1945 Vietnam:
“South Viet”
58 Provinces
Hanoi, 2.7 mill - the nation’s
capital, on the banks of the Red
Country’s political, cultural and
educational capital, most
important economic center in the
Ho Chi Minh City, (Saigon), north
of the Mekong Delta in the South,
largest city 6 million. Country’s
economic heart and business hub.
Haiphong 2 mill
Danang, in the central part of the
country, is the third largest city
and an important port. 800K
Socialist Republic, Single Party Communist State
• Monetary: $1=21,000 Dong (/20)
• Age structure (2011):
– 0-14 years: 25.2% (male 11,945,354/female
– 15-64 years: 69.3% (male 31,301,879/female
31,419,306) Canada: 69%
– 65 years and over: 5.5% (male 1,921,652/female
• Median age: 27.8 years - Canada 40
• Population growth rate: 1.054% - Canada .78%
• Major infectious diseases: degree of risk: high
• Food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea, hepatitis A, and
typhoid fever
• Vector borne diseases: dengue fever, malaria, Japanese
encephalitis, and plague
• Urban population: 30% of total population
(2010) Canada 81%
• Language: Vietnamese (official), English
(increasingly favored as a second language), some
French, Chinese, and Khmer, mountain area
languages (Mon-Khmer and Malayo-Polynesian)
• 94% literacy
• 20% of Children under the age of 5 years
• Obesity: 5%, Canada: 23%
Cultural Hearths
Area of origin for key
elements of Asian
•Transit for Islam
•Transit for
3 Major Schools of Thought
– None 80.8%
– Buddhist 9.3%,
– Catholic 6.7%,
– Hoa Hao 1.5%,
– Cao Dai 1.1%,
– Protestant 0.5%, Muslim 0.1%, (1999 census)
Dao Hoa Hao
• . Based on Buddhism
• -Founded 1939 by Huỳnh Phú Sổ, a
native of the Mekong River
Delta region, southern Vietnam
• Adherentsconsider Sổ to be
a prophet, and Hòa Hảo a
continuation of a 19th-century
Buddhist ministry
• Founders are regarded by followers
as living Buddhas—destined to save
mankind from suffering and to
protect the Vietnamese nation.
• Approximately 2 million followers
throughout Vietnam; in some
provinces near its Delta birthplace,
up to 90% of the population practice
this tradition.
Cao Dai
• Established in city of Tây Ninh, southern Vietnam in 1926
• Caodaiists credit God as the religion's founder. They believe the
teachings, symbolism and organization were communicated directly
from God.
• Even the construction of the Tây Ninh Holy See is claimed to have had
divine guidance.
• Cao Đài's first disciples claimed to have received direct
communications from God, who gave them explicit instructions for
establishing a new religion.
• Adherents engage in ethical practices such as prayer, veneration of
ancestors, nonviolence, and vegetarianism with the minimum goal of
rejoining God the Father in Heaven and the ultimate goal of freedom
from the cycle of birth and death. 2-3 million followers, An additional
30,000 primarily ethnic Vietnamese, live in the United States, Europe,
and Australia.
Natural Resources
Oil and Gas
Vietnam’s potential crude oil reserves in the southern offshore area stand at about
270 million tons and are likely to increase substantially with continued exploration.
Vietnam has potential non-associated gas reserves of more than 360 billion cubic
meters. Proven associated gas reserves are on the order of 57 billion cubic meters.
Mineral Resources
Vietnam’s primary coal resource, anthracite, is concentrated in Quang Ninh Province
in the Northeast. It has potential recoverable reserves of 7-8 billion tons of which 600
million tons are shallow (within a depth of 100 meters). The country also has an
abundance of other minerals, including bauxite, iron ore, copper, gold, precious
stones, tin, chromate, apatite, and building materials such as granite, marble, clay,
silica sand, and graphite.
Other Resources
Vietnam is also very rich in other natural resources including significant hydropower
(10,000 MW), marine resources, tropical forest, and agricultural potential. The
country has 4 world heritages recognized by UNESCO, beautiful beaches, national
ecologic forests, countryside, high-land and historic places
• 2004 agriculture and forestry accounted for 21.8% Vietnam's gross
domestic product (GDP)
• Between 1994 and 2004, the sector grew at an annual rate of 4.1%
• Agriculture's share of economic output has declined in recent years,
falling as a share of GDP from 42% in 1989 to 26% in 1999, as
production in other sectors of the economy has risen
• 2005 approximately 60% of the employed labor force was engaged
in agriculture, forestry, and fishing
• Agricultural products accounted for 30 % of exports in 2005
• The relaxation of the state monopoly on rice exports transformed
the country into the world’s second or third largest rice exporter
• Other cash crops are coffee, cotton, peanuts, rubber, sugarcane,
and tea
• 2 Major River Deltas:
• Red River (north) 15,000 sq km
• Mekong (south) 40,000 sq km
– Largest rice growing region
– Rivers make great transport
Mekong Delta
Mekong Delta
• Region in southwestern Vietnam
• Mekong River empties into the sea through a network
of distributaries.
• Mekong delta region 39,000 square kilometres (15,000 sq mi).
The size of the area covered by water depends on the season.
• A 'biological treasure trove'. Over 10,000 new species have been
discovered in previously unexplored areas. Includes a species of
rat thought to be extinct.
• Bustling with trading ports and canals as early as in the first
century CE
• The area became Cochinchina, France's first colony in Vietnam
• Soil consists mainly of sediment from the Mekong and its
tributaries, deposited over thousands of years as the river
changed its course due to the flatness of the low-lying terrain
Mekong Delta Economy
• Due to its mostly flat terrain and few forested areas two
thirds (64.5%) of the region's land can be used for
• Land used for growing cereals = 47% of the national
total, more than northern and central Vietnam
combined. Most is used for rice cultivation.
• Rice output in 2011 was 23,186,000 t, 54.8% of
Vietnam's total output.
• The strongest producers are Kien Giang Province, An
Giang Province, and Dong Thap Province, producing over
3 million tonnes each and almost 11 million tonnes
• Any two of these provinces produce more than the entire
Red River Delta.
• The Mekong Delta also Vietnam's most important
fishing region.
• It has almost half of Vietnam's capacity of offshore
fishing vessels
• Fishery output was at 3.168 million tons (58.3% of
• All of Vietnam's largest fishery producers with over
300kt of output are in the Mekong Delta: Despite the
region's large offshore fishing fleet, 2/3 (2.13 million
tonnes out of Vietnam's total of 2.93) of fishery output
actually comes from aquaculture.
Rice agriculture,
Flooded rice paddies northern vietnam, Red River
Particularly susceptible to floods resulting from rises in
sea level due to climate change
Paddy Fields
• The word "paddy" is derived from the Malay word padi, rice plant.
• A paddy field is a flooded parcel of arable land used for growing rice and
other semiaquatic crops.
• Paddies can be built into steep hillsides as terraces and adjacent to
depressed or steeply sloped features such as rivers or marshes.
• They can require a great deal of labor and materials to create, and need
large quantities of water for irrigation.
• Flooded paddies provide an ideal environment for rice cultivation and
discourage the growth of many weeds.[
• The Oxen and water buffalo are one of the most important working
animals adapted for life in wetlands, and are used extensively in paddy
field farming.
• During the twentieth century, paddy field farming became the dominant
form of growing rice
• Paddy fields are a major source of atmospheric methane and have been
estimated to contribute in the range of 50 to 100 million tonnes of the gas
per annum.
• Recent studies have shown that this can be significantly reduced while
also boosting crop yield by draining the paddies to allow the soil to aerate
to interrupt methane production
Floating Market Cai Rang
Legendary Origins
and Lords…
2879 BC
258 BC 208BC
Han Control
111 BC
Thousands of years of Chinese rule
Ngo Dynasty
939 AD
1009 AD 1225 AD
1400 1428
1792 - 1883
United Vietnam w French help
1859 becomes part of French indochina
Quick Key Highlights
• The Vietnamese became independent from Imperial China
in 938 AD, following the Battle of Bạch Đằng River
• Vietnamese royal dynasties flourished as the nation
expanded geographically and politically into Southeast Asia
• The Indochina Peninsula was colonized by the French in the
mid-19th century
• The First Indochina War eventually led to the expulsion of
the French in 1954, leaving Vietnam divided politically into
two states, North and South Vietnam.
• Conflict between the two sides intensified, with heavy
foreign intervention, during the Vietnam War, which ended
with a North Vietnamese victory in 1975.
French Indochina was part of the French colonial empire in southeast Asia.
A federation of the three Vietnamese regions, Tonkin, Annam, and Cochinchina,
as well as Cambodia, was formed in 1887.
Laos was added in 1893 and Guangzhouwan in 1900
French Imperialism
• France fear England
had upper hand in
China after 1849
* The desire to
convert –
Approaches used in French
Colonization of Vietnam
• Tried Assimilation first Concept first adopted by
great philosopher Chris
Talbot, 1837.
• Based on the idea of
expanding French culture to
the colonies outside of
France in the 19th and 20th
• Natives of these colonies
were considered French
citizens as long as the culture
and customs were adopted.
• They would have the rights
and duties of French citizens.
• Then, in 1905, policy
switched to association
Consequences of French Imperialism
by 1940
• 90% peasants
• No new farming methods introduced
• Top down left little room to train
• 14 High Schools, 1 university
• 3% of Vietnamese landowners own
50% of land. Rest owned by French.
High Rents.
• Opium addiction/rubber/
• Small Western-educated elite limited
by French control
• Develops plantation economy:
• Promotes exports of tobacco, tea,
• Ignored call for civic rights and self
• French maintained control until WWII
Paul Doumer
Three Nationalist Movements
All motivated by
War 1905) and
Wilson’s 14 Points
The Rise of Ho Chi Minh
• Born Nguyen Sing
Cung in 1890
•Signs on a
Merchant Ship at
age of 19
•Becomes Nguyen
Ai Quoc in France
Ho Organizes the Vietminh
• 30 Years of
work for
• Returns to
Vietnam in 1941
• 8th Plenum of
Central Committee
of CP creates
Vo Nguyen Giap and Ho Chi Minh
• During World War II, when France fell to Germany,
Japan occupied Vietnam from 1940 to 1945. Ho saw
the Japanese invasion as a chance to build up a new
nationalist force, one that appealed to all aspects of
Vietnamese society. Therefore, in 1941, he founded the
Viet Minh (the League for Vietnamese Independence).
• Americans opposed the Japanese in World War II, so
Ho was able to convince U.S. leaders to secretly supply
the Viet Minh with weapons to fight their new
Japanese oppressors.
Out with the French and Request for
Help from the Americans
• Take control of
Hanoi August 19
• Reads declaration
of In-dependence
Sept. 2nd 1945
“All men are created
equal…certain inviolable
rights…life, the right to be
free and the right to
Ho: Nationalist or Communist?
• Letter to
reports on
When I was with Ho and Giap in the
field, I had the impression that they
would fight no matter how long it would
take to achieve their
independence….There was a fierce rage
against the French among the
Vietnamese. In contrast, Ho was kindly
disposed toward the Americans,
because he felt we were against
colonialism. He told me privately that
he would welcome one million
American soldiers, but not one
Frenchman.” Allison Kent Thomas
The American War
Key events: Dien Bien Phu 1954
• French are defeated
by Ho’s Forces in
Dien Bien Phu.
• Country divided at
17th Parallel
• Elections called for
• Instead, the West
supports Ngo Dinh
Diem in the south
who proclaims
himself president
Key events: Building the Ho Chi Minh
Key Events: Kennedy Starts Sending
troops (1961)/Diem Assasinated
Key Events: Bomb the north “into the
Stone Age” – Rolling Thunder
Key Events: Tet
Offensive (1968)
Key Events: Ho Dies (1969)
Key Events: Secret Bombing of
Cambodia (1969-70)
Key Events: Paris Peace Agreement
(1973); US begins withdral
Key Events: Northern troops enter Saigon
and the Presidential Palace (1975)
Consequences of the American War:
Consequences of the American War:
Agent Orange
Vietnam today: young, many with
money in the cities
Doi Moi
Doi Moi - economic reforms initiated in Vietnam in 1986 with the goal of creating a
"socialist-oriented market economy".
Doi Moi had been a long-standing process, starting with "exploratory changes" in
agricultural production experiment in 1967 in North Vietnam, painful.
Top-down reform program that required a handful of most influential high-ranking
political figures of Vietnam in mid-1980s.
Privately owned enterprises were permitted in commodity production (and later
encouraged) by the Communist Party of Vietnam; furthermore, the push to
collectivize the industrial and agricultural sectors of Vietnam, previously the focus
of intense efforts by the Communist authorities, was abandoned.
Doi Moi reforms led to the development of what is now referred to as the
Socialist-oriented market economy, where the state plays a decisive role in the
economy, but private enterprise and cooperatives play a significant role in
commodity production.
Đổi mới helped Vietnam establish diplomatic relationships with the capitalist West
and East Asia in the 1990s. The Communist Party of Vietnam has reaffirmed its
commitment to the socialist economic orientation, and that Doi Moi renovations
of the economy are intended to strengthen socialism.
The economic reforms that introduced market forces in Vietnam are likened to
modern Chinese economic reform.
Vietnam Today: Consequences of Doi
Moi (1986)
Vietnam today: American Embargo
lifted in 1994
• President Bill Clinton announced end of the embargo against
Vietnam, 19 years after North Vietnamese troops captured
• The decision result of Vietnamese government co-operation
in finding the remains of 2,200 Americans missing in action
(MIAs), and under pressure from US companies wanting to do
business in Vietnam
• The President has moved cautiously because of fears of
reawakening controversy over his opposition to the Vietnam
war. Senate gave him political cover by voting 62-38 to urge
him to end the embargo
Normalization 1995
After a 20-years of severed ties, Bill Clinton announced the formal normalization of
diplomatic relations between the United States of America and the Socialist
Republic of Vietnam on July 11, 1995.
In August 1995, both countries upgraded their Liaison Offices opened during
January 1995 to embassy status.
The United States opened a consulate general in Ho Chi Minh City, and Vietnam
opened a consulate in San Francisco.
U.S. relations with Vietnam have become deeper and more diverse in the years
since political normalization.
The two countries have broadened their political exchanges through regular and
regional security.
The annual Bilateral Human Rights Dialogue resumed in 2006 after a two-year
They signed a Bilateral Trade Agreement in July 2000, which went into force in
December 2001.
2003, the two countries signed a Counternarcotics Letter of Agreement (amended
in 2006), a Civil Aviation Agreement, and a textile agreement. In January 2007,
Congress approved Permanent Normal Trade Relations (PNTR) for Vietnam.
4. Vietnam today: What might you
Vietnam Today: Capitalism with a
Communist face
Chairman of National
Assembly, Nguyen
Sinh Hung
Secretary General of the
Vietnam Communist Party
VCP, Nguyen Phu Trong
President of Vietnam:
Truong Tan Sang
Prime Minister
Nguyen Tan Dong
Ho Still doing his job……
Economic Information
GDP growth rate: (%)
Inflation: (%)
Unemployment: (%)
GDP: ($ billion)
GDP per capita: ($)
Trade and Investment (2011)
• Canadian exports to Vietnam: $335,313,317
• Canadian imports from
Vietnam: $1,332,142,729
• http://www.indexmundi.com/canada/demographics_profil
• http://www.indexmundi.com/vietnam/demographics_profi
• http://www.thecrimson.com/article/1962/3/30/communis
• http://www.slideshare.net/duemer/vietnamesegeography-history
• http://www.vietnamustrade.org/index.php?f=news&do=detail&id=37&lang=en
1. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/United_States%E2%80%93Vi