Audio Visual Media:
media attributes and impact
This presentation is designed to introduce you to a range of audio
visual communication media, and to demonstrate how media may
vary but the information and even the form of the information may
remain the same.
This lecture is backed up with more detailed information that has
been placed at the course web-site:
http://www.hull.ac.uk/php/edskas/
Audio Visual Media:
media attributes and impact
The story so far:
Pavlov introduced the idea that animals (including human beings)
were born with certain innate reflexes that enabled them to deal
with their environment, but that they extended their repertoires of
behaviour through the process of conditioning.
Watson extended this idea, suggesting that appropriate scheduling
of conditioning can turn any child into “surgeon, beggar or thief”.
Thorndike proposed a number of laws of learning that could be
applied to the classroom to make education more efficient.
Audio Visual Media:
media attributes and impact
The story so far:
Thorndike also suggested that a teacher was such a valuable
resource that s/he should not be used when “a couple of sheets of
paper or a phonograph record” would do the job.
He also suggested that a machine should be constructed that would
only move on to page 2 when the pupil had completed the tasks
given on page one.
This idea was extended by Skinner in 1954, with the development of
programmed learning. The techniques evolved by the Programmed
Learning movement were shown to be highly effective.
Many of these techniques can still be found in modern computerbased programmes.
Audio Visual Media:
media attributes and impact
The story so far:
Thorndike was also a supporter of the audio-visual approach to
learning, which involved realistic presentations using phonographs,
slides and films.
Audio Visual Media:
media attributes and impact
The following movie clip illustrates a variety of different media: as
you watch the film clip, make a note of the different media used,
and think about how such media have changed (or remained the
same) in the classrooms of today.
Having watched the clip, produce a simple method for classifying
media.
Audio Visual Media:
media attributes and impact
Click the image
to start the
movie
Click here
to go to
next slide
Audio Visual Media:
media attributes and impact
What are the different media used, and how have such media
changed (or remained the same) in the classrooms of today?
Is it possible to produce a simple method for classifying media?
Audio Visual Media:
media attributes and impact
When viewing the next sequence think about how this differs from
the previous approach, and how it fits into a classification scheme
for media.
Click the image
to start the
movie
Click here
to go to
next slide
Audio Visual Media:
media attributes and impact
Again, when viewing the next sequence think about how this differs
from the previous approach, and how it fits into a classification
scheme for media.
Click the image
to start the
movie
Click here
to go to
next slide
Audio Visual Media:
media attributes and impact
Summary:
The first sequence with the young children is a teacher paced lesson
using a filmstrip projector and tape recorder; the lesson also uses
the “flannel” board and real objects. It is an interactive lesson,
under the direction of the teacher, and places a great deal of
emphasis on oral communication, with pictorial support; text is not
important in this lesson. There are opportunities for individualised
learning, but this is limited.
Audio Visual Media:
media attributes and impact
Summary:
The second sequence with the older children is, again, a teacher
paced lesson mainly using tape recordings; the lesson could also use
overhead projector transparencies (although this is not shown in the
clip) for visual support. It is an interactive lesson, under the
direction of the teacher, and the emphasis is on oral communication,
with little pictorial support. There are more opportunities for
individualised learning or small group learning.
Audio Visual Media:
media attributes and impact
Summary:
The final sequence with the adults is also a teacher paced lesson
using tapes and, where necessary, visual support from OHPs. It is a
highly interactive lesson, under the direction of the teacher, and the
emphasis is on oral communication with extensive opportunities for
individualised learning.
Audio Visual Media:
media attributes and impact
Summary:
So, a classification scheme could look something like this:
teacher paced
Visual display
Audio presentation
Human interaction
individualised instruction
Audio Visual Media:
media attributes and impact
Summary:
For the first clip the scheme would be:
teacher paced
Visual display
√
Audio presentation
√
Human interaction
√
individualised instruction
Audio Visual Media:
media attributes and impact
Summary:
For the second clip the scheme would be:
teacher paced
Visual display
√
Audio presentation
√
Human interaction
√
individualised instruction
√
Audio Visual Media:
media attributes and impact
Summary:
The third scheme would be:
teacher paced
individualised instruction
Visual display
√
Audio presentation
√
√
Human interaction
√
√
Audio Visual Media:
media attributes and impact
Summary:
Rowntree, Derek (1982) Educational technology in curriculum
development. London : Harper and Row. (JIB R8)
Realia
Pictorial
Written symbols
Sound recordings
Human interaction
Audio Visual Media:
media attributes and impact
Summary:
Rowntree, Derek (1982) Educational technology in curriculum
development. London : Harper and Row. (JIB R8)
Realia
Pictorial
Written symbols
Sound recordings
Human interaction (machine interactions?)
Audio Visual Media:
media attributes and impact
What are the main attributes of the following media?
Click the image
to start the
movie
Click here
to go to
next slide
Audio Visual Media:
media attributes and impact
What are the main attributes of the following media?
Film and video have the capacity to encompass the “modes” of
pictures (still and moving), text symbols and recorded sound. The
particular attribute of these media, that makes them more capable
of representing a closer approximation to reality, is motion.
The aim of early audio visual theorists was to bring “reality” to the
student because it would produce greater learning and
understanding.
Do you think this is the case?
Audio Visual Media:
broadcast media (radio)
Click the image
to start the
movie
Can the
programme
teachers learn
something while
they teach the
younger children?
That’s a good
question: we found
that while the child
is teaching… he is
learning more as
an older pupil
Click here
to go to
next slide
Audio Visual Media:
broadcast media (radio)
Research clearly indicates that radio is effective in instruction.
Experimental studies comparing radio teaching with other means
or media have found radio as effective as the so-called “conventional
methods”. Even though radio has been criticized for being
only an audio medium, studies have shown that visual elements
in learning are not uniformly important. In many educational
situations visuals may be more harmful than helpful. Also, the
efficiency of combined audio and visual media has been challenged
by studies which show that multi-channel communications
may not be inherently more effective than single channel
presentations.
Forsythe, R.D. (1970) Instructional Radio: a position paper.
Stanford University. ERIC ED 044 933
Audio Visual Media:
broadcast media (satellite television)
National Defence
Education Act
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to go to
next slide
Audio Visual Media:
broadcast media (satellite television)
National Defence Education Act:
National Defense Education Act (NDEA), federal legislation passed in 1958
providing aid to education in the United States at all levels, public and private.
NDEA was instituted primarily to stimulate the advancement of education in
science, mathematics, and modern foreign languages; but it has also provided aid
in other areas, including technical education, area studies, geography, English as a
second language, counseling and guidance, school libraries and librarianship, and
educational media centers. The act provides institutions of higher education with
90% of capital funds for low-interest loans to students. NDEA also gives federal
support for improvement and change in elementary and secondary education. The
act contains statutory prohibitions of federal direction, supervision, or control over
the curriculum, program of instruction, administration, or personnel of any
educational institution.
Audio Visual Media:
broadcast media (satellite television)
Jan. 31, 1958 First U.S. satellite, Explorer I, is sent into orbit.
July 15, 1958 Eisenhower orders U.S. Marines into Lebanon at the request of
President Camille Chamoun.
July 29, 1958 Eisenhower signs bill creating the National Aeronautics and Space
Administration.
Sept. 2, 1958 President Eisenhower signs the National Defence Education Act,
providing loans for college students and funds to encourage young people to enter
teaching careers.
Nov. 1958 to early 1959 Khrushchev indicates that he plans to sign an early peace
treaty with East Germany and he calls on the western powers to withdraw their
forces from West Berlin. The Big Four meet to discuss Berlin and German
reunification
Audio Visual Media:
broadcast media (satellite television)
1962: Telestar 1 launched. Transmits first live trans-Atlantic telecasts between USA
and Britain.
Audio Visual Media:
broadcast media (satellite television)
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to go to
next slide
Audio Visual Media:
Individualising learning
(the Audio-tutorial approach: independent study session)
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to go to
next slide
Audio Visual Media:
Individualising learning
(the Audio-tutorial approach: general assembly session)
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to go to
next slide
Audio Visual Media:
Individualising learning
(the Audio-tutorial approach: integrated quiz session)
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to go to
next slide
Audio Visual Media:
Audio Visual Media:
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Early Learning Theories