Meta design: approcci al progetto
collaborativo di sistemi interattivi da parte
degli utenti per gli utenti
Piero Mussio
DICO- Università di Milano
[email protected]
Scaletta
Il punto di vista di uno studioso della scienza dei calcolatori
attivo nel campo dell’interazione persona-macchina
1. Il contesto: produsage
2. Il brodo primordiale dell’evoluzione: la comunicazione digitale
3. Un caso: il museo Virtuale Tarchna
4. L’utente come progettista: strumenti ed architetture
1- Il contesto: produsage
HCI and web technologies evolution makes
user to evolve from content and data consumer
to content and data producer
(produsers)[Bruns 2006]
“Meta-design characterizes objectives, techniques, and processes for
creating new media and environments allowing ‘owners of problems’
(that is, end users) to act as designers”
[Fischer et al. 2004, CACM]
Co-evolution of users and systems
Produsage emerges from a co-evolution process
social &
organizational
context
technology
culture
artifacts
interpration
materialization
materialization
interpretation
cycle
1
cycle
2
Produsage: collaborative, continuous building and extending
Social
& technologies
evolve
The
userorganizations
culture
and
the
artifacts
evolve
Toward
user-led
content
Wikipedia:
“
any
one
can
edit”
Users’
appropriation
of
the
artifacts
evolves
their
practice
of existing content in pursuit of further improvement
2.Il brodo primordiale dell’evoluzione: la
comunicazione digitale
Comunicazione tra umani
[after Tondl 81]
communicant I
subjective
world
communicant II
a
cod-decod
methods
channel
3
a
cod-decod
methods
subjective
world
3
2
a : messaggio
2
1: perceives
2: refers to
SA I
A
B
3: stands for
SA II
1
SA I ( II ) : State of affairs
referred to by message
as perceived
by comunicant I(II)
1
Due interpretazioni
per ogni messaggio
(modello Ogden-Richards: il
triangolo cibernetico)
Comprensione
Phenomena to which
the conversation relates
(valutabile sperimentalmente)
Equivoco
Gap comunicazionale
Semantizzazione progressiva
La comunicazione digitale
Il messaggio digitale ha una forma interna ed una esterna
Forma interna
(Contenuto)
Programma 1
0100000101010101011000
1101011010101010101010
1111100101010101010110
0101010101010101010110
11001110011001100110011
Programma2
Programma 3
Forme esterne
(percepibili
dall’umano)
suono
video
stampa
-il supporto di memorizzazione è diverso dal supporto che rende il
messaggio percepibile
-la materializzazione del messaggio è mediata dai programmi che
localmente traducono forma interna in esterna
Novità rispetto ai messaggi orali e scritti.
• La forma esterna è determinata dal programma che la genera
• permane fintantoché il programma la fa permanere
• dipende dal programma ( e quindi dall’autore del programma)
• il sistema ricevente può adattarla all’utente ed al contesto
Il contenuto è persistente ma la forma esterna è labile
• il messaggio è interattivo e pro-attivo (non tace come il libro)
• interazione e pro-attività dipendono da programmi (e quindi dai loro
autori )
• l’autore crede di produrre un segnale in forma esterna ma produce una
forma interna che solo un programma può interpretare.
L’autore:
- non può garantire la forma esterna
- non può garantire l’accessibilità della forma interna
Comunicazione tra persona e sistema
User
Designer
a
Il programma ha un ruolo
attivo nella
comunicazione che
nessuno strumento ha
mai avuto. Codifica e
de-codifca secondo
criteri programmati dal
progettista
Mondo percepito
dal singolo
Designer's SA
User's SA
Ma l’uomo interpreta la forma esterna ed il programma quella interna
La comunicazione…
Il sistema è un proxy del progettista (de Souza 2006)
User
a
User's SA
b
Designer
Designer's SA
Il sistema interattivo è un messaggio attivo (b):
Un messaggio pro-attivo che il progettista invia all’utente.
Un messaggio che genera e interpreta altri messaggi (a):
un meta messaggio
che si comporta come è programmato a fare
Nuove possibilità
L’utente come produuser: può generare nuovi contenuti- ad esempio
mediante sistemi di annotazione.
SCHERMO
4. Decide di salvare
l’annotazione
3 studia il documento
e l’annota
Utente
1 .Richiesta
documento
Annotazione
creata dall’utente
Documento
2. Il documento
ritrovato
viene mostrato
Archivio
Documenti
5. l’annotazione viene
archiviata,
e diviene un documento
gestibile
Utente:
da
consumatore
a produttore
di conoscenza
In caratteri Agency: azioni che l’utente fa usando il sistema come strumento (ricordare i 4 ruoli)
In caratteri tahoma: azioni che il sistema esegue come secondo agente nella conversazione
Armour: il software è un nuovo medium di conoscenza (Comm.Acm, 2003)
Sfruttare le opportunità, superare i trabocchetti
Riconoscere l’utente come “owner of the problem”
l’utente come co-autore della forma esterna,
interazione, e organizzazione dei contenuti
(progettazione partecipativa)
Riconoscere i nuovi problemi
i gap comunicazionali
tra utenti e progettisti
tra diverse comunità di utenti
2- Un caso: il museo Virtuale Tarchna e
l’emersione di un nuovo medium di
conoscenza
The T.Arc.H.N.A. project
The UE funded T.Arc.H.N.A. project is aimed at making
Etruscan Cultural Heritage accessible, understandable and
attractive to large public (and remunerative for Museums
and Archeological sites)
Problem: findings, monuments and
documents are dispersed throughout
European museums.
Visitors can see them, but cannot
understand
their
context
of
production, employment and role in
the Etruscan life.
Etruscan era: 1200 BC- 100 BC
Archeologist foreseen strategy
Reconstruction of the unity of the Etruscan Cultural Heritage
by creating an hypertext (T.Arc.H.N.A. system)..
T.Arc.H.N.A. reconstructs contexts by linking electronic
documents describing the monuments and different findings
which constitute it.
Each finding is associated to several meanings
A crater is built to contain
liquids…..
..contains wine in a cerimony. A
symbol of life, joy and amusement
..but it can assume different functions and play different roles
…but also used as a funerary
container as explained by the
context in which is discovered
...contains
ashes and
bones,
A symbol
of death
and sorrow
Archeologist foreseen strategy
Archeologists need to
• associate each finding to its practical and symbolic
meanings studying its roles and functions in different
contexts of the Etruscan life
•reconstruct the spatial context in which it was found and
functional and anthropological contexts in which it was
plausibly used.
•describe the different functions and roles the finding
played in in different life situations, from the use in
everyday life to the use in rituals.
• create texts (narrations) which introduce the different
cultural issues connecting findings and documents.
Information scientists foreseen strategy
Create the an hypertext presenting the Etruscan Cultural
Heritage as unified whole (T.Arc.H.N.A. system).
Visitors
Archeologists
Archives of 7 European
Museums
Derive
T.Arc.H.N.A.
ontology from
CIDOC Conceptual
Reference
Model* ontology
Use T-ontology to
federate existing
European
archives.
*The CIDOC CRM is official ISO 21127:2006 standard
ontology for Cultural Heritage
The start: a clash between the two cultures
Different views on reality, different ways of
reasoning and teaching
- abstraction, observation, measurement, evaluation
model based vs analogy based
algorithmic vs. heuristic
-knowledge representation, organization and diffusion
computer based vs paper based
explicit information vs implicit information
- communicating, teaching and learning :
formalization based vs practical observation
different balance between explicit and tacit knowledge
An observed phenomenon
Communicational and reasoning gaps
- Same
word used with different meaning
- Different naming techniques (use of synonymy and context)
- use of tacit knowledge in the development and interpretation of
documents leads to misunderstandings and equivoques
To overcome the gaps
Both Archeologists and Computer Scientists
• admitted that dealing with such a complex achievement,
they had to accept to teach and instruct each other.
(simmetry of ignorance)
• recognized the
Need of performing a progressive semantization process
to create a common language as a common field of
interaction and not only a common terminology
The progressive semantization process
Started from CIDOC Conceptual Reference Model ontology
used as a boundary object for reaching a common
understanding
Based on the development of incremental prototypes used
to externalize stakeholders’ tacit knowledge and as
boundary objects
Results:
1. A portal “Virtual Museum”
2. The emergence of the new digital communication media
“Narration”
1° risultato : un Museo Virtuale
Il museo Virtuale è costituito da un sistema interattivo
(Tarchna System o T-system)
T-system permette agli archeologi di creare narrazioni digitali
di che descrivono aspetti della civiltà etrusca.
T-system è capace di interpretare queste narrazioni, e
presentarle ai visitatori dei musei
T-system permette ai visitatori di esplorare la civiltà etrusca
interagendo con le narrazioni.
2° Result: emergence of a new communication
media
A NARRATION appears to visitors as a narrativeTEXT (A) and a
set of documents (B) which contextualize the issue in its
anthropological and historical context (CS-CONTEXT )
Narration creation (1)
A two step activity
First step: an Archeologist interacts with T-system in domain
oriented languages to define
• TEXT
• CS-CONTEXT DESCRIPTION.
CS-CONTEXT DESCRIPTION defines which documents may
be of interest
T-system supports archeologists authoring TEXT and CONTEXT
DESCRIPTION
•makes available scientific abstracts created from narration texts
and literature
•providing a well suited internal form of TEXT and CONTEXT
Archeologist defines indirect narration
TEXT
Music had a
great
importance in
the Etruscan
society
CONTEXT Description
Select all instruments
made
of bronze material
A Narration Builder was
designed in which interaction
occurs according to archeologist
mental models and languages
allowing them to exploit their
tacit knowledge in defining
CONTEXT DESCRIPTION
without becoming acquainted in
computer science.
Narration creation (2)
Second step: On user demand, T-system
• interprets the CS-CONTEXT DESCRIPTION,
• retrieves the documents in the web,
• creates on the fly the NARRATION displaying TEXT and
CSCONTEXT (the set of documents).
Observations:
CS-CONTEXT DESCRIPTION is a program
T-system federates the db of the museums to create the
CSCONTEXT on the fly
An overview of the Tarchna system
Narration Builder: T-system support archeologists
and organizes a narration archives
Archeologist
Creates narrations
Narration archives
T-system support
users
On demand, selects a
narration, interpret it,
creates the contexts,
present the result to
visitors
Visitor
Narration features
A narration cannot be predicted in advance: the TEXT (A) is
permanent as defined by the text author.
The CONTEXT
(set of documents
B) is built on the
fly: it depends on
the number and
current state of
the data bases
available in the
web
New roles for Archeologists, Systems and
Visitors
A NARRATION is the result of:
- social activity the of community of archeologists, in the
creation of TEXT, CONTEXT DESCRIPTION and of the
documents in the federated data bases.
- T-SYSTEM mediation: T-system interprets CS-CONTEXT
DESCRIPTION to create CONTEXT. T-system as a proxy of
Archeologits who create it
Visitors become active builder of their experience
Archeologists as produsers
In content creation:
•Shift from dedicated individuals and team as producer to
a distributed generation of content.
•Fluid roles in production: fluid movements as leaders,
participant and users
•Artifact generated are no longer products in traditional
sense: continually under development
(evolutionary, iterative)
La lezione (confermata da molte esperienze)
Il progetto di dì sistemi che supportano processi di
interazione così complessi richiede
• l’esperienza di diversi specialisti (un approccio
partecipativo)
• che operino alla pari ( simmetria dell’ignoranza (Rittel))
Each stakeholder’s knowledge complements the
ignorance of the others
• una adeguata infrastruttura digitale di supporto
33
3- una generalizzazione: la metodologia
Software Shaping Workshops
Meta-design
Our view:
A design paradigm that includes end users as active
members of the design team and provides all
stakeholders in the team with suitable languages and
tools to foster their personal and common reasoning
about the development of interactive software systems
that support end users’ work.
Two-phase process
– the first devoted to design the design environment
– the second one to design applications using the
design environment
Our meta-design approach
A design methodology (SSW methodology) aimed at designing
interactive infrastructures that address the needs of different
communities of end users and allow them to design their
tools
A software infrastructure is composed by software environments,
and communication channels
Each software environment is devoted to a specific community
of stakeholders, organized as virtual workshops, called
Software Shaping Workshops (SSW)
A metaphor for conceptual design: artisan workshop
(Not workshop as a people meeting)
The software infrastructure
PROVIDES LANGUAGES to support each stakeholder in
reasoning on the activities to be performed
expressing her/his own view of the interaction process
PROVIDES channels to support each stakeholder in
communicating her/his view with the others
during all the stages of the design & development &use
process
37
Interactive system as SSW network
high
Computational power
Usability for end users
low
Meta-Design
Level
W-SE
W-RReprX
Design Level
…W-ReprZ
W-ReprW
Use Level
…
W-EU-X1
high
W-ReprY
W-ReprX
W-HCI
W-EU-Z1
…
W-EU-X2
…
…
W-EU-Y2
…
W-EU-Z2
low
W-EU-Y1
…
W-EU-W1
W-EU-W2
Each SSW provides only the tools to perform the desired activities
Turing Tar Pit
Turing Tar Pit: “Beware of the Turing Tar Pit, in which everything is
possible, but nothing of interest is easy.”
Inverse of Turing Tar Pit: “Beware of the over-specialized systems,
where operations are easy, but little of interest is possible.”
[G. Fischer 2006]
39
Case study
A web application to support the CIDD activities
CIDD (Consorzio Italiano Distribuzione Dolciaria) is a consortium
of Italian companies operating in confectionery field
The application provides the consortium companies with several
services
– price lists
– order management
– discounts ….
– to exchange information and cooperate through the Web
First release of the application did not satisfy the CIDD manager
He wanted to be more powerful, to shape companies Web pages
Next release was developed with SSW methodology, to allow end
users to be co-designers of their tools
40
Three types of end users
Power user: sales manager (and his secretary)
– To visualize, insert, modify and delete workshop contents
– To define access rules
– To design workshops
Associated companies: companies representatives
– To access contracts, catalogues, promotions, competitions
– To make orders
– To design workshops for their customers
Registered guests: company customers, partners
– To access to specific contents
Each type of user has different interests, responsibilities and skills, and
performs different activities
41
The SSW network in the CIDD case study
high
Computational power
Usability for end users
low
Meta-Design
Level
SE
SalesManager
Design Level
AssocRep1
…
AssocRepN
Use Level
…
Assoc1
high
HCI
AssocN
…
Cust1.1
…
…
CustN.1
…
Cust1.H
low
Partner1
…
PartnerN
CustN.K
42
SalesManager workshop
The sales manager designs the workshop for representatives of an associated company,
providing it with some services. He selects the company from a list, a service from
another lists and clicks on the association button to associate the service to that company
43
Workshop for associated company representatives
Communication area
for exchanging
messages in the network
Services for the workshop users are on the left
The company representative is creating the catalogue for a customer, that will appear in
the customer workshop.
He selects companies that provide products to the customer, indicating prices, % of
revenues, etc.
44
SSWs permit to design and evolve a system
through collaborative negotiations
The negotiation is based on the exchange along the SSW
network of two types of messages:
– executable specifications of workshops (XML-based
documents)
– annotations about these workshops
A stakeholder designs or updates a workshop (e.g. sales
manager) by using a domain specific language. His
actions modify the executable specification that, when
interpreted by the browser, generates the new workshop
45
SSWs permit to design and evolve a system
through collaborative negotiations
The negotiation is based on the exchange along the SSW
network of two types of messages:
– executable specifications of workshops (XML-based
documents)
– annotations about these workshops
A stakeholder designs or updates a workshop (e.g. sales
manager) by using a domain specific language. His
actions modify the executable specification that, when
interpreted by the browser, generates the new workshop
Communication paths in the network
Communication path along which the exchanges of data
and programs occur
Exchange paths:
– among the workshops at the
same level
Request paths:
– concerned with the communications going
from low levels to higher levels
– trigger the co-evolution process, carrying on
the feedback from end users (requests for
workshop modification or extension)
Generation paths:
– represent the activity of using workshops at a
high level to generate, modify or extend
workshops to be used at the lower level
– new or evolved workshops are made
available to lower levels along such
generation paths
Communication paths in the network
Exchange paths:
–
among the workshops at the same level
Request paths:
– concerned with the communications
going from low levels to higher
levels
– trigger the co-evolution process,
carrying on the feedback from end
users (requests for workshop
modification or extension)
Generation paths:
–
–
represent the activity of using workshops at a high
level to generate, modify or extend workshops to be
used at the lower level
new or evolved workshops are made available to
lower levels along such generation paths
Communication paths in the network
Exchange paths:
among the workshops at the same level
Request paths:
–
–
concerned with the communications going from low
levels to higher levels
trigger the co-evolution process, carrying on the
feedback from end users (requests for workshop
modification or extension)
Generation paths:
– represent the activity of using
system workshops at a high level to
generate, modify or extend
workshops to be used at the lower
level
– new or evolved workshops are
made available to lower levels along
such generation paths
Una possibile realizzazione
Un sistema SSW può essere realizzato con diverse
architetture: qui ne vediamo una sviluppata da una
collaborazione Milano-Bari nell’ambito PCL.
L’architettura richiede la definizione di tre linguaagi e viene
istanziata interpretando un insieme di documenti scritti
nei tre linguaggi che definiscono il profilo dell’utente, del
suo ruolo nell’interazione e della piattaforma usata.
50
User
Client ricco, con interazione grafica,
possibilità di annotazione ricorsiva,
indicizzazione di annotazione e
documenti
HTTP
request
http(s) transport
XML
data
Server-side
systems
Gestisce l’ inizializzazione del
processo, la gestione dell’interazione e
della base di conoscenza
SOAP Interface
Browser
client
Per creare
un’infrastruttura dalle
caratteristiche volute:
architettura comune
ai singoli ambienti
Knowledge Management Engine
Basato su ontologia di dominio.
Espone servizi
db1
db2
dbn
Descrivere il sistema a diversi livelli di astrazione
52
L’architettura comune
User
Browser
client
Viewer
user interface
ECMAScript
call
DOM
BANCO client-side application
BANCO engine
Instantiation and
Interaction
Libraries
(ECMAScript)
HTTP
request
XSLT
Processor
XSL rules
BANCO configuration
specification
IM2L
http(s) transport
Web Server
BANCO server-side application
LML
TL
XML
data
Server-side
systems
Il processo di materializzazione
Transformatio
n Rules
Localized
Template
XSLT
XSL
Template
IM2L
document
XSLT
SVG Full
DOM tree
54
Il processo di localizzazione
Transformatio
n Rules
LML
document
XSLT
XSL
Localization
TL
document
XSLT
Localized
Template
55
Future scenario for Software
Recent projects describe a future scenario for software systems
– Software will increasingly be part of integrated, heterogeneous,
and continuously developing infrastructures
– End users will actively change the tools they work with and
orchestrate different services as building blocks to provide the
functionality they need
– In cases where the required functionality cannot be obtained by
simple tailoring, they will communicate and cooperate with
local and other professional designers who in turn might call
upon a network of peers or developers of the base products and
frameworks used
New languages and new architectures are arising to respond to this
evolution
56
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