Citing and referencing: a best practice guide Class Objectives • Produce a bibliography using appropriate citation standards including: • Demonstrating an awareness of what plagiarism is and how to avoid it • Formatting citations according to conventions in their discipline. • Use reference management software such as Endnote or a web based one, e.g. Zotero. Why do we need to cite? • To acknowledge the work of other writers; quoting without plagiarising • To demonstrate the body of knowledge on which you have based your work • To enable other researchers to trace your sources and lead them on to further information • A standard system of citing ensures an easier system of tracing knowledge more efficiently. • The bibliography for your dissertation represents the results of your literature search - you may wish to discuss your search method in the text of your dissertation e.g., in the ‘methodology’ section or chapter. Contradictions in academic writing • Provide evidence of research, but … write something new and original. • Appeal to experts and authorities, but … improve upon or disagree with experts and authorities. • Improve your English by using the structures and vocabulary you hear and read, but … use your own words, create your own voice. • Give credit/acknowledgement where necessary, but … make your own significant contribution. Your Research • Your thesis is expected to be original research – you need to find a niche • But your work doesn’t happen in isolation! • In many subjects you will need a literature review as one of your key chapters • You can BUILD on previous work – but it must be properly acknowledged. • Literature review vs systematic review Key points to remember • ToDon’t paraphrase (i.e.: put another author’s forget: ideas/words into your own) – a paraphrase must be cited • If you quote text, indicate what is quoted and where it comes from • If you use ideas or any other intellectual property belonging to someone else, acknowledge your source • If the facts are common knowledge there is no need to provide a citation but if you are in any doubt it is better to be safe and cite our source Examples of plagiarism • • • • • • • • • Cutting and pasting from other documents. Quoting without quotation marks or references. Paraphrasing without referencing. Summarising without referencing. Using an image, source and/or diagram without referencing. Taking another student’s ideas and passing them off as your own. Re-cycling your own work which has been submitted for assessment elsewhere. Collaborating on what should be individual work. Translating a document from another language Tips for collecting references • Devise a method that allows ease of sorting and retrieving • organise by subject / alphabetically / by date • organise electronically? Endnote? • Note relevant information at the first opportunity and at the appropriate level of detail – saves time in the long run!! • Note the quality / the relevance of the source Organising your references • My References options catalogues or databases • Delicious for websites • Zotero (firefox plug in) • Mendeley, Cite-U-Like, Connotea • EndNote • Use EndNote to build a store of references • Use EndNote to interact with Word and create automatic bibliographies Basics of EndNote • • • • Opening an EndNote Library Searching the Catalogue using EndNote Creating and editing records Importing records Information needed • Search for a book on the library catalogue. • Search for a journal article • How should you cite these in-text and in your bibliography? • What details are important? • Record in your workbook Citing web pages Include the following information 1. 2. 3. 4. Author (might be an organisation not a person), Title of page Date (may have no date) Date accessed. URL Many different types of resources on the web • • • An online journal article A working paper A home page or website more generally If you’ve read a pdf of an article online e.g. via JSTOR just treat this as a journal article, not a webpage Citing Theses Include the following information 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Author Theses title Year of theses Institution presenting the theses City where the institution is based Level of theses e.g. PhD-not always necessary 7. Academic Department-not always necessary Citing Archive Materials Archive materials can vary widely 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Author or creator's name Title of the work Date Publication information Collection name Box and folder Repository. i.e. archive/private collection etc Group under collection rather than individual author of particular MSS-this is because often such materials don't have individual authors Citing fieldwork • Primary sources such as interview data may be cited using Harvard, but discuss with your supervisor – sometimes they are not included in the References list/Bibliography • May be confidential • Add to your appendix, not bibliography • Example of citing interviews: Peters, M. Personal interview. 22 June 2004. Cohan, S. Telephone interview. 23 April 2004. • Citation method – in text or footnotes • Bibliographic styles The Harvard citation system • • • • • This system is recommended at LSE for theses* Confusingly, sometimes called the Harvard style – but this is the Harvard style of referencing, not a bibliographical style It is a method of citing in-text using author-date with bibliographical references at the end in alphabetical order by author. So, you can have the author-date in-text (Harvard system) citations using the APA style, the Chicago style, etc. A second system = the Vancouver or Numbered system = in-text citation using a number with bibliographical list at end in numerical order A third system = footnotes with footnote references or bibliography at the end * Apart from the Law Department who recommend footnotes, Check your departmental MSc handbook! What about formatting & word order? • Now you’ve collected your references what formatting should you choose? • Bibliographic style is a personal choice and different to the Harvard system • It is about whether titles are italicized, authors full names or initials are included • There are lots of these to choose from or you can create your own • Look at other theses from your Department and follow precedents for your discipline • Be consistent! • EndNote will do a lot of the hard work for you if you use this. Bibliographic styles • There are over 3000 bibliographic styles supported by EndNote! The most well known include: • Chicago (known also as Turabian) Commonly used in history and the natural sciences • American Psychological Association (APA) Commonly used in psychology and the social sciences • Modern Languages Association (MLA) Commonly used in the humanities - especially the fields of literature and languages Formatting books-some examples APA (Bryson, 1995, p.12) Bryson, B. (1995). Notes from a small island. London: Black Swan. Chicago (Bryson 1995, 12) Bryson, Bill. Notes from a small island. London : Black Swan, 1995. Formatting journal articles-some examples APA Style (Secker, 1997, p. 53) Secker, J. (1997). The digital library: a new perspective. Journal of Documentation 13(2), 53-65 Chicago Style (Secker 1997, 53) Secker, Jane. (1997). The digital library: a new perspective. Journal of Documentation 13 (2): 53-65. Formatting book chapterssome examples APA Style: Ullestad, N. (1992). Diverse rock rebellions subvert mass media hegemony. In R. Garofalo (Ed.), Rockin' the boat: mass music and mass movements (pp.23-45). Boston: South End Press Chicago Style: Ullestad, Neal. “Diverse rock rebellions subvert mass media hegemony,” In Rockin' the boat: mass music and mass movements, ed. R. Garofalo, 23-45. Boston: South End Press, 1992. Formatting web pages-some examples APA Freedland, J. (2004, June 8). Please, no more 1960s. Retrieved 9 June 2004, from Guardian Unlimited Website: http://www.guardian.co.uk/ Chicago Freedland, Jonathan. 2004, June 8. Please, no more 1960s. Guardian Unlimited. http://www.guardian.co.uk/Columnists/Column/ 0,5673,1234380,00.html (accessed 9 June 2004). Formatting theses-some examples APA Baker, M. S. (1994). The Parents' Music Resource Center : symbolic conflict amidst structural decay in the United States. University of Exeter, Exeter. Chicago Baker, Mark S. 1994. The Parents' Music Resource Center : symbolic conflict amidst structural decay in the United States, Department of Sociology, University of Exeter, Exeter. EndNote • Selecting a style • Creating a bibliography in Word • Troubleshooting Additional tips • Quoting Quoting • If you use a direct quotation from an author you should make this clear with quotation marks • You should include the page number/s • If a quote is more than two lines of text indent the quote. • Use three full stops to indicate any omitted text but be careful not to change the meaning • Be careful of longer quotes Short quotation Example of short quotation: Patton (1995, p. 6) believes that “…evaluation is an essential part of qualitative research” and this could be argued to form the basis of his work. Long quotation Longer quotes are indented: Several studies have been written in this field of research methodology and it has been argued that: “…evaluation is an essential part of qualitative research and should be considered before the researcher begins to undertaken their fieldwork. Moreover, it is a crucial stage in the process”. (Patton, 1995, p. 6) Creating your bibliography • If you use EndNote, it does a lot of the hard work for you • Need to decide how to arrange references: alphabetical, by type of resource • Separate primary / secondary sources? • Separate print / electronic not usually necessary • Look for examples in your department Further help • Library offer classes throughout the year, so do come back if you need a refresher • Listen to the podcast • Lots of resources in Moodle • Language Centre and Teaching & Learning Centre can offer help and advice with writing advice e.g. paraphrasing, improving your English, so you can put what you read into your own words. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons AttributionNonCommercial 2.5 License.