Early Tamil Epigraphy
From the Earliest Times to the 6th Century AD
Iravatham Mahadevan
--An Overview by
S. Swaminathan
Early Tamil Epigraphy
From the Earliest Times to the 6th Century AD
Iravatham Mahadevan
--Published by
Cre-A, India
Harvard University, USA
The book deals with
development of two scripts of Tamil:
Tamil-Brahmi and Early VaTTezhuttu
covering a period from
the 3rd century BC till the 6th century AD.
First, let me provide
some background information regarding
the scripts discussed in the book
in order to follow
‘My Overview’
We would come across with five scripts in the book:
Tamil Brahmi,
Tamil and
Short description of these scripts follows.
is an ancient script of India.
The earliest writing in Brahmi is found
in the edicts of Asoka dated to the 3rd century BC.
Brahmi is a general term and
there existed a number of regional variations,
like Southern Brahmi, Sinhala-Brahmi etc.
Mother script of Indian Languages
is the script from which
all other native Indian scripts,
except the Harappan,
are derived.
Development of
the letter N (ண)
in all Indian languages
starting from Brahmi,
It may be noted
how the characters
change drastically over
the centuries!
Development of latter k (க) in
Devanagari, Tamil and other south Indian Scripts
of vowels
of Tamil
Early Tamil-Brahmi
of consonants
of Tamil
Early Tamil-Brahmi
Mother script of many Asian Languages
Pallava Grantha, a derivative of Brahmi,
a script developed to write
Sanskrit in the Tamil country
was the inspiration to
most of the Asian scripts.
This happened through
the political and the cultural conquest
by the Indian rulers
starting from the Pallava-s
Development of
letter k (க)
for the languages of
Vietnam, etc
the Grantha script
is the name of the script
in which the earliest inscriptions
in Tamil are found.
Let us see how Tamil-Brahmi looks like
Tamil-Brahmi inscription
Kudumiyanmalai, 3rd century AD
நா ழ
û ககா ü ற ó த
ப [ளி]
The hermitage (is the gift) of koRRantai of nAzhaL
a cursive style,
was derived from Tamil-Brahmi, and
was current all over the Tamil country
from the 5th century AD.
Tamil script that came into use from the 7th century
displaced VaTTezhuttu.
With the ascendancy of the Chozhas, and
the displacement was total by 13th century.
However the script lingered on till the 19th century
in Kerala for writing Malayalam.
The Pulankurichchi inscriptions (5th century)
are the earliest.
A number of hero-stones in the Dharmapuri district
have been found inscribed
in Early VaTTezhuttu.
Let us see a specimen of VaTTEzhttu
Vattezhuttu inscription
Thirunatharkunru, 6th century AD
ஐ ம் ப த் தத ழ ன
ai m pa t tE zha na
ச ன ந் தநா ற் ற
ca na n nO R Ra
ச ந் தி ர ந ந் தி ஆ
ca na ti ra na n ti A
சி ரி க ரு நி சீ தி கக
ci ri ka ru ni cI ti kai
ஐம்பத்ததழு நாட்கள் உண்ணா §¿¡ýÒ தநாற்ற
சந்திரநந்தி ஆசிரிகரு தவம் கசய்த இடம்
The seat of penance of chantiramanti Acirikaru,
who observed the fast (unto death) for fifty-seven days
Tamil Script
The Pallava rulers created the Tamil script
out of the Grantha script by the 7th century,
adding necessary additional letters
from VaTTezhuttu.
This is the view of Mahadevan,
and is not shared by some.
Tamil Script
There are (according to Mahadevan)
no inscriptions in the Tamil script
before Mahendra Pallavan I (7th century AD).
Tamil Script
There was a steep increase in inscriptions in Tamil
from the 9th century onwards.
The classical phase of Tamil script starts
with the ascendancy of the Chozha-s
from the middle of the 9th century.
From the 11th century onwards
this became the main script for Tamil
throughout the Tamil country.
Here is an example of Tamil script in the early stages
Tamil inscription
Parantaka Chozha, 10th century AD
ŠவŠதி‚ ககோôபரககசரி
svatiShrI kOpparakEsari parma
÷Ì யோñÎ 34 இவோñÎ கோன
Rku yANdu 34 ivANDu
நோðÎ Óனியóதைì
nATTu muniyantaik kuLattu
ìÌ மóதிரி
ஆîசý ã÷òதி அðÊ
Kku manthiri Accan mUrti
ன கோÍ 2 இரñÎ கோசோ ஒÕ கோசோø
Na kAcu 2 iraNDu kAcA oru
kAcAl Achchan mUrti, a minister,
In the 34th year of Parantaka Chozha,
has given 2 kasu-s for the renovation of the lake
Grantha Script
was derived from the Southern Brahmi script
of Prakrit characters
by the Pallava-s (6th century AD)
to write Sanskrit in the Tamil country.
Let us see how Grantha script then looked like.
Grantha inscription
Mahendra Pallava, 7th century AD
Hamasudham vicitracittEna
The (cave) temple dedicated to Brahma, Siva and Vishnu
was excavated by Vichitrachitta (Mahendra Pallava)
without using brick, timber, metal and mortar.
Discovery of inscriptions
in the Tamil country has been eventful
Till the end of the 19th century
only two scripts were known:
VaTTezhuttu of the Pandiya-s
belonging to 8th century and
Tamil of the Pallava-s
dated the 7th century
It was wondered why there should be
two scripts for one language.
But their descent from Brahmi was inferred.
The complete absence of written record of
a great literary civilization of 2000 years vintage
was a puzzle.
This was solved when cave inscriptions,
resembling closely the script of Asokan edicts,
were found in Tamilnadu
around the end of the 19th century.
The earliest finding of cave inscription is of Mangulam
by Robert Sewell in 1882.
This is not only oldest finding,
it is oldest lithic record in Tamilnadu and
it is also of great historical significance.
And a host of discoveries followed.
Until middle of the last century
cave inscriptions were the only source
of early Tamil writing.
Then it was presumed that Tamil-Brahmi inscriptions were
caused to be inscribed by Jaina and Buddhist monks
who were not conversant with Tamil, and
that these inscriptions did not represent
language of the day.
With the finding of inscribed pottery
in Arikkamedu during 1941-44 and
later from many other sites
the view has changed.
The pottery inscriptions made it possible
to date inscriptions more accurately.
It looks that inscribing on pottery was given up
after the 3rd century AD.
the Tamil-Brahmi script
Deciphering cave inscriptions posed a number of problems:
Most of the inscriptions were in inaccessible locations
Inscriptions were not bold and clear
Language was mistaken for Prakrit
Clues to a correct understanding of the script
were not found.
1906: Venkayya identified the script to be Brahmi.
But he thought that the language was Pali.
He read a line in Mettuppatti as anatai ariya,
attempted to seek Vedic roots
for the words.
1914: Krishna Sastri attempted to read
the bold Sittannavasal inscription.
1919: Krishna Sastri first noted
purely southern charactaristics, like
the occurrences of letter L [ள]
which was identified earlier in Simhala-Brahmi.
He also identified the presence of
three unusual characters,
later identified as zh [ழ], R [ற] and n [ன].
He was the first to feel that some of the consonants
must be basic (க மö).
1924: KV Subramania Iyer pointed out
the powerful misguiding factor
what was written in Brahmi must be in Prakrit.
1924: KV Subramania Iyer found:
- Soft consonants (ग ज ड द ब) were absent
- sa (ஸ, स ) was occasionally used;
but Sh (º, श) and sh (ஷ, ष) were absent.
- All vowels except
ai , au, Ri (ऋ), Lr (ऌ), M (अं) and H (अः)
were used
- Conjunct consonants (Üðக டØòÐ)
were absent completely
1924: KV Subramania Iyer ruled out
Indo-European language
and proved it is Tamil.
He demonstrated convincingly presence of
Tamil grammatical elements
like pAkan (À¡¸ý), vaNikan (Ž¢¸ý), etc
1924: KV Subramania Iyer could not still read correctly
because of his incorrect orthography (spelling),
his overestimation of the Prakrit elements, etc
1938-9: Narayana Rao tried to put the clock back.
He felt that the language was Prakrit,
and actually read the inscriptions fully!
1961: KG Krishnan identified pulli (ÒûÇ ),
a device introduced ‘later’ to mark
the basic consonants (க மö ±ØòÐ) and
the short e (±) and o (´) vowels.
Later pulli was also identified
in the 2nd century AD silver coin
of Satakarni.
1964: Kamil Zwelebil published
the first formal study of cave inscriptions.
1967: TV Mahalingam published the first book-length
study of cave inscriptions.
Mahadevan’s attempts
Mahadevan took up study of inscriptions
First round of visits to the caves
Corpus of 74 Tamil-Brahmi inscriptions and
2 Early VaTTezhuttu inscriptions
from 21 sites published
Mahadevan proposed a tentative model
Second field expedition
2003: Publication of ‘Early Tamil Epigraphy’
Mahadevan’s attempts
Mahadevan made field visits to the sites and
prepared tracings direct from stones and
made use of computer enhancement of photos.
He made chronological classification.
Let us have a look at
some important inscriptions
Mangulam inscription
Mangulam inscription was discovered
by Robert Sewell in 1882,
and was rediscovered
by KV Subramania Iyer in 1906
Mangulam inscription
This Tamil-Brahmi inscription is important, because
this is the earliest inscription to be found and
in this inscription Nedunchezhiyan,
a Sangam king, is mentioned.
Mangulam inscription
Mangulam inscription
The inscription is in Tamil-Brahmi and
is dated to the 2nd century BC
Mangulam inscription
A line from the inscription is given
to compare the Tamil script 2000 years ago
with the present day script.
க ணி
ka Ni
It may be noted that a non-Tamil letter s (ஸ) is used
Mangulam inscription
The text of the inscription is given along
with meaning in present day Tamil
கணிய் நந்தஅஸிரிய்இ குவ்அன்தக த3ம்மம்
kaNiy nanta’asiriy’I kuv’ankE dammam ittA’a
பணஅன் கடல்அன் வழுத்திய் ககாட்டுபித்தஅ பளிஇய்
paNa’an kaDal’an vazhuttiy koTuppitta’a paLiy
குரு நந்தஸிரி குவனுக்கு தர்மம் இது; கநடுஞ்கசழியனின்
பணியாள் கடலன் வழுதி
கசய்தளிக்கப்பட்ட படுக்கக
This is the charity to nanta-siri kuvan, the kaNi; the bed was caused to
be carved by kaTalan vazhuti, the servant of neTunchezhian.
Edakkal inscription
Inscription in Edakkal, Kerala
was discovered by Fawcett in 1894.
He made careful drawing and took photos and
submitted to Hultzsch.
Hultzsch took estampages and
published a brief note to Fawcett.
Fawcett published a paper in 1901.
Hultzsch made an attempt to decipher,
but could not.
For a century no further was action taken
Edakkal inscription
Mahadevan made two expeditions in 1995 and 1996.
Unfortunately, these Tamil-Brahmi inscriptions
have been obliterated
due to graffiti by tourists
Edakkal inscription
During the 1996 expedition, Mahadevan found
two other Tamil-Brahmi inscriptions
dated to the 3rd century AD.
In one of them there was a mention of
kaTummiputa chEra, a ChEra king.
This is also another important inscription
for it belongs to the age of a Sangam king
Pugalur inscription
In Pugalur, near Karur, the ancient Chera capital
a number of inscriptions were discovered.
One of them is important for
it is a record of a Chera king of the Irumporai line
which ruled from Karur in the Sangam age.
Pugalur inscription
The text of the inscription
Óதா அமñணý யாüê÷ கசíகாயபý உகறö
mutA amaNNan yARRUr senkAyapan uRaiy
தகா ஆதý கசøலிÕõகபாகற மகý
kO Atan cellirumpoRai makan
கபÕíகÎíதகாý மகý{இ}ளí
perunkaTunkOn makan (i)Lan
கÎíதகா{இ}ளíதகா ஆக அÚòத கø
kaTunkO(i)LankO Aka aRutta kal
Pugalur inscription
The meaning of the inscription
The abode of the senior Jaina monk, senkAyapan of yARRUr.
The rock (shelter) was carved
when (i)LankaTunkO,
the son of perunkaTunkOn,
the son of King Atan sel irumpoRai,
became the heir apparent.
Jamabai inscription
Inscription in Jambai, in Villuppuram district,
is one among the most outstanding discoveries.
Dated to the 1st century AD
the inscription records the grant of a cave shelter
by atiyan neTumAn anchi,
identified as the famous chieftain of Takatur
(modern Dharmapuri),
celebrated in Purananuru.
Jamabai inscription
The text of the inscription is given along
with its meaning
ஸதியÒததா அதியó கநÎமாó
அïசி ஈòத பÇ
satiyaputO atiyan neTumAn anci
Itta paLi
The hermitage was given by
atiyamaAn neTumAn añchi, the satiyaputta
Jamabai inscription
Atiyan neTumAn anchi,
has the title of satiyapitO;
a title found in the Second Rock edict of Asoka
along with Cheras, Chozhas and Pandyas,
thus establishing conclusively Asoka’s connection
with the Tamil country.
Jamabai inscription
The identification of Satiyaputo
with with Atiyaman was
on the linguistic grounds
by Sesha Iyer and
improved upon by Burrow.
Jamabai inscription
According to Burrow the developments are:
satiya [ஸதிய] to atiya [அதிய]
(with the loss of the initial consonant), and
putO [Òததா] meaning ‘son’ [makan, மகý]
then makan [மகý] to mAn [மாý]
like chEramAn [த ºÃÁ ாý]
corresponding to kEraLaputO
[த கÃÇÒத தா].
Now let us go through
the contents of the book
Mahadevan’s Book
Mahadevan’s book deals with
Early Tamil-Brahmi
(2nd century BC to 1st century AD)
Late Tamil Brahmi
(2nd to 4th centuries AD)
Early Vattezhuththu
(5th & 6th centuries AD)
and does not include
Later Vattezhuththu and Tamil
(both from 7th century AD)
Mahadevan’s Book
Part One:
Early Tamil Inscriptions
Part Two:
Studies in Early Tamil Epigraphy
Part Three:
Corpus of Early Tamil Inscriptions
Part One
Early Tamil Inscriptions
Chapter 1
Discovering cave inscriptions have been uneven and
the book discusses important discoveries.
The contemporary inscriptions on
potteries, coins, seals and rings
are included in the appendix to this chapter.
Chapter 2
The exciting story of deciphering is a very important chapter.
The early attempts like the path-breaking paper by
KV Subramania Iyer in 1924,
and the discovery of pulli, and
important researches from 1970,
including Mahadevan’s work, and
finally, a chronology of Tamil-Brahmi inscriptions
that includes pottery and other inscriptions.
Chapter 3
This chapter discusses the unsolved problem of
the language of the cave inscriptions:
how much and what kind of Tamil,
explains the Dravidian and Indo-Aryan elements
Chapter 4
The chapter shows how cave inscriptions
portray life in early Tamil society:
state and administration;
religion, particularly Jainism;
society – agriculture, trade, professions,
social organisations, personal names,
place names, flora & fauna and culture
Chapter 5
Palaeography (Study of ancient writing)
Review of earlier theories,
listing evidences to support his theory of
origin of Tamil-Brahmi from Brahmi
supported by 8 palaeographic Charts
Brief discussion on other Brahmi variants.
Chapter 5
Palaeography (Study of ancient writing)
Detailed discussion on palaeography of
Tamil-Brahmi and early VaTTezhuttu:
vowels, consonants, the pulli, numerals
punctuation, symbols used in caves
Short discussion on evolution of VaTTezhuttu
Notes on emergence of Tamil script
Chapter 6
Orthography (Study of spelling)
The most important chapter.
Different orthographic models studied,
especially for denoting medial vowels,
which among other things,
provides insight
into the relationship of
Tamil-Brahmi and other Brahmi variants and
their relative chronology
Chapter 6
Orthography (Study of spelling)
Orthographic peculiarities of inscriptions
Evolution of alternate models:
Tamil-Brahmi I, II and III
Medial vowel notations
in cave and pottery inscriptions
Assimilation of loan-words
Voicing of consonants
Chapter 7
Phonology (study of sounds) with detailed inventory of
vowels, consonants and consonant-vowels
and sound variations,
Morphophonemics, study of changes
that occur, during Sandhi etc,
Morphology (study of forms of changes of words)
in early Tamil and
Syntax (arrangement of words in a sentence)
Part Two
Corpus of Early Tamil Inscriptions
Corpus of Early Tamil Inscriptions
Early and late Tamil-Brahmi
Early vattazhuttu
Tracings and estampages
Corpus of Early Tamil Inscriptions
110 inscriptions from 52 sites
arranged chronologically,
with text containing
Literal transcript as engraved on stone,
Text organised into words,
Translation into English,
Essential data specific to individual inscriptions,
Publication and most importantly,
This is an authoritative Corpus for researchers.
Part Three
Corpus of Early Tamil Inscriptions
Commentary on Inscriptions
Commentary on Inscriptions
A detailed word-by-word study of inscriptions,
with a view to situate them
in the main stream of Indian epigraphy:
deals with
Meaning, literal and interpretation
Grammatical notes
Citations from literary and inscriptional parallels
Loan words
Contents, relating to the development of
Tamil language and society
Let us follow some important discussions
Different Requirements of
Prakrit and Tamil
Many Asokan edicts are in Prakrit
and the script is Brahmi.
This Brahmi script cannot be used
directly for Tamil,
because there are no symbols
to represent basic consonants and
short e and o
Attempts to adapt Brahmi for Tamil
At least three different methods
Tamil-Brahmi I, II and III were tried
for medial vowel notation, that is,
to represent
basic consonants like (ì),
consonants with medial –a, like (¸)
and –A, like (¸ ா).
Pulli in Tamil-Brahmi
Pulli came to be used in Tamil-Brahmi later
as a negative vowel marker
to provide what the parent Brahmi script lacked.
to represent basic consonants (ì), and
to represent short e (±) and o (´).
Pulli in Tamil-Brahmi
Pulli occurs only from the 2nd century AD onwards
But it is seldom found in the pottery inscriptions.
Even later, it was avoided in palm leaf writing
A short summary of Mahadevan’s findings
Mahadevan’s findings
Stages of Development
According to Mahadevan
there were three stages of
development of medial vowel notation
Tamil-Brahmi I
- 2nd century BC to 1st century BC
Tamil-Brahmi II
- 1st century BC to 5th century AD
Tamil-Brahmi III
- 2nd century AD to 6th century AD
Mahadevan’s findings
Stages of Development
The figure that follows attempts to show,
through an example,
the basic consonants and medial vowel notations
as depicted in these stages.
Possible ambiguity is indicated by
pointing out alternate readings.
Mahadevan’s findings
Stages of Development
º ாதந
cannot write சோைó
Mahadevan’s findings
Stages of Development
In the light of finding TB-II style of writing
in the Arikamedu potteries dated to 2nd century BC,
Mahadevan is expresses his inability
to explain how
‘two parallel, mutually exclusive, competing systems’
appear at the same time, and
within a small, homogenous linguistic community’.
Mahadevan’s findings
Stages of Development
Since most of the Early Brahmi inscriptions are
found near Madurai,
Tamil-Brahmi script must have been created
in the Pandya kingdom
around the end of 3rd century BC,
and then spread to other parts of the Tamil country
Mahadevan’s findings
The language is Old Tamil,
not materially different from
the language of later Tamil inscriptions or
even literary texts,
in its basic phonological,
morphological and syntactical features.
Mahadevan’s findings
All loan-words are nouns.
Most of the loan-words are adapted
to the Tamil phonetic pattern:
gaNaka to kaNaka
gOpa to kOpan
rAjA to irAsar
dAnam to tAnam
adhiTThAna to atiTTAnam
Mahadevan’s findings
Comparison with Situation in Upper South India
The earliest Tamil inscriptions are from 3rd century BC,
whereas of Kannada-Telugu appear 8 centuries later.
Sangam literature is dated to the beginning of Christian era
while literature of Kannada and Telugu
appear a millennium later.
Mahadevan’s findings
Comparison with Situation in Upper South India
The earliest inscriptions in the Tamil country are
almost exclusively in Tamil.
In contrast, for the same period, inscriptions
in stone, seals, pottery etc,
in the Upper South India are
exclusively in Prakrit.
Mahadevan’s findings
Widespread literacy in Tamilnadu
Literacy in the Tamil country
when compared with the situation
in contemporary Upper South India,
commenced much earlier.
Tamil, the local language, was used
for all purposes from the beginning;
democratic character in society existed.
Mahadevan’s findings
Widespread literacy in Tamilnadu
Literacy in the Tamil Country
seems to have been widespread
in all the regions in the Tamil country,
both in urban and rural areas,
in all strata of Tamil society.
Primary evidence for this comes from
inscribed pottery.
Mahadevan’s findings
Widespread literacy in Tamilnadu
A number of reasons are contributed to this:
In Upper South India the spoken languages
were Kannada and Telugu,
but Prakrit was the language of the rulers.
But the Tamil country was
politically independent and
the rulers were Tamils.
Mahadevan’s findings
Widespread literacy in Tamilnadu
It had the presence of a strong bardic tradition
Priestly hierarchy that could have vested interest
in maintaining oral tradition or
discouraging writing after its advent
was not present
Mahadevan’s findings
Widespread literacy in Tamilnadu
A strong tradition of local autonomy,
through self-governing villages councils and
merchant guilds.
The spread of Jainism and Buddhism and
extensive foreign trade.
Mahadevan’s findings
Origin of Tamil-Brahmi
Tamil-Brahmi was derived from Brahmi:
All but 4 of the 26 letters in Tamil-Brahmi are
identical or nearly so with the corresponding
Brahmi letter and
have the same phonetic value.
Medial vowel signs
Medial vowel signs are identical
along with phonetic values.
Development of additional letters
The additional letters,
zh, ழ
L, ள
R ற and
n ன
were adapted from letters
with the nearest phonetic value
in Brahmi.
Development of additional letters
Mahadevan’s findings
Evolution and Chronology of South Indian Scripts
3rd century BC
2nd century BC
1st century BC
5th century AD
6th century AD
7th century AD
14th century AD
Mahadevan’s findings
Origin of Tamil-Brahmi
Tolkappiyam places
the four letters zh [ழ], L [ள],R [ற] and n [ன]
at the end of the series of stops, nasals and liquids.
This arrangement deviates from the order
based on articulatory phonetics.
This small, but significant detail, indicates that
the four special letters were originally regarded
as additions to the alphabet taken from Brahmi.
Possible issues for discussion in the future
Which came first – Brahmi or Tamil-Brahmi?
Mu Va (1972) says that
the Tamils used a script of their own, and
Tamil-Brahmi has developed
under the influence of VaTTezhuttu.
TN Subramanian (1957), KG Krishnan (1981)
and a few others argue
that Brahmi was a Tamil creation, and
came to be adapted all over India
with regional modifications.
Mahadevan says Tamil-Brahmi is a derivative of Brahmi.
Was there a script for Tamil before?
Mayilai Seeni Venkatasamy (1981) says that
there was one
in which classical works were written and
was supplanted by Tamil-Brahmi.
Mahadevan says that Tamil was not written before.
What kind of Tamil?
Mayilai Seeni Venkatasamy (1981) says
the inscriptions are full of errors engraved
by people with inadequate knowledge of Tamil.
Mahadevan says it is Old Tamil,
not very different from contemporary literary Tamil.
Dating Tolkappiyam
Mahadevan says that
Tolkappiyam must have been composed
not earlier than 2nd century AD
for it describes the use of puLLi
to denote basic consonants, and
to denote short vowels e and o
Voicing in Tamil
Today we write murukan and read it as murugan
k is called unvoiced and g as voiced.
The present use follows
Caldwell law of convertibility:
It is K in the beginning (KaN) and
when doubled (makkaL), and
it is G when it occurs in the middle (murugan) or
follows the nasal consonant (mangai)
There has been controversy whether
in the past also it was so in the past too.
Voicing in Tamil
One view is:
Voicing existed from the beginning
from the pre-Tamil stage.
It is present in all Dravidian languages.
Hence must have existed in early Tamil also
but not provided for in the spelling.
Originators were aware
of the principle of phoneme, and
did not feel necessary to borrow
voiced consonants from Brahmi.
Voicing in Tamil
Mahadevan says
There was no voicing in Tamil, in early Tamil.
If voicing was present the adaptors of the script
for Tamil from Brahmi
would have borrowed the corresponding letter.
Voicing in Tamil
Mahadevan continues:
Even in the loanwords from Prakrit
voicing has been systematically replaced
by the corresponding unvoiced consonants like,
kaNi (PKT: gani), utayana (PKT: udayana),
nanta (PKT: nanda),
kiTumpikan (PKT: kuTumbika) etc.
Voicing in Tamil
Mahadevan continues:
There is negative evidence in Tolkappiyam,
which devotes a whole chapter to
articulatory phonetics
(±Øòதததிகாரõ - பிறôபியø)
would have dealt with voicing
if the feature was present in the language.
Mahadevan does not discuss
The origin of Brahmi.
His research on the Indus script and
the possibility of Brahmi originating from it.
Effect of writing medium and tools
on the development of scripts.
Reason for the disappearance of VaTTezhuttu.
Now the stage is set for a serious study
of the development of Tamil scripts.
Thank you
S. Swaminathan

ppt - Indian Heritage