HOLT
World History
CHAPTER 7
THE HUMAN JOURNEY
The Roman World
Section 1: Founding the Roman Republic
Section 2: Rome Expands Its Borders
Section 3: The Birth of the Roman Empire
Section 4: Roman Society and Culture
Section 5: The Rise of Christianity
Section 6: The Fall of the Western Empire
HOLT, RINEHART
AND
WINSTON
HOLT
World History
Section 1:
THE HUMAN JOURNEY
Founding the Roman Republic
Objectives:
 Identify the role geography played in Italy’s and Rome’s
development.
 Describe the form of government of the Roman Republic.
 Explain the Conflict of the Orders and how it changed the
early Roman Republic.
 Compare and contrast the roles of citizens and noncitizens
as Rome expanded its power.
2
HOLT, RINEHART
AND
WINSTON
HOLT
World History
Section 1:
THE HUMAN JOURNEY
Founding the Roman Republic
The Land: Its Geography and Importance
 Protected by mountains, but separated from rest
of Europe
 Helped to control Mediterranean
 Overland travel was easy, but vulnerable to
enemy attacks
3
HOLT, RINEHART
AND
WINSTON
HOLT
World History
Section 1:
THE HUMAN JOURNEY
Founding the Roman Republic
Rome and the Beginning of an Empire
 The founding of Rome
 A strategic location – protected from invasion by
sea, center of trade routes
4
HOLT, RINEHART
AND
WINSTON
HOLT
World History
Section 1:
THE HUMAN JOURNEY
Founding the Roman Republic
The Early Roman Republic
 Senate – most influential and powerful body of
the government
 Magistrates – elected officials
 Assemblies – oversaw defense and acted as courts
5
HOLT, RINEHART
AND
WINSTON
HOLT
World History
Section 1:
THE HUMAN JOURNEY
Founding the Roman Republic
The Conflict of the Orders
 Patricians – wealthy landowners
 Plebeians – farmers and workers
6
HOLT, RINEHART
AND
WINSTON
HOLT
World History
Section 1:
THE HUMAN JOURNEY
Founding the Roman Republic
The Republic Grows
 The role of the Roman army – well-trained,
strict discipline
7
HOLT, RINEHART
AND
WINSTON
HOLT
World History
Section 1:
THE HUMAN JOURNEY
Founding the Roman Republic
The role of wise policies
 Conquered peoples were granted limited rights
8
HOLT, RINEHART
AND
WINSTON
HOLT
World History
Section 2:
THE HUMAN JOURNEY
Rome Expands Its Borders
Objectives:
 Discuss the Punic Wars and how Rome
gained control over Carthage.
 Explain how expansion changed the
Roman Republic.
9
HOLT, RINEHART
AND
WINSTON
HOLT
World History
Section 2:
THE HUMAN JOURNEY
Rome Expands Its Borders
Rome Fights Carthage
 The First Punic War – lasted 23 years; Carthage
was forced to give up Sicily
 The Second Punic War – Hannibal was defeated
by Scipio
 The Third Punic War – Rome again defeated
Carthage and became supreme power in
Mediterranean
10
HOLT, RINEHART
AND
WINSTON
HOLT
World History
Section 2:
THE HUMAN JOURNEY
Rome Expands Its Borders
The Problems of Expansion
 Nobles gained more power
 Wider gap between rich and poor
11
HOLT, RINEHART
AND
WINSTON
HOLT
World History
Section 3:
THE HUMAN JOURNEY
The Birth of the Roman Empire
Objectives:
 Identify the political events in Rome during the first
century B.C. that helped weaken the Roman Republic.
 Explain how the reign of Julius Caesar served as a
transition between the Roman Republic and the
Roman Empire.
 Describe the events and conditions that marked the
first two centuries of the Roman Empire.
12
HOLT, RINEHART
AND
WINSTON
HOLT
World History
Section 3:
THE HUMAN JOURNEY
The Birth of the Roman Empire
A Weakening Republic
 The Social War – allies rebelled against Romans,
were finally granted citizenship
13
HOLT, RINEHART
AND
WINSTON
HOLT
World History
Section 3:
THE HUMAN JOURNEY
The Birth of the Roman Empire
Caesar in Power
 The First Triumvirate – Caesar, Crassus,
and Pompey
 The rule of Caesar – Caesar declared war on
the republic and defeated Pompey, but was
killed in the Senate
14
HOLT, RINEHART
AND
WINSTON
HOLT
World History
Section 3:
THE HUMAN JOURNEY
The Birth of the Roman Empire
The Roman Empire
 The Second Triumvirate – Octavian, Antony,
and Lepidus
 Octavian: the first Augustus – “the revered one”
 The Pax Romana emperors – Julio-Claudian
Emperors, Army Emperors, Flavian Emperors,
The Five Good Emperors
15
HOLT, RINEHART
AND
WINSTON
HOLT
World History
Section 4:
THE HUMAN JOURNEY
Roman Society and Culture
Objectives:
 Explain how the Romans built a strong and
unified empire.
 Describe the daily lives and occupations of
Roman citizens.
 Explain the role of science and the arts in the
Roman Empire.
16
HOLT, RINEHART
AND
WINSTON
HOLT
World History
Section 4:
THE HUMAN JOURNEY
Roman Society and Culture
Building a Strong Empire
 Government and laws – revised laws
 Trade and transportation
 The Roman Army
17
HOLT, RINEHART
AND
WINSTON
HOLT
World History
Section 4:
THE HUMAN JOURNEY
Roman Society and Culture
Life in the Empire
 Daily life – running water and exotic food for rich,
crowded apartments and simple meals for most Romans
 Slaves and slavery
 The roles of men, women, and children – father held
power, mother managed household, education at home
 Religion – state religion
 Fun and games – theater, sports
18
HOLT, RINEHART
AND
WINSTON
HOLT
World History
Section 4:
THE HUMAN JOURNEY
Roman Society and Culture
Science and the Arts
 Science, engineering, and architecture
 Literature – Virgil, Horace, Ovid, Tacitus, Plutarch
 Language – Latin is the parent of modern
Romance languages
19
HOLT, RINEHART
AND
WINSTON
HOLT
World History
Section 5:
THE HUMAN JOURNEY
The Rise of Christianity
Objectives:
 Describe how the conditions Jews faced in Judaea
contributed to the rise of Christianity.
 Identify the difficulties early Christians
experienced in the Roman Empire.
 Explain the changes that helped establish
Christianity and stabilize the church during the
late Roman Empire.
20
HOLT, RINEHART
AND
WINSTON
HOLT
World History
Section 5:
THE HUMAN JOURNEY
The Rise of Christianity
The Beginning of Christianity
 Jews and the Roman Empire – Jews
revolted and were banned from Jerusalem
 The teachings of Jesus – grounded in
Jewish traditions
 The death of Jesus – resurrection
21
HOLT, RINEHART
AND
WINSTON
HOLT
World History
Section 5:
THE HUMAN JOURNEY
The Rise of Christianity
The Spread of Christianity
 Christianity was for everyone
 Martyrs were put to death for beliefs in Christianity
 Roman law accepted Christianity as a religion
22
HOLT, RINEHART
AND
WINSTON
HOLT
World History
Section 5:
THE HUMAN JOURNEY
The Rise of Christianity
The Romans Adopt Christianity
 Constantine supported Christianity
 Bishops, patriarchs, pope
23
HOLT, RINEHART
AND
WINSTON
HOLT
World History
Section 6:
THE HUMAN JOURNEY
The Fall of the Western Empire
Objectives:
 Identify the problems the Roman Empire had to
deal with during the A.D. 200s.
 Explain how the reigns of Diocletian and
Constantine slowed the decline of the empire.
 List the factors that led to the final decline of the
Roman Empire in the West.
24
HOLT, RINEHART
AND
WINSTON
HOLT
World History
Section 6:
THE HUMAN JOURNEY
The Fall of the Western Empire
Troubled Times Arise
 Rising inflation
 Increasing insecurity
25
HOLT, RINEHART
AND
WINSTON
HOLT
World History
Section 6:
THE HUMAN JOURNEY
The Fall of the Western Empire
Two Able Emperors Attempt Reform
 Diocletian – appointed a co-emperor and two
caesars (assistants)
 Constantine – supported Christianity
26
HOLT, RINEHART
AND
WINSTON
HOLT
World History
Section 6:
THE HUMAN JOURNEY
The Fall of the Western Empire
The Final Invasions
 The Goths and the Vandals
 The Huns
 Results of the invasions – people were displaced,
instability and destruction abounded
27
HOLT, RINEHART
AND
WINSTON
HOLT
World History
Section 6:
THE HUMAN JOURNEY
The Fall of the Western Empire
Causes of the decline
 Political and military weaknesses
 Economic decline
 Social change
28
HOLT, RINEHART
AND
WINSTON
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CHAPTER 7: The Roman World