A Brief History (Migration):
Indo-European
(4000 BCE – 1000 BCE)
VJ Servera, Nathaniel Dwarika,
and Zach Gunnz
Maps/ Charts/ Images
Concerning Indo-European Migration
The purple section is the
region that the IndoEuropeans covered. This
map shows the IndoEuropeans in relation to
major groups such as the
Uralic and Altaic peoples.
This chart called the August
Schleicher's Family Tree
shows the relationships
between the Indo-European
languages as depicted on the
branches of the tree. They
are all believed to have
started from the Proto-IndoEuropean language, which is
commonly abbreviated as
PIE.
This map shows the
estimated spread and origin
of the Indo-European
languages. The probable
origin is believed to be in
Anatolia, between the Black
Sea and the Caspian Sea.
Then it spread outwards in
almost all directions.
This map shows the Indo-European languages
across various countries. This is the believed spread
of these languages at 3000 BCE. The extent clearly
shows that the Indo-European languages
encompassed a large group ranging from Iceland to
parts of India.
This chart shows the origins and
branches of the Indo-European
languages. All originate from the
Proto-Indo-European language.
There are numerous languages,
some of which are no longer
spoken.
This chart compares
words across various
languages that belong
to the Indo-European
group.
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Chronology
4000 BCE – 3500 BCE: Proto-Indo-European areal dialects being to form into two dialectal groups:
- Group 1) future Venetic, Illyrian, Anatolian, Tocharic, Italic and Celtic groups.
- Group 2) Indo-Iranian, Greek, Baltic, Slavic, Germanic, Armenian, and Thraco-Phrygian
languages.
3500 BCE: The Anatolian subgroup suddenly begins to move apart and migrates to the Asia Minor.
2500 BCE: The Indo-Europeans first appear in Europe.
2250 BCE: The Achaeans (first Hellenic tribes) arrive in Greece.
2100 BCE: The Hittites and Luwians (part of the Anatolian branch) begin to settle in East Asia
Minor.
2100 BCE: Celtic tribes begin to arrive in Europe.
2000 BCE: Italic tribes begin to settle in Italy.
2000 BCE: Doric Greek tribes begin to settle in Illyria (northern Balkans).
1900 BCE: Mycenae (the first Indo-European civilization in Europe) is founded by Achaeans in
Greece.
1700 BCE: Aryans invade North India and destroy Mohenjo-Daro (Harappa city settlement).
1700 BCE – 1350 BCE: The Aryans settle as one of the nations of the Mitanni Empire.
1600 BCE: The Old Hittite Kingdom is founded and developed.
1475 BCE: The Indo-European Achaeans invade and conquer Eastern Crete, and this sparks the
beginning of wide Hellenic expansion in the Mediterranean.
1450 BCE: The Hittites unite vast Anatolian lands into the New Hittite Kingdom.
Chronology Continued
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1400 BCE: The Celts first arrive in Spain and mainly occupy the northern regions.
1400 BCE: The Achaeans begin to appear on Cyprus.
1400 BCE: The Slavs become an independent ethnic group and settle between the Oder and
Dnieper rivers.
1300 BCE: The Illyrians begin to migrate south from Pannonia (modern Hungary) to Dalmatia
(modern Croatia, Serbia, and Bosnia)
1250 BCE: Phrygians from the Balkans begin to enter the Asia Minor, and a chain reaction of
migrations begin.
1250 BCE: The Baltic peoples begin to migrate northwards and eastwards.
1230 BCE: The “Sea Peoples” (included Achaeans) destroy the Hittite Kingdom and begin to
invade Syria, Palestine, and Egypt.
1200 BCE: Achaeans begin to migrate to Crete, Cyprus, and the Asia Minor.
1200 BCE: Celts gradually become the most powerful nation in Northern Europe and spread over
France (Gaul), Germany, Low Countries, the Alps, and even the Iberian peninsula.
1200 BCE: The Illyrians begin to arrive in South Italy.
1200 BCE: Doric tribes (the Hellenic group of the Indo-European family) begin migrating south
from the Balkans and invade Greece and soon destroy the Mycenaean civilization.
1100 BCE: The Thracian people arrive in the Balkans, and a new wave of Italics arrive in Italy.
1000 BCE: Indo European groups begin to move into the Ganges plain.
India
Political:
Intellectual:
• The Aryans were nomadic living in the far reaches of Euro-Asia in
hostile steppe lands barely scratching out a living. The tribe was
very war-like.
 They were a tribal people ruled over by a war-chief, known as a raja.
• After the Aryans migrated into India and began to settle in the Indus
Valley a start of a new Indian culture known as Vedic civilization,
began.
• Vedic Sanskrit, the earliest known language of the Aryans, were
used in the ancient preserved texts of the Indian subcontinent, the
foundational canon of Hinduism known as the Vedas. Yajur Veda:
• The Yajur Veda focuses mainly on hymns that concern sacrifices. It
tells about the knowledge the Aryans had acquired about sacrifices.
Since it is of a later date then the Rig Veda, it reflects the changes in
society that have taken place since that period.
Religion:
Art/Architecture:
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• The Aryans built no colossal monuments ; however, caves of Ajanta
and Ellora, much of Buddhist architecture, were directly influenced
by the simple village structures of the Aryan villages.
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Early Aryan religion is believed to be dominated by god called
named “Dyaus”.
Dyaus was believed to enjoin warfare and conquest.
Technology:
Economy:
• Aryan technology just as the development of war chariots spread
throughout Europe.
• Rode on horseback in battle which gave them an advantage over
their enemies who were on foot.
• Developed in irrigation from the need of agriculture.
• Wore armor of bronze such as helms, and had bronze shields.
• Over time the Aryan’s participated in agriculture and raised
domesticated animals such as cattle, sheep, and goats. They also
farmed crops, and traded with other tribes, as well as with their
non-Aryan neighbors.
• The most important indicator to of wealth among the Aryans was
the number of cattle that an individual owned.
• The main crops farmed were rice and barley.
Society:
Facts:
• Four rigid castes developed in India during the Rig Vedic period,
known as the caturvarnas “four colors”.
 At the top of the caturvarnas were the Brahmans, which were
priests.
 Next followed the Kshatriya, who were warriors or nobles.
 Vaishya were craftspeople and merchants of society.
 Shudra, were made up of the bulk of society and these people were
servants.
• In 2000 BCE the Aryans began to migrate southwards in waves of
steady conquest across the face of Persia and the lands of India.
• The Aryans referred to themselves as the noble ones" or the
"superior ones.
• The Aryans, or Vedic civilization were a new start in Indian culture.
• The earliest history of the Aryans in India is called the Rig Vedic
Period (1700-1000BCE).
India Continued
Political:
• The Aryans were a warlike people that organized themselves in
individual tribal, kinship units, the jana.
• The jana was ruled over by a war-chief. These tribes spread quickly
over northern India and the Deccan.
• When the Aryans migrated into northern India through a passage
between the Himalayas, they encountered the native residents
known as the Dravidians.
• Aryans were not influenced by Dravidian culture and began to
conquer these people. As a result the Dravidian people fled to
southern India and the Aryans remained in northern India.
• The civilization of Harappa which collapsed in the Indus River Valley
did not have an influence on Aryan reign's.
Religion:
• The religion of the Rig Veda developed in Aryan culture later in the
Vedic age which was similar to Hinduism in which they both had a
basis on karma and “ones place in society”.
• The Aryans engaged in nature and animal worship.
• They buried their dead so they believed in a sort of after-life.
Intellectual:
• Sama Veda: This Veda takes many of the hymns from the Rig Veda
and is set to music. It focuses mainly on Soma sacrifice, and was
used solely by priests in performing the relevant rituals. It is an
important source of the music of the ancient Aryans.
• Yajur Veda: The Yajur Veda focuses mainly on hymns that concern
sacrifices. It tells about the knowledge the Aryans had acquired
about sacrifices. Since it is of a later date then the Rig Veda, it
reflects the changes in society that have taken place since that
period.
• Great Indian epics such as the Ramayana and the Mahabharata
were also composed during the Aryan Vedic period.
Migration of Aryans
through Europe, into India,
and Asia.
Europe
Political:
Intellectual:
• Eligibility to be king for the Celtics was based on blood relationship
but was not directly inherited.
• The king of the Celtics was also the war leader.
• The Celtics in Europe was for its time highly democratic.
• The king’s authority was held up and carried out by a council of
nobles and assemblies of the freemen, which would be held
annually, frequently in conjunction with religious festivals.
• In the Celtic Europe, the nobility practiced fosterage, sending their
young sons and daughters to the homes of other members of the
nobility for their early training and education.
• The Celts measured time by nights followed by days (Opposite of
today), and developed a calendar, kept by the druids, which was
based on lunar motion rather than solar.
 Months, as well as days within each month, were believed to be
auspicious or inauspicious and feasts, raids, and other activities
were planned accordingly, due to the development of the calendar.
• The legends of Cu Chulainn, was an epic about Celtic life.
Technology:
Economy:
• Celtics developed in the use of iron during the Iron Age making
them distinct from surrounding people.
• The Celts' principal weapons were the slashing sword and spear or
javelin, which gave them an advantage in warfare.
• Celtics practiced agriculture and were familiar with the benefits of
crop rotation, letting land lie fallow for a period of time, and
fertilizing with manure.
Society:
Facts:
• The smallest unit in Celtic society was the FINE, a close, extended
family kinship group. The fine, not the individual, was what was
important. Legally the individual did not exist, except as a member
of the fine and was responsible for his set share of the fine's
property and obligations.
• The TUATH was a group which is most closely equivalent to the
modern concept of tribe or clan, was made up of one or several fine
and was led by the king.
• Within the tuath, society was basically divided into three classes:
the Nobility, composed of landowners and warriors; the Aes Dana,
men of art and learning, craftsmen, and included the druids; and
the Commoners or Churls who owned no land but were free not
slaves. Slavery was sometimes practiced by the Celts, but their
slaves would have been war captives and other subjugated peoples.
• The Celts were a group of people who originated in central Europe
from Indo-European stock.
• Celts occupied land in modern day Eastern Europe, Greece, Spain,
Northern Italy, Western Europe, England, Wales, Scotland and
Ireland.
• Celts were a non literate culture whose history and literature was
preserved through oral tradition and by the Roman Empire.
• Celtic culture is the root of most of the culture of Western Europe.
• Celtic tribes were so used to fighting among themselves, they were
not prepared to unify and fight the common threat of the Roman
Empire which later appeared.
Europe Continued
Religion:
Religion:
• Celtic seasons were separated and identified by four major religious
festivals.
 Imbolc, held in February, celebrated the coming into milk of the
ewes and was a pastoral festival of fertility and growth.
 Beltaine, celebrated in May, was also related to the fertility of cattle
and crops and honored the Druids.
 Lugnasa, celebrated from mid July to mid August, was the harvest
festival. A great feast would be held on August 1st to celebrate the
richness of the harvest and to honor the gods.
 Samhain heralded the start of the new year. It was celebrated on
October 31 and commemorated the creation of order out of chaos
and the beginning of the world.
 Believed in “The Otherworld”, which was of Celtic belief that it was
the dwelling place of the gods and other supernatural beings.
 The Otherworld was a place of feasting and joy. It was not a heaven,
a reward such as some modern religions believe in, but a magical
counterpart of the natural world which every person, regardless of
behavior in life, would enter after death. The Otherworld was as
real to the Celts as the natural world.
 Humans did not visit The Otherworld prior to their death, however
there were stories of such visits, or visits to the natural world by
Otherworld folk, and were accepted as valid.
Technology:
Art/Architecture:
• Celtic horses were smaller than todays animals and were raised and
trained as draft animals, for riding into battle, and as chariot horses,
which were important for Celtic battle.
• The Celts' principal weapons were the slashing sword and spear or
javelin.
• The Celtics were fond of bright colors and wore colorful clothing,
often in plaids or stripes and frequently edged with fringes.
• Pottery ranged from crude, utilitarian items made within each
household to the fine quality work produced by skilled potters.
• A rotary hand mill was also a fixture in every Celtic home, as well a
loom for the weaving of cloth.
Society:
Economy:
 The Nobility, or warrior class were the landowners and in control of
most, of the land, herds, and flocks and most of the physical wealth
of the tuath.
 Women had considerable power and some were warriors.
 Every member of the society had dignity and rights.
• Aryans that migrated into Europe are believed to be the root for
Caucasians.
• Celtic trade between Normandy and southern Britain was common
and trade with Mediterranean cultures was well established.
 Salt, animal skins and furs, raw metals, amber, and perhaps grain
and finished metal goods were traded for luxury goods such as
glass, coral, precious metal goods and raw metals, and large
quantities of wine.
 Among themselves the principal basis of exchange was cattle, but
the Celtics did use some gold and silver coinage when dealing with
other peoples. (Occurred later on in Celtic civilization)
Europe Continued
Religion:
• Celtics were polytheistic across Europe and numerous gods and
goddesses.
• Lugh was a very versatile god. He was believed to be skilled at and
have dominion over all the arts and horsemanship, a warrior god,
inventor of games, patron of travellers and commerce. He is the most
universal of the Celtic gods.
• Cernunnos, know more often as the Horned God or Antlered God, was
the ruler and protector of the animals. Most commonly a single god
with stag antlers, he was intimately linked with fertility and prosperity,
especially of herds and flocks, but also of men. Some Celts had a
second horned god, the Bull or Ram Horned God, who was a war god,
a phallic warrior and bestowed of fertility and protector of flocks.
• The blacksmith god, sometimes named Goibhnui, was skilled at smith
craft and patron of that art and others. He was also the god of healing,
due to the central role of iron in Celtic life and the belief that it had
magical properties. Water sources and thermal springs were also
under his dominion.
• Donn, the god of the dead and ruler of the Otherworld.
• Brigid, also spelled Brigit and Brighid, was one triadic goddess for
whom we have a name. Her influence was widespread as a mother
goddess, patroness of arts and crafts, healing, poetry and traditional
learning, livestock and produce, and the rites of spring.
• The Celtics believed that magic and ritual was how humans had
interaction with the gods.
Society:
• The druids of the Celtics were responsible for all ritual and for all contact
with the gods. The gods were only accessible through the druids.
 The druids were highly respected and very powerful. They were the
teachers, doctors, and lawyers of Celtic society.
• Polygamy was apart of society as well as divorce, which could be initiated by
husband or wife. Women could also own or inherit land. (Most power still
belonged to the husband).
Celtic Migration
through Europe and
India, to Southeast
Asia
Change Over Time
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From early beginnings (4000-3500 BCE), The Proto-Indo-European language begins to
change, and it divides and separates into two primary areal dialects due to the development
of lexical differences over time.
Certain branches, such as the Anatolian branch and several other Indo-Europeans, begin to
migrate outwards from Central Asia, specifically to locations in Asia Minor and Europe. These
migrations possibly occurred due to the pursuit of settlement or due to the continuation of
dialectal divisions.
Indo-European migration progressed further and more Indo-Europeans were moving east
and west; Europe was even penetrated by two routes: from the Asia Minor via the Aegean
Sea and southern Balkans; from the Steppes north to the Black Sea, then to the northern
Balkans. The possible reasons for this form of migration was because the routes were
passable and some Indo-Europeans wanted to find new areas to settle in .
By around 2000 BCE, Indo-European migration expands further (Achaeans migrate
westward, the Hittites and Luwians migrate further east, Celtics migrate westward into
Europe, Italic tribes migrate southwestward into Italy, and Doric tribes migrate in the
northern Balkans). The Indo-European branches become more defined, and the possible
reason for the continuation of migration/expansion was for some, because of conquest,
curiosity, and for settlement purposes.
Around 1900 BCE, a noteworthy occurrence is the foundation of Mycenae by the Achaeans,
which would give name to the first Indo-European civilization in Europe. This developed so
quickly due to constant influence from sea trade and city development.
Change Over Time Continued
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From Central Asia, the Aryan migration continued , and they migrated further southeastward
and penetrated India from the Iranian and Afghani steppes via the Gindukush mountains.
This most probably occurred due to invasion.
Around 1475 BCE, the Indo-European expansion and migration continued outward, and the
Indo-European Achaeans invaded and conquered Eastern Crete which sparked the
beginning of wide Hellenic expansion in the Mediterranean. The most probable reason of
their outward expansion was probably because of conquest.
Around 1400 BCE, outward migration and expansion still continues, for the Celts continue to
migrate through Europe (Spain), and Achaeans begin to appear on Cyprus. The possible
reason for these migrations was because of future settlement due to a growing population,
and due to the fact that Cyprus was rich and prosperous.
Around 1300-1200 BCE, Indo Europeans continue to migrate outwards: Illyrians, Phrygians ,
and Doric tribes migrate south, the Baltic peoples migrate northwards and eastwards,
Achaeans migrate around Crete, Cyprus, and the Asia Minor, and most importantly, the Celts
become powerful in northern Europe, since they spread over France (Gaul), Germany, Low
Countries, the Alps, and even the Iberian peninsula. The possible reasons for the
continuation of these outward migrations was possibly due to a growing population, the
hope of future settlement, invasion, economic problems, and conquest.
Indo-European migration still continues outward, and around 1000 BCE, Indo European
groups begin to move into the Ganges plain.
Change Over Time Diagrams
Proto-Indo
European Language
Areal Dialect
Group 1
Areal Dialect
Group 2
Venetic
IndoIranian
Illyrian
Greek
Anatolian
Baltic
Tocharic
Slavic
Italic
Germanic
Celtic
Armenian
ThracoPhyrgian
This is a Mind Map of the
Proto-Indo-European
language separating into
two primary areal dialect
groups. (4000-3500 BCE)
Change Over Time Map
This is a Change
Over Time Map
that illustrates
the outward
expansion of
Indo-European
migration
during various
time periods
from the origin.
Comparisons
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The impacts of the Indo-European Aryan and Celtic civilizations led way to the
development of life today. The Aryans and Celtics were both civilizations that became
agriculturalists rather than nomads. As agriculturalists, both civilizations were able to
settle down on land and advance as a civilization. As both civilizations expanded, their
impact increased. The Aryan civilization was very war-like and conquered many of its
enemies and expanded into parts of Europe, India, and Asia. Aryans in India pushed the
Dravidians, who were natives, down into southern India. As a result, the Aryans lived in
North India while the Dravidians lived in the south, which is still in affect to this day. The
Celtics also claimed land, and expanded in Europe toward India, and parts of Asia. The
Celtics influenced Europe with their religion. Parts of Celtic religion was believed to be
“magical”. As a result countries such as Ireland that was once ruled by the Celtics are
known for magic and luck. Aryan religion which was Rig Veda, was similar to Hinduism
which developed later. Rig Veda is believed to have influenced concepts of Hinduism. In
both civilizations agriculture led to advancements in irrigation and allowed for people to
develop special skills, such as artisans and craftsmen. Both civilizations also had similar
military advancements which led way for post-civilizations to improve upon. Bronze
weapons and armor was used in the military as well as chariots. Horseback riding also
was a military advancement which helped both civilizations to conquer their enemies.
Venn Diagram Comparison
Aryan Impact to
Regions
• Aryans were
unified in
regions.
• Influenced Hinduism.
• Aryan culture
survived over
time and
continuing
through the
present. Has a
lasting impact.
Both
• Religion spread
throughout the
regions and many
people converted.
• Descendants to
these
civilizations can
be traced back
through
countries across
Europe and Asia.
Celtic Impact to
Regions
• Celtics
literature and
history were
destroyed over
time. Was
passed down
orally.
• Celtics
continuously
fought
among each
other.
Comparison Continued
This mind map shows
a relationship
between how
religion, politics, and
the military create an
impact on regions.
The Indo-European
civilizations Aryans
and Celtics all
possessed these
qualities which led to
a lasting impact on
other civilizations and
regions.
Religion
Politics
Military
Aryan
IMPACTS
On Regions
Celtics
Religion
Politics
Military
Indo-Europeans and Today
The Indo-European languages are understood to be
one of the largest language groups of today. Their
presence can be seen all throughout various countries
on both hemispheres of the globe.
Indo-Europeans and Tripartition
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Tripartition is the division of things into or among threes. The Indo-European societies were
very fond of this and many aspects were divided into three sections. Examples of this are as
follows:
Indo-European Society:
- Priests
- Warriors
- Farmers/Cultivators
Indo-European beliefs on the Fundamental Elements of the Universe:
- Sky
- Sea
- Earth
Today many things in our society are divided into threes as well, and we can see these in
such things as:
- ready, set, go
- beginning, middle, end
- God, Son, Holy Ghost
- child, man, elder
and many others. This tripartition can be seen universally and is believed to have its origins
in early Indo-European society.
Indo-European Language
• The Indo-European group came from the Proto-Indo-European group.
As time went on, the base language spread and formed multiple
dialects to the regions. These dialects began to form individual
languages separate from the base. This group split into the various
branches which now form the Indo-European group.
These branches are:
• Albanian
• Anatolian (languages of Asia Minor, including Hittite - now extinct)
• Armenian
• Balto-Slavic (Lithuanian, Latvian; Russian, Polish, Czech, etc.)
• Celtic (Irish, Welsh, many extinct European languages including Gaulish)
• Germanic (German, English, Dutch, Scandinavian languages)
• Hellenic (Greek)
• Indo-Iranian (Sanskrit, Hindi, Bengali, etc.; Old Persian, Farsi, Kurdish, etc.)
• Italic (Latin and its descendants French, Spanish, Italian, etc.)
• Tocharian (a pair of extinct languages of Central Asia)
Indo-European Language Continued
• The Indo-European languages encompass several
hundred related languages and dialects. Of the top
twenty spoken languages today, twelve belong to the
Indo-European language family. The Indo-European
language family has 12 languages and over 1.7 billion
native speakers. These languages are Spanish,
English, Bengali, Hindi, Portuguese, Russian, German,
French, Marathi, Italian, Urdu, and Punjab. As of
today, it is the largest recognized language group in
the world.
Credits
• VJ Servera:
- Chronology of Indo-European Migration
(4000 BCE – 1000 BCE)
- Change Over Time with Diagrams and Maps
• Nathaniel Dwarika:
- Maps, Charts, and Images of Indo-European Migration
- Role in Today’s World
• Zach Gunnz:
- Spread and Impact on Regions (PIRATES)
- Comparisons
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Indo-European (610 CE – 1900 CE)