for private
enterprise/local
initiatives
Easier for other foreign
firms to meet
procurement quality
requirements
Establishment of
wholesale/retail
distribution systems
Creates distribution
infrastructure/expertise;
increases customer
exposures to modern
goods & services
Foreign control over
distribution; consumer
exposed to products that
are beyond their means to
purchase
Worker training in
technologies and
production know how
Upgrades labor skills and
vocational bases
For a minority only;
majority have insufficient
education
Management
training in
organizational know
how/methods
Increased managerial
education and efficiency
Financial and
accounting skills
Planning and budgetary
control
Only educated elites
benefit
Economic Development Effects on Institutions and Behaviors
1-- Change in Political Institutions:
Democratization
Economic Development Effects on Institutions and Behaviors
1-- Change in Political Institutions
2-- Change in Economic Institutions:
Economic Development Effects on Institutions and Behaviors
1-- Change in Political Institutions
2-- Change in Economic Institutions:
• Market oriented decision making
Economic Development Effects on Institutions and Behaviors
1-- Change in Political Institutions
2-- Change in Economic Institutions:
• Market oriented decision making
• Infrastructure must be replaced to
accommodate the new environment.
Economic Development Effects on Institutions and Behaviors
1-- Change in Political Institutions
2-- Change in Economic Institutions:
• Market oriented decision making
• Infrastructure must be replaced to
accommodate the new environment.
Economic Development Effects on Institutions and Behaviors
1-- Change in Political Institutions
2-- Change in Economic Institutions:
• Market oriented decision making
• Infrastructure must be replaced to accommodate the new environment.
• Tribal system would be replaced with
individualistic modes operandi
Economic Development Effects on Institutions and Behaviors
1-- Change in Political Institutions
2-- Change in Economic Institutions:
• Market oriented decision making
• Infrastructure must be replaced to accommodate the new environment.
• Tribal system would be replaced with individualistic modes operandi
• Migration to Urban areas
Economic Development Effects on Institutions and Behaviors
1-- Change in Political Institutions
2-- Change in Economic Institutions:
• Market oriented decision making
• Infrastructure must be replaced to accommodate the new environment.
• Tribal system would be replaced with individualistic modes operandi
• Migration to Urban areas
• Production base changes from Agriculture
to industrial
Economic Development Effects on Institutions and Behaviors
1-- Change in Political Institutions
2-- Change in Economic Institutions:
• Market oriented decision making
• Infrastructure must be replaced to accommodate the new environment.
• Tribal system would be replaced with individualistic modes operandi
• Migration to Urban areas
• Production base changes from Agriculture to industrial
• Landlords become share-holders
Economic Development Effects on Institutions and Behaviors
1-- Change in Political Institutions
2-- Change in Economic Institutions:
3-- Changes in cultural institutions
– Family systems change from extended to nuclear
Economic Development Effects on Institutions and Behaviors
1-- Change in Political Institutions
2-- Change in Economic Institutions:
3-- Changes in cultural institutions
– Family systems change from extended to nuclear
– Hereditary and seniority social class systems to
economically-based (income, wealth)
Economic Development Effects on Institutions and Behaviors
1-- Change in Political Institutions
2-- Change in Economic Institutions:
3-- Changes in cultural institutions
– Family systems change from extended to nuclear
– Hereditary and seniority social class systems to economically-based
(income, wealth)
– Gender orientations: patriarchal to egalitarian
Economic Development Effects on Institutions and Behaviors
1-- Change in Political Institutions
2-- Change in Economic Institutions:
3-- Changes in cultural institutions
– Family systems change from extended to nuclear
– Hereditary and seniority social class systems to economically-based
(income, wealth)
– Gender orientations: patriarchal to egalitarian
– Religiosity: declines with industrialization
Economic Development Effects on Institutions and Behaviors
1-- Change in Political Institutions
2-- Change in Economic Institutions:
3-- Changes in cultural institutions
– Family systems change from extended to nuclear
– Hereditary and seniority social class systems to economically-based
(income, wealth)
– Gender orientations: patriarchal to egalitarian
– Religiosity: declines with industrialization
– Education systems: from informal to formal
Economic Development Effects on Institutions and Behaviors
1-- Change in Political Institutions
2-- Change in Economic Institutions:
3-- Changes in cultural institutions
– Family systems change from extended to nuclear
– Hereditary and seniority social class systems to economically-based
(income, wealth)
– Gender orientations: patriarchal to egalitarian
– Religiosity: declines with industrialization
– Education systems: from informal to formal
– Cultural homogenization: the Melting Pot
Society
Economic Development Effects on Institutions and Behaviors
1-- Change in Political Institutions
2-- Change in Economic Institutions:
3-- Changes in cultural institutions
– Family systems change from extended to nuclear
– Hereditary and seniority social class systems to economically-based
(income, wealth)
– Gender orientations: patriarchal to egalitarian
– Religiosity: declines with industrialization
– Education systems: from informal to formal
– Cultural homogenization: the Melting Pot Society
– Social behaviors: conformist to individualistic
behaviors
Economic Development Effects on Institutions and Behaviors
1-- Change in Political Institutions
2-- Change in Economic Institutions
3-- Changes in cultural institutions
4-- Change in Social Behavior
• Conformist to Individualistic, We to Me
Economic Development Effects on Institutions and Behaviors
1-- Change in Political Institutions
2-- Change in Economic Institutions
3-- Changes in cultural institutions
4-- Change in Social Behavior
•
Conformist to Individualistic, We to Me
• Religion loses its grip
Economic Development Effects on Institutions and Behaviors
1-- Change in Political Institutions
2-- Change in Economic Institutions
3-- Changes in cultural institutions
4-- Change in Social Behavior
• Conformist to Individualistic, We to Me
• Religion loses its grip
• More delineated (defined) rules of law.
Economic Development Effects on Institutions and Behaviors
Individual Changes in Values and Behaviors
Interpersonal behaviors: insider-outsider
distinctions break down
Economic Development Effects on Institutions and Behaviors
Individual Changes in Values and Behaviors
 Interpersonal behaviors: insider-outsider distinctions break down
Individual values: Breakdown of traditional
values (formality, trust, dislike of change, risk,
fatalism, conformism) to modern values (low
levels of trust, formality; preferences for
efficiency, change, risk; self-help, individualism
encouraged)
Economic Development Effects on Institutions and Behaviors
Individual Changes in Values and Behaviors
 Interpersonal behaviors: insider-outsider distinctions break down
 Individual values: Breakdown of traditional values (formality, trust,
dislike of change, risk, fatalism, conformism) to modern values (low
levels of trust, formality; preferences for efficiency, change, risk; selfhelp, individualism encouraged)
How Individuals Adapt to Industrializing
Societies: The “Rat Race” Emulation Cycle:
Individuals migrate to towns and become
committed to jobs and urban lifestyles.
Impetus for Sustained Development: The “Rat Race”
Emulation Cycle
1. Industrializing society
uses economic criteria to
determine social position
Migration to towns,
young workers join
industrializing society
6. Work hard to emulate
of consumption patterns
of social superiors
“Demonstration Effect”
Exposure to new products,
media, lifestyles
5. Commitment to
industrial society
increases
2. Work becomes “means
to the end” work ethic
cultivated
3. Wages allow new
consumption patterns to
form and
4. Materialistic
behaviors take hold
Developmental Effects:Industry Behavior
– Supply chain development: orderly integration
of suppliers, manufacturers and distribution
systems
Developmental Effects:Industry Behavior
– Supply chain development: orderly integration of suppliers, manufacturers
and distribution systems
– National trade policies: From protectionist to
free trade economies
Developmental Effects:Industry Behavior
– Supply chain development: orderly integration of suppliers, manufacturers
and distribution systems
– National trade policies: From protectionist to free trade economies
– Local labor costs and availability: From
abundant low cost unskilled labor to high cost
skilled labor
Developmental Effects:Industry Behavior
– Supply chain development: orderly integration of suppliers, manufacturers and
distribution systems
– National trade policies: From protectionist to free trade economies
– Local labor costs and availability: From abundant low cost unskilled labor to high
cost skilled labor
– Infrastructure development:
• Physical: roads, ports
Developmental Effects:Industry Behavior
– Supply chain development: orderly integration of suppliers, manufacturers and
distribution systems
– National trade policies: From protectionist to free trade economies
– Local labor costs and availability: From abundant low cost unskilled labor to high
cost skilled labor
– Infrastructure development:
• Physical: roads, ports
• Financial: banking systems
Developmental Effects:Industry Behavior
– Supply chain development: orderly integration of suppliers, manufacturers and
distribution systems
– National trade policies: From protectionist to free trade economies
– Local labor costs and availability: From abundant low cost unskilled labor to high
cost skilled labor
– Infrastructure development:
• Physical: roads, ports
• Financial: banking systems
• Social: government support systems (cost to
employers in the form of taxes)
Developmental Effects:Industry Behavior
– Supply chain development: orderly integration of suppliers, manufacturers and
distribution systems
– National trade policies: From protectionist to free trade economies
– Local labor costs and availability: From abundant low cost unskilled labor to high
cost skilled labor
– Infrastructure development:
• Physical: roads, ports
• Financial: banking systems
• Social: government support systems (cost to employers in the
form of taxes)
• Education: training managerial and technical support.
• Government incentives, services, and influences
determine the direction and speed of development.
Developmental Effects:Industry Behavior
– Supply chain development: orderly integration of suppliers, manufacturers and
distribution systems
– National trade policies: From protectionist to free trade economies
– Local labor costs and availability: From abundant low cost unskilled labor to high
cost skilled labor
– Infrastructure development:
•
•
•
•
•
Physical: roads, ports
Financial: banking systems
Social: government support systems (cost to employers in the form of taxes)
Education: training managerial and technical support.
Government incentives, services, and influences determine the direction and speed of development.
– Demand Factors
Developmental Effects:Industry Behavior
–
–
–
–
Supply chain development:
National trade policies:
Local labor costs and availability:
Infrastructure development:
– Demand factors
• Market affluence increases: middle classes emerge
Developmental Effects:Industry Behavior
–
–
–
–
Supply chain development:
National trade policies:
Local labor costs and availability:
Infrastructure development:
– Demand factors
• Market affluence increases: middle classes emerge
• Market demand: aggregate supply > demand; as a
result marketing becomes more important
competitive tool to get rid of the excess supply
Developmental Effects:Industry Behavior
–
–
–
–
Supply chain development:
National trade policies:
Local labor costs and availability:
Infrastructure development:
– Demand factors
• Market affluence increases: middle classes emerge
• Market demand: aggregate supply>demand; marketing becomes important
competitive tool
• That means Media communications: more
commercial media
Developmental Effects:Industry Behavior
–
–
–
–
Supply chain development:
National trade policies:
Local labor costs and availability:
Infrastructure development:
– Demand factors
• Market affluence increases: middle classes emerge
• Market demand: aggregate supply>demand; marketing becomes important
competitive tool
• Media communications:more commercial media
• That necessitates urbanization: Rural to urban
population movements shift demand
Developmental Effects:Industry Behavior
–
–
–
–
Supply chain development:
National trade policies:
Local labor costs and availability:
Infrastructure development:
– Demand factors
• Market affluence increases: middle classes emerge
• Market demand: aggregate supply>demand; marketing becomes important
competitive tool
• Media communications:more commercial media
• Rural to urban population movements shift demand. This leads to
• Cultural diversity decreases: more homogeneous
demand
Developmental Effects on Industry: Business Practices
– Corporate behaviors
• From small scale, harmonious, output-oriented
firms to large scale, profit-oriented, competitive
organizations
Developmental Effects on Industry: Business Practices
– Corporate behaviors
– Management style changes
• Decision making: from orders given to employee
involvement
Developmental Effects on Industry: Business Practices
– Corporate behaviors
– Management style changes
• Decision making: from orders given to employee involvement
• Goal setting and planning: top-down to consensus
Developmental Effects on Industry: Business Practices
– Corporate behaviors
– Management style changes
• Decision making: from orders given to employee involvement
• Goal setting and planning: top-down to consensus
• Leadership styles: from autocratic to democratic
Developmental Effects on Industry: Business Practices
– Corporate behaviors
– Management style changes
• Decision making: from orders given to employee involvement
• Goal setting and planning: top-down to consensus
• Leadership styles: from autocratic to democratic
• Motivation methods: fear/punishment to
rewards/involvement
Developmental Effects on Industry: Business Practices
– Corporate behaviors
– Management style changes
• Decision making: from orders given to employee involvement
• Goal setting and planning: top-down to consensus
• Leadership styles: from autocratic to democratic
• Motivation methods: fear/punishment to rewards/involvement
• Management-worker interactions: few to frequent
Developmental Effects on Industry: Business Practices
– Corporate behaviors
– Management style changes
• Decision making: from orders given to employee involvement
• Goal setting and planning: top-down to consensus
• Leadership styles: from autocratic to democratic
• Motivation methods: fear/punishment to rewards/involvement
• Management-worker interactions: few to frequent
• Career progression: seniority/loyalty to objective
merit
Developmental Effects on Industry: Business Practices
– Corporate behaviors
– Management style changes
– Developmental effects on marketing practices
• Segmentation: ethnic/geographic to
income/demographic/psychographic criteria
Developmental Effects on Industry: Business Practices
– Corporate behaviors
– Management style changes
– Developmental effects on marketing practices
• Segmentation: ethnic/geographic to income/demographic/psychographic criteria
• Limited to extensive product lines
Developmental Effects on Industry: Business Practices
– Corporate behaviors
– Management style changes
– Developmental effects on marketing practices
• Segmentation: ethnic/geographic to income/demographic/psychographic criteria
• Limited to extensive product lines
• Urban-based marketing to national coverage
Developmental Effects on Industry: Business Practices
– Corporate behaviors
– Management style changes
– Developmental effects on marketing practices
• Segmentation: ethnic/geographic to
income/demographic/psychographic criteria
• Limited to extensive product lines
• Urban-based marketing to national coverage
• Price becomes a competitive marketing tool
Developmental Effects on Industry: Business Practices
– Corporate behaviors
– Management style changes
– Developmental effects on marketing practices
• Segmentation: ethnic/geographic to
income/demographic/psychographic criteria
• Limited to extensive product lines
• Urban-based marketing to national coverage
• Price becomes a competitive marketing tool
• Distribution: geographic to product specialization
Developmental Effects on Industry: Business Practices
– Corporate behaviors
– Management style changes
– Developmental effects on marketing practices
• Segmentation: ethnic/geographic to
income/demographic/psychographic criteria
• Limited to extensive product lines
• Urban-based marketing to national coverage
• Price becomes a competitive marketing tool
• Distribution: geographic to product specialization
• Marketing emphasis: distribution to demand
creation
Developmental Effects on Industry: Business Practices
– Corporate behaviors
– Management style changes
– Developmental effects on marketing practices
• Segmentation: ethnic/geographic to
income/demographic/psychographic criteria
• Limited to extensive product lines
• Urban-based marketing to national coverage
• Price becomes a competitive marketing tool
• Distribution: geographic to product specialization
• Marketing emphasis: distribution to demand creation
• Market research becomes important
Developmental Effects on Consumer Behavior
 Purchasing roles change from patriarchal to
egalitarian as families acquire purchasing power
and buy more products
Developmental Effects on Consumer Behavior
 Purchasing roles change from patriarchal to egalitarian as families acquire
purchasing power and buy more products
 Sources of information change from personal to
commercial media
Developmental Effects on Consumer Behavior

Purchasing roles change from patriarchal to egalitarian as families acquire
purchasing power and buy more products
 Sources of information change from personal to commercial media
 Branding: becomes important to consumers and
firms
Developmental Effects on Consumer Behavior
 Purchasing roles change from patriarchal to egalitarian as families acquire
purchasing power and buy more products
 Sources of information change from personal to commercial media
 Branding: becomes important to consumers and firms
 Labor saving products (refrigerators, canned,
frozen foods) become important as more women
work
Developmental Effects on Consumer Behavior
 Purchasing roles change from patriarchal to egalitarian as families acquire
purchasing power and buy more products
 Sources of information change from personal to commercial media
 Branding: becomes important to consumers and firms
 Labor saving products (refrigerators, canned, frozen foods) become important
as more women work
 Retail outlet options increase (supermarkets,
departmental stores) and consumption patterns
change (bulk-buying)
Developmental Effects on Consumer Behavior
 Purchasing roles change from patriarchal to egalitarian as families acquire
purchasing power and buy more products
 Sources of information change from personal to commercial media
 Branding: becomes important to consumers and firms
 Labor saving products (refrigerators, canned, frozen foods) become important
as more women work
 Retail outlet options increase (supermarkets, departmental stores) and
consumption patterns change (bulk-buying)
 Merchandising and packaging: viewed as
important and become primary marketing tools
Developmental Effects on Consumer Behavior
 Purchasing roles change from patriarchal to egalitarian as families acquire
purchasing power and buy more products
 Sources of information change from personal to commercial media
 Branding: becomes important to consumers and firms
 Labor saving products (refrigerators, canned, frozen foods) become important
as more women work
 Retail outlet options increase (supermarkets, departmental stores) and
consumption patterns change (bulk-buying)
 Merchandising and packaging: viewed as important and become primary
marketing tools
Means of purchase: credit/debit replace cash
Industrialization, Modernization, and Integration into the
Regional and Global Economies
Globalization Process
• Stage 1: Traditional Pre-industrial
Societies: communistic, self-sufficient,
agricultural, autocratic, culturally
heterogeneous, hereditary social classes,
traditional manufacturing
Industrialization, Modernization, and Integration into the
Regional and Global Economies
Globalization Process
•
Stage 1: Traditional Pre-industrial Societies
• Stage 2: Industrialization and
Modernization Processes: development of:
market forces system; regional then
national markets as infrastructure develops;
government health and welfare systems,
financial systems, democracies, national
cultures, modern factory methods
Country Development, Industrialization,
Modernization, and Integration into the Regional and
Global Economies
•
•
Stage 1: Traditional Pre-industrial Societies
Stage 2: Industrialization and Modernization Processes
• Stage 3: Postindustrial Economies: mature,
service-oriented economies, internationally
involved, politically, economically very
competitive; large, specialized firms—
customer-oriented
Country Development, Industrialization,
Modernization, and Integration into the Regional and
Global Economies
•
•
•
Stage 1: Traditional Pre-industrial Societies
Stage 2: Industrialization and Modernization Processes
Stage 3: Postindustrial Economies
• Stage 4: Regionally and Globally Involved
Societies: members of trade blocs and global
bodies; source and sell worldwide—deeply
involved in global economy; regional media,
products, currencies, cultures,
infrastructures
Obstacles to Economic Development
 Industrialization Process Impediments
 Population migration problems:over-urbanization;
towns are melting pots
Obstacles to Economic Development
 Industrialization Process Impediments
 Population migration problems:over-urbanization; towns are melting pots
 Worker frustration: low-paid unskilled work
Obstacles to Economic Development
 Industrialization Process Impediments
 Population migration problems:over-urbanization; towns are melting pots
 Worker frustration: low-paid unskilled work
 Worker adjustment problems: rural lifestyles vs.
regimented factory disciplines
Obstacles to Economic Development
 Industrialization Process Impediments
 Population migration problems:over-urbanization; towns are melting pots
 Worker frustration: low-paid unskilled work
 Worker adjustment problems: rural lifestyles vs. regimented factory
disciplines
 Geographic Impediments
Resource impediments: lack of consistent
agriculture, energy sources, minerals
Obstacles to Economic Development
 Industrialization Process Impediments

 Population migration problems:over-urbanization; towns are melting pots
 Worker frustration: low-paid unskilled work
 Worker adjustment problems: rural lifestyles vs. regimented factory disciplines
Geographic Impediments
 Resource impediments: lack of consistent agriculture, energy sources, minerals
Geographic location: affects climate,
infrastructure development, trading route access
Obstacles to Economic Development
 Industrialization Process Impediments
 Geographic Impediments
Ethnic and Linguistic Composition:
Common languages must develop for
economic development/coordination to
occur; dominant ethnic language, colonial
language
Obstacles to Economic Development
 Industrialization Process Impediments
 Geographic Impediments
 Ethnic and Linguistic Composition: Common languages must develop for
economic development/coordination to occur; dominant ethnic language,
colonial language
 Institutional Resistance to Change
 Political Resistance: incumbent politicians resist
change
Obstacles to Economic Development
 Industrialization Process Impediments
 Geographic Impediments
 Ethnic and Linguistic Composition: Common languages must develop for
economic development/coordination to occur; dominant ethnic language,
colonial language
 Institutional Resistance to Change
 Political Resistance: incumbent politicians resist change
 Economic Resistance: privileged families, firms
(SOEs)
Obstacles to Economic Development
 Industrialization Process Impediments
 Geographic Impediments
 Ethnic and Linguistic Composition: Common languages must develop for
economic development/coordination to occur; dominant ethnic language,
colonial language
 Institutional Resistance to Change
 Political Resistance: incumbent politicians resist change
 Economic Resistance: privileged families, firms (SOEs)
 Cultural Resistance: religion (to westernization);
education (humanities-based versus science/technology);
rigid class system (old money);
ethnic or tribal divisions
Obstacles to Economic Development


Industrialization Process Impediments
Geographic Impediments
Ethnic and Linguistic Composition: Common
languages must develop for economic
development/coordination to occur; dominant
ethnic language, colonial language
 Institutional Resistance to Change
 Political Resistance: incumbent politicians resist change
 Economic Resistance: privileged families, firms (SOEs)
 Cultural Resistance: religion (to westernization); education
(humanities-based versus science/technology); rigid class system
(old money); ethnic or tribal divisions
Key Points
 Economic development causes changes in country
political, economic and cultural institutions, and
in individual values, attitudes and behaviors
Key Points


Economic development causes changes in country political, economic and
cultural institutions, and in individual values, attitudes and behaviors
Technology transfers by international
corporations contribute to
modernization and westernization
Key Points
 Economic development causes changes in country political, economic and
cultural institutions, and in individual values, attitudes and behaviors
 Technology transfers by international corporations contribute to
modernization and westernization

Individuals migrate to become part of
the modern
Key Points
 Economic development causes changes in country political, economic and
cultural institutions, and in individual values, attitudes and behaviors
 Technology transfers by international corporations contribute to
modernization and westernization
 Individuals migrate to become part of the modern society

Economic development causes change
in industry demand and supply chain
Key Points

Economic development causes changes in country political, economic and
cultural institutions, and in individual values, attitudes and behaviors
 Technology transfers by international corporations contribute to
modernization and westernization
 Individuals migrate to become part of the modern society
 Economic development causes change in industry demand and supply chain

Corporate behaviors alter to emphasize
profit-oriented, competitive behaviors,
and participative corporate cultures
Key Points
 Economic development causes changes in country political, economic and
cultural institutions, and in individual values, attitudes and behaviors
 Technology transfers by international corporations contribute to
modernization and westernization
 Individuals migrate to become part of the modern society
 Economic development causes change in industry demand and supply chain
 Corporate behaviors alter to emphasize profit-oriented, competitive behaviors,
and participative corporate cultures

Consumer behaviors change as
companies become more sophisticated
and aggressive in their marketing
efforts
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Technology Transfer: Positive and Negative Effects