ORGANIZATION AND MANAGEMENT
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ORGANIZATION AND MANAGEMENT
Organization and The Needs for Management
 we are members of one organization or another
- a sport team
- a musical group
- a civic organization
- a religious organization
- arm forces
- business
 some are formal
Informal
 common elements
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- army
- business
- sports team
- musical group
- goals
- plan + mobilization of resources
- managers/leaders
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ORGANIZATION AND MANAGEMENT
WHY ORGANIZATION
IS NEEDED

Serves society.
 Accomplish objectives.

Preserves knowledge.
 Organizations provide career.
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WHY MANAGEMENT
IS NEEDED
•TO SERVE ORGANISATIONS
•TO GUIDE ORGANISATIONS
•TO PLAN FOR ORGANISATION
•TO CONTROL ORGANISATION
•TO MONITOR ORGANISATION
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ORGANIZATION AND MANAGEMENT
MNAGEMENT IS AN INTELLECTUAL WORK – people in
organization
MAKING IMPORTANT DECISIONS
TYPE, SIZE
Organization
GOALS
Management

effectiveness

efficiency
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People
Organizations Growth
In size, diversity,
complexity
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ORGANIZATION AND MANAGEMENT
• “Social Technology” – Design and
Managing Organization
• Effective Management – in our greatest
accomplishment.
• To date: Number of professional
managers?
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ORGANIZATION AND MANAGEMENT
Organization and Internal Culture
 A set of values, belief, understanding

Commonly shared
Management Role:- to shape up culture – management style.
Organizational Culture & Management Style
Have significant impact on 2 fundamental values;
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1.
Productivity
2.
Well being
Increase performance
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ORGANIZATION AND MANAGEMENT
Organizational
Performance
goal/objectives
is a measure of goals/objective accomplishment.
Managerial and Organizational Performance
Managerial Performance
How well managers do their jobs
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ORGANIZATION AND MANAGEMENT
THE MEASURE OF HOW EFFECTIVE
AND EFFICIENT A MANAGER IS –
HOW WELL HE OR SHE DETERMINES
TO ACHIEVES APPROPRIATE
OBJECTIVES
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DOING THINGS
RIGHT
DOING THE RIGHT THING
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ORGANIZATION AND MANAGEMENT
ORGANIZATION
DEFINITION
Structuring and integrating activities.
People and task and cooperation in interdependent relationship.
So Organisation is:
-
goal oriented arrangement
-
Psychosocial system – people interact in groups
-
Technological system
-
An integration of structured activities.
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ORGANIZATION AND MANAGEMENT
EVOLUTION OF ORGANIZATION
•LARGE
•COMPLEX
•MULTIPLE OBJECTIVES
SMALL FAMILIES
VILLAGES
OTHER SOCIAL
ORGANIZATIONS
COMMUNITEE
FEUDAL NATION
BUSINESS ORGANIZATIONS
MANAGERS &
ADMINISTRATORS
MANAGERS
•SMALL
•SIMPLE
•SINGLE OBJECTIVE
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ORGANIZATION AND MANAGEMENT
ORGANIZATION CHART
CEO
TOP
MIDDLE
MANAGER
MANAGER
MANAGER
MANAGER
BOTTOM
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ORGANIZATION AND MANAGEMENT
ENVIRONMENT
ENVIRONMENT
2
1
INPUT
5
4
OUTPUT
3
ENVIRONMENT
1.
Goal & values sub-system
2.
Technical sub-system
3.
Structural sub-system
4.
Pschosocial sub-system
5.
Managerial sub-sistem
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ORGANIZATION AS A SYSTEM
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ORGANIZATION AND MANAGEMENT
MANAGEMENT
DEFINITION
Many authors defined management differently due to differ in
perceptive and backgound. Till today there is no definition that
can be regarded as comprehensive and totally acceptable at all
situation.
(i)
As a process where a group of people cooperate and coordinate
their actions to achieve the same goal.
- Massie, J.L., Essentials of Management….
(ii) As a process that responsible for effective planning and organizing
a firm operations.
- Brech.
(iii) Is mental (thinking, intuiting and feeling) work performed by
people in an organizational context.
- Kast & Rosenzweig, 1979.
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ORGANIZATION AND MANAGEMENT
(iv) As the art of getting thing done through other people.
- Mary P. Follet
(v) As a process of planning, organizing, leading and controlling the
work of organization members and of using all available resources
to reach stated organizational goals.
- J.A.F. Stoner, Management, 1982.
(vi) And many more
All the above definitions shows that:
They are different; Emphasize different things; Overlapping term;
But, The keyword is: A PROCESS.
Management is a process of integrating resources (human, plants,
materials) which are unrelated to become a system so that
organizational goals can be achieved effectively.
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ORGANIZATION AND MANAGEMENT
MANAGEMENT CONCEPT
M
A
N
A
G
E
M
E
N T
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Management
Process
Forecasting
Planning
Organizing
Coordinating
Controlling
Motivating
Resources
Human
Plants
Materials
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Achieving
Organization
Goals
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ORGANIZATION AND MANAGEMENT
LEVEL OF MANAGEMENT
Environment
top
middle
bottom
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strategic
CEOs
Functional
managers
First line
Managers
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coordinative
operative
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ORGANIZATION AND MANAGEMENT
FUNCTIONAL & GENERAL MANAGER
Functional
Management
Functional
Management
General Manager(GM)
Functional
Management
First-line Managers
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Functional
Management
Functional
Management
First-line Managers
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ORGANIZATION AND MANAGEMENT
Percentage Spent on Functional Activities
by Organizational Level
Top
Managers
Middle
Managers
First-line
Managers
Planning
28%
Planning
18%
Planning
15%
Organizing
36%
Organizing
33%
Organizing
24%
Leading
22%
Controlling
14%
Leading
36%
Controlg
13%
Leading
51%
Controlg
10%
Mahoney et. al., 1965.
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ORGANIZATION AND MANAGEMENTIS
Skills For Effective Performance
Top
Middle
Bottom
Conceptual
Conceptual
Conceptual
Human
Human
Human
Technical
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Technical
Technical
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ORGANIZATION AND MANAGEMENT
MANAGERIAL ROLES
A role consists of the behaviour patterns expected of an individual
within a social unit.
Interpersonal
Roles
Informational
Role
Figurehead
Leader
Liaison
Monitor
Disseminator
Spokesman
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Decision Role
Entrepreneur
Resource Allocator
Negotiator
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ORGANIZATION AND MANAGEMENT
The Challenge of Management
Preparing for the Future
Management may rely heavily on
Human Skills & Conceptual Skills
Major Changes Includes:
•Paradigm Shifts
•Chaos Theory
•Workplace Diversity
•Merger & Acquisition
•Not-for-profit Organization
•Globalization
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ORGANIZATION AND MANAGEMENT
The Challenge of Management
Paradigm Shifts
It is a mind-set that presents a fundamental
way of thinking, perceiving and understanding the world.
• Watch Technology
• Travel Technology
• Construction Procurement System
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ORGANIZATION AND MANAGEMENT
The Challenge of Management
Chaos Theory
•The Existence of Randomness & Disorder
•Unpredictable
Shifting Paradigm
from
Predictable and control future events
To
Flexible, adaptable & stay connected with customers and environment.
Managers concern more on
Facilitating teams and managing overall pattern
Than
Detailed planning and controlling
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ORGANIZATION AND MANAGEMENT
The Challenge of Management
Workplace Diversity
Organization must learn to Welcome
Diverse people at the Upper Ranks
• Different Sex
• Different Race
• Different Nationality
• Internet
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ORGANIZATION AND MANAGEMENT
The Challenge of Management
Merger and Acquisitions
Mergers and Reorganizations are seen as an
Opportunity for Companies to become more efficient.
Managers must be flexible to work for New Bosses
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ORGANIZATION AND MANAGEMENT
The Challenge of Management
Globalization
Managers need to think Globally because are enmeshed with
Foreign competitors, suppliers, and customers.
•AFTA
•NAFTA
•EU
Successful managers of tomorrow will be able to
cross borders, will be good at language, and will
Understand cultural differences.
Global experience is a prize asset of
the managers of tomorrow.
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MANAGEMENT AND ORGANIZATION
Size, diversity,
complexity
Internal Culture
Performance
ORGANIZATION
Quality
Strength
GOALS
Management
Manager
- Productivity
- Well being
Different styles
Permanent &
Temporary
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TENDER
CONSTRUCTION – A PROCESS
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COST
TIME
QUALITY
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PROJECT
SUCCESS/PERFORMANCE
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
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COST
TIME
QUALITY
COMMERCIAL VALUE (PROFIT)
ENVIRONMENTAL PERFORMANCE
USER EXPECTATION/SATISFACTION
PARTICIPANTS SATISFACTION
HEALTH AND SAFETY
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MULTIPLE INPUT PROCESS
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•CLIENT INTENTION
• LAND MATTERS
• ACQUISITION
• CONVERTION
• AMALGAMATION
• MARKET STUDY
• FEASIBILITY STUDY
• DESIGN CONCEPT
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•PROJECT MANAGER
•VALUER
•LAND SURVEYOR
•QUANTITY SURVEYOR
•ARCHITECT
•PLANNER
•RESEARCHER
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












–
–
–
–


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LAYOUT PLAN
ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN
C & S DESIGN
DETAILINGS
M & E DESIGN
LANDSCAPE DESIGN
AUTHORITIES APPROVAL
o
PLANNING
o
SUB-DIVISIONS
o
BUILDING DESIGNS
o
STRUCTURAL DESIGN
• PROJECT MANAGER
• VALUER
• LAND SURVEYOR
• QUANTITY SURVEYOR
• ARCHITECT
• PLANNER
• RESEARCHER
M & E DESIGN
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 DRAWINGS
BILL OF QUATITIES
SPECIFICATION
RATES
CALL FOR TENDER
SUBMISSION OF TENDER
EVALUATION OF TENDER
AWARD OF CONTRACT
PROJECT MANAGER
QUANTITY SURVEYOR
ARCHITECT
PLANNER
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 
 
TAKE OVER SITE
MOBILIZATION OF RESOURCES
o
o
o
 
 
 
MANPOWER
MATERIAL AND COMPONENTS
PLANT AND EQUIPMENT
ACTUAL CONSTRUCTION
PRACTICAL COMPLETION
OBTAINED O.C.
PENGURUS PROJEK
JURUUKUR BAHAN
ARKITEK
C&S
M&E
CONTRAKTOR
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– HANDING OVER
– DEFECT LIABILITY PERIOD
(DLP)
– FINAL ACCOUNT
PENGURUS PROJEK
JURUUKUR BAHAN
ARKITEK
C&S
M&E
CONTRAKTOR
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VARIOUS
INPUT
MANAGEMENT
PROJECT
OBJECTIVE
PROJECT MANAGEMENT – AN ORGANISATION
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PROJECT MANAGEMENT - A PROCESS
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FORECASTING
PLANNING
COORDINATION
ORGANISING
COMMUNICATION
MANAGEMENT PROCESS AT PREDESIGN
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ORGANISING
PLANNING
CONTROL
COORDINATION
MOTIVATION
COMMUNICATION
MANAGEMENT PROCESS AT DESIGN STAGE
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MANAGEMENT PROCESS AT CONSTRUCTION
STAGE
ORGANISE
COORDINATION
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CONTROL
COMMUNICATION
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PLANNING
ORGANISING
CONTROL
MANAGEMENT
PROCESS AT
OCCUPATION
STAGE
CORDINATION
MOTIVATION
COMMUNICATION
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CONTROLLING
PLANNING
HIGH
LOW
PLANNING VS CONTROLLING IN CONSTRUCTION
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Organization and The Needs for Management