Ch. 13: MIDDLE AGES –
Section 1:
Germanic Kingdoms Unite
under Charlemagne
AKINS HIGH SCHOOL
Mr. Loessin’s
World
History
Room 167
Tutorials: T-F 8:20-8:50
TODAY’S OBJECTIVES:
• Identify effects of the Germanic invasions on the western Roman Empire.
• Explain Germanic ideas about government and describe the first Frankish king.
• Show how Christianity spread among Germanic peoples.
• Summarize events leading to the rise of the Frankish kingdom.
• Describe the rise and fall of Charlemagne’s empire.
AGENDA: Please Begin your Warm-up Immediately !
• WARM-UP – Read Textbook p. 316 Interact with History:
“Peasant’s Life”
• INTRODUCTION to new Unit and assignments
• DISCUSSION of Section 1, Text p. 317-321 / packet p. 1
• DAILY QUIZ
NEXT ASSIGNMENT:
• Read Chapter 13, Section 2-3 and complete p. 3-4 in packet
According to
your homework
reading, Which
of the Germanic
tribes would
settle in Gaul and
be the first to
convert to
Christianity?
The CLASSICAL Period ends with the fall of the Roman Empire in the West!
476 A.D. - Roman empire in Western Europe collapses.
Roman emperor Romulus Augustulus surrenders to the German general Odovacar.
The MEDIEVAL Period in Western European history now begins!
Medium aevum -- Medieval or The Middle Ages
The period from 500 – 1500 A.D. in Europe is known as
the Middle Ages or Medieval period.
CH 13 Section 1, “Invasions Trigger Changes in Europe” Textbook p. 317
List the
STUDY
Effects
for Short
found
on
Essay
p. 317!
Effects of Germanic Invasions on Western Europe
• Disruption of Trade – businesses failed, money worthless, no available goods.
• Cities abandoned – no government officials or security; frightened people fled.
• Population shifts – move to rural areas to grow food / become self-sufficient.
• Decline of Learning – few are literate and classical Greek knowledge fades.
• Loss of Common language – different dialects and Romance languages develop
CH 13 Section 1, “Germanic Kingdoms Unite” Textbook p. 318; Packet p. 1
Read, “The Concept of Government Changes” p. 318
Loyalty to government and written laws that once unified Roman society
now disappeared.
Family ties and personal loyalties, rather than citizenship in a State,
now bound Germanic peoples together in small communities.
The Germanic stress on personal ties to local leaders made it impossible
for one single ruler to establish orderly government for large territories.
PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins H.S.
CH 13 Section 1, “Germanic Kingdoms Unite” Textbook p. 318
Recognizing a
Turning Point in History
In the old Roman province of Gaul,
a Germanic people
called the Franks
took power.
TEXTBOOK, p. 318:
Read about the
conversion of
Clothilde,
Clovis’ wife,
and finally
the baptism of
Clovis and
3,000 of his
Frankish
warriors.
The leader of the Franks, Clovis would
convert to Christianity –
creating the first alliance
between one of the
Germanic peoples
and the Christian Pope in Rome.
PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins H.S.
CH 13 Section 1, “Germanic Kingdoms Unite” Textbook p. 318; PACKET p. 1
Recognizing a
Turning Point in History
TEXTBOOK, p. 318:
Read about the
conversion of
Clothilde,
Clovis’ wife,
and finally
the baptism of
Clovis and
3,000 of his
Frankish
warriors.
The leader
strategic
between
Clovis’
The
of alliance
the Franks,
Clovis
would
FrankishtoKingdom
and the
convert
Christianity
– Church now
marked the
the first
beginning
of a special
creating
alliance
partnership
between
onebetween
of the two powerful forces
– the sacred
and the secular;
Germanic
peoples
theinpolitical
andthe
thereligious
Christianand
Pope
Rome.
the Church and those Kings who bowed to it!
1. What role did the Church play in helping
Clovis conquer other Germanic peoples?
After Clovis converted to Christianity,
the Church gave its support to his
military campaigns against other
Germanic peoples –
in order to convert them.
PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins H.S.
CH 13 Sec. 1, “Germanic Peoples Adopt Christianity” Text p. 318; PACKET p. 1
REASONS GERMANIC PEOPLE ADOPT CHRISTIANITY
• The Franks - first to convert, and with the Church’s blessing
(and military aid) converted other German peoples.
• Missionaries – risked their lives traveling among the Germanic and Celtic
groups that lived along the old western empire’s borders.
• Fear of coastal attacks by Muslims – led many people in southern
Europe to become Christian and
gain the protection of the Franks
“Christian” army.
MISSIONARIES: Known as Saint Patrick today,
Patrick was a 16 year-old British lad when he was
captured by pirates and sold as a slave in Ireland.
After six years he escaped and then devoted his life
to the Christian religion – returning to Ireland
in the 5th century
as a missionary determined to convert the Irish.
PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins H.S.
CH 13 Sec. 1, “Monasteries and Convents” Text p. 318; PACKET p. 1
Monasteries and convents – religious communities –
were built by the Church in order to meet the needs of
the peasants and villagers adapting to rural life.
These men (monks) and women (nuns) gave up all their
possessions, left their families behind, and devoted their
lives to serving God in various ways.
Monasteries would become Europe’s
best-educated communities
where men maintained libraries,
copied books,
and taught young boys in school.
Venerable Bede, an English monk,
wrote a History of England that most
scholars consider the best historical
work of the Middle Ages period.
PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins H.S.
CH 13 Sec. 1, “Monasteries and Convents” Text p. 318; PACKET p. 1
The Bendictine Rule
An Italian monk named
Benedict wrote a book
of strict, yet practical,
rules for monasteries
that became the model
for most religious
communities in Europe.
"Listen carefully, my son, to the Master's instructions, and attend to them with the
ear of your heart. This is advice from a father who loves you; welcome it, and
faithfully put it into practice. The labor of obedience will bring you back to him
from whom you had drifted through the sloth of disobedience. This message of mine
is for all, and armed with the strong and noble weapons of obedience to do battle
for the true king, Christ the Lord."
(the Rule of St. Benedict, Prologue, verses 1-3)
PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins H.S.
PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins H.S.
CH 13 Sec. 1, “Gregory I Expands Papal Power” Text p. 319; PACKET p. 1
2. What role did Pope Gregory the Great play in
spreading the idea of a vast unified kingdom?
He increased the Church’s power to include
secular affairs also –
not only religious matters.
He wanted to create a “churchly kingdom”
on earth.
Secular – that which is not considered religious or sacred;
“worldly” matters rather than “heavenly” matters.
Under Gregory, the papacy (office of the Church’s Pope) became a
secular power involved in politics. He used Church money to raise
armies, repair roads, and help the poor. He negotiated peace treaties
with invaders and even acted as mayor of Rome. Yet he believed his
authority extended even further - he believed all of Europe fell under
his jurisdiction. His idea of a “churchly kingdom” ruled by a Pope
would be a central motivating theme in the European Middle Ages.
PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins H.S.
Thanks to his partnership with
as well as the aid he received from
the Church,
at his death in 511 A.D., Clovis had extended his rule
over most of what is today France.
His Merovingian Dynasty
would rule this largest of
European kingdoms
for the next 200 years.
Kingdom
of
Franks
However, by 700 A.D.,
the official post in the
government known as the
“mayor of the palace”
had acquired more power
over the years
than the king himself.
PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins H.S.
In 732, a Mayor of the Palace named
Recognizing a
Charles Martel (“the Hammer”)
Turning Point in
defeated a Muslim raiding party from Spain
History
at the Battle of Tours.
3. What was important about
Charles Martel’s victory at
the Battle of Tours?
Kingdom
of
Franks
The victory stopped a
Muslim invasion of
Europe and prevented
the Frankish kingdom
from becoming part of
the Muslim empire.
It made Charles Martel
a hero.
SPAIN
(Caliphate of Cordova)
PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins H.S.
Recognizing a
Turning Point in
History
KINGDOM
OF
FRANKS
SPAIN
(Caliphate of Cordova)
3. What was important about
Charles Martel’s victory at
the Battle of Tours?
The victory stopped a
Muslim invasion of
Europe and prevented
the Frankish kingdom
from becoming part of
the Muslim empire.
It made Charles Martel
a hero.
ABBASID
MUSLIM EMPIRE
PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins H.S.
CH 13 Sec. 1, “Clovis’s Descendants” Text p. 319; PACKET p. 1
Pepin the Short succeeded
his father Charles Martel
after he died
as the new Mayor of the Palace.
But Pepin the Short
wanted to become king
and, taking advantage of his
father’s powerful fame,
decided to make his move.
Kingdom
of
Franks
SPAIN
(Caliphate of Cordova)
In 751, Pepin deposed the last
ruler of the Merovingian
Dynasty and declared himself
king of the Franks.
PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins H.S.
754 A.D. – Three years later the Pope in Rome, Steven II,
was in need of military help to fight the Lombards
who were invading his Italian lands.
Pope Steven agreed to recognize Pepin as the new King of the Franks
and his descendants as the new legitimate rulers.
In return,
Pepin agreed to invade Italy
and rescue Rome from the Lombards.
Pepin then became the first king
to be officially “annointed”
by a Pope.
The Donation of Pepin:
Pepin gave the Pope control of all
the lands surrounding Rome,
creating the Papal States.
PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins H.S.
FRANKS
LOMBARDS
LOMBARD ITALY
in the 8th century
CH 13 Sec. 1, “Pepin and the Pope” Text p. 320; PACKET p. 1
4. How did Pepin the Short strengthen
the Frankish kingdom?
He successfully fought off the Lombards,
presented the Pope with the Papal States,
and was anointed by the Pope
as the new king of the Franks.
This established an alliance between
the Pope and the Frankish kings
for some time to come.
The Donation of Pepin:
Pepin gave the Pope control of all
the lands surrounding Rome,
creating the Papal States.
PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins H.S.
LOMBARD ITALY
in the 8th century
CH 13 Sec. 1, “Charlemagne Extends Frankish Rule” Text p. 320; PACKET p. 2
In 768, Pepin died, leaving the Kingdom of the Franks to his two sons.
Packet Reading,
p. 2
“Charlemagne”
CARLOMAN
CHARLES
“Charlemagne”
Kingdom
of
Franks
PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins H.S.
CH 13 Sec. 1, “Charlemagne Extends Frankish Rule” Text p. 320; PACKET p. 2
Left: Statue of
Charlemagne today in
Aachen, Germany
(once Aix-la-Chapelle,
France –
Charlemagne’s
capital).
Right: The impressive
empire created by
Charlemagne – the
largest in Europe
since the fall of Rome.
“Charlemagne was the most potent prince with the greatest skill and success in different
countries during the 47 years of his reign. Great and powerful as was the realm of Franks
that Karl [Charlemagne] received from his father Pepin,he nevertheless still splendidly
enlarged it… in fact, he almost doubled it.”
- Einhard, The Life of Charlemagne (810 A.D.)
(Born deformed, Einhard was sent to Charlemagne’s Palace School at Aachen where, in spite of his ugliness,
became one of the emperor’s most trusted advisors and was placed in charge of the construction of the Palace
Cathedral. He also served his Emperor Charlemagne in tense negotiations for the exchange of Saxon hostages.)
PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins H.S.
CH 13 Sec. 1, “Charlemagne Takes Center Stage” Text p. 320; PACKET p. 2
CHARLES
“Charlemagne”
Kingdom
of
Franks
Charlemagne's Chapel at his Court
in Aachen (Aix-la-Chapelle)
CH 13 Sec. 1, “Cultural Revival” Text p. 321; PACKET p. 2
THE CAROLINGIAN RENAISSANCE at the Palace School
CHARLES
“Charlemagne”
Kingdom
of
Franks
Charlemagne's Chapel at his Court
in Aachen (Aix-la-Chapelle)
CH 13 Sec. 1, “Charlemagne Takes Center Stage” Text p. 320; PACKET p. 1
In 800, Charlemagne traveled to Rome to capture a mob that had attacked the Pope.
In gratitude, on Christmas Day, 800 A.D.
Pope Leo III crowned Charlemagne Holy Roman Emperor.
Recognizing a
Turning Point in History
Significant that a Pope was claiming the “right” to confer the title “Roman Emperor”
on a European king.
5. What was the significance of Charlemagne’s
coronation as emperor?
The crowning of Charlemagne as H.R.E.
symbolized the joining of the Church
with the Germanic Powers and the
heritage of the old Roman Empire.
It is also significant in that the Pope
assumed the power to bestow such title
and crown upon a political ruler.
PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins H.S.
CH 13 Sec. 1, “Charlemagne Takes Center Stage” Text p. 320; PACKET p. 1
6. How did Charlemagne govern his unified kingdom?
He sent out agents to see that his Counts
governed their counties justly;
regularly visited every part of his kingdom;
served as judge, settling disputes;
and personally managed his huge estates –
the source of his wealth and power.
PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins H.S.
CH 13 Sec. 1, “Charlemagne Takes Center Stage” Text p. 320; PACKET p. 1
Fourteen years
after being crowned
Holy Roman Emperor
by the Pope,
in 814 A.D.
Charlemagne died.
Left: Charlemagne’s jewel-encrusted tomb
in the Aachen cathedral.
PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins H.S.
CH 13 Sec. 1, “Charlemagne’s Heirs are Weak Rulers” Text p. 321; Packet p. 1
A year before he died, Charlemagne himself crowned his only son,
Louis the Pious, his heir. Devoutly religious, Louis was a weak ruler.
Louis left three sons:
Lothair, Charles the Bald, Louis the German.
These grandsons of Charlemagne fought each other
for control of the Empire.
Their civil war ended in 843
The Treaty of Verdun
divided the former great empire
of Charlemagne
into three small kingdoms.
The lack of strong rulers in
Europe now led to a new system
of governing and landholding
which we will examine next …
Feudalism.
Ch. 13: MIDDLE AGES –
Section 1:
Germanic Kingdoms Unite
under Charlemagne
AKINS HIGH SCHOOL
Mr. Loessin’s
World
History
Room 167
Tutorials: T-F 8:20-8:50
TODAY’S OBJECTIVES:
• Identify effects of the Germanic invasions on the western Roman Empire.
• Explain Germanic ideas about government and describe the first Frankish king.
• Show how Christianity spread among Germanic peoples.
• Summarize events leading to the rise of the Frankish kingdom.
• Describe the rise and fall of Charlemagne’s empire.
AGENDA:
WARM-UP – Read Textbook p. 316 Interact with History:
• DISCUSSION of Section 1, Text p. 317-321 / packet p. 1
• DAILY QUIZ
NEXT ASSIGNMENT:
• Read Chapter 13, Section 2-3 and complete p. 3-4 in packet
Ch. 13: MIDDLE AGES –
Section 2 - 3:
The Feudal Society
AKINS HIGH SCHOOL
Mr. Loessin’s
World
History
Room 167
Tutorials: T-F 8:20-8:50
TODAY’S OBJECTIVES:
• Explain the effects of the new invasions on western Europe.
• Summarize the structure of the political system known as Feudalism.
• Explain the role of the Manor system in the feudal economy.
• Describe the training and standards of knighthood as well as the technology of warfare.
• Summarize the roles of medieval women.
AGENDA:
WARM-UP – Study the map on p. 323: Who was invading Europe?
• DISCUSSION of Section 2-3, Text p. 322-331 / packet p. 3 - 4
• DAILY QUIZ
NEXT ASSIGNMENT:
• Read Chapter 13, Section 4 and complete p. 6-8 in packet
CH 13 Sec. 2, “New Invasions Trouble Europe” Text p. 322; PACKET p. 3
800 – 1000 A.D. was a period of intense invasions that disrupted life in Europe
and completely destroyed the former great Carolingian Empire of the Franks.
Why were
these
What
lands
invasions
did the so
threatening
Vikings
raid?
to Europe?
CH 13 Sec. 2, “Social Structure of Feudalism” Text p. 322; PACKET p. 3
1.
Explain the mutual
obligations of
the feudal system.
2. Why did the
feudal system create
complicated alliances?
Land-lord (noble) owns a Manor (huge estate of land).
He gives a grant of land (fief)
to someone who promises in exchange to provide
military protection to the lord and his family, work
the lord’s lands, and serve in other ways.
A person who receives land from a lord is a vassal.
The same noble might be a vassal himself
to several different lords.
King Terry’s kingdom
Lord Roland’s Manor
Sir Alfred
Sir Thor’s
Manor
Sir Oscar
PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins H.S.
CH 13 Sec. 2, “Social Structure of Feudalism” Text p. 324; PACKET p. 3
3. Describe feudal social classes.
See Feudal Pyramid
(Hierarchy),
Text p. 324
Those who fought : nobles, knights, and kings
Those who prayed : the Church’s Clergy (priests, bishops, monks)
Those who worked : Peasants (serfs)
Social class was usually inherited.
Those who fought
Those who prayed
Those who worked
PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins H.S.
CH 13 Sec. 2, “The Manor – Feudalism’s Economic System” Text p. 325; Packet p. 3
Serfs – (peasants / workers) who were bound to the land of
a noble (landlord).
Manor – the lord’s estate; includes all land and houses.
See Medieval Manor
Text p. 326
4. Explain the mutual obligations between the lord and serfs
under the Manor system.
Taxes, Taxes!
Textbook, p. 325
Serfs not only paid
several different
taxes to their lord
and king,
there was also the
Church tax, tithe,
which was 10% of
their income.
In exchange for housing, land to grow their food, and protection,
the serfs had to perform work to maintain the lord’s manor lands
and to pay several different kinds of taxes.
5. Explain why the serfs rarely had to leave their manor.
Because the manor was self-sufficient – producing almost
everything one needed for daily life.
PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins H.S.
CH 13 Sec. 2, “The Manor – Feudalism’s Economic System” Text p. 325; Packet p. 3
6. Explain why serfs accepted their economic hardships.
They were taught by the Church and believed
that God “determined”
a person’s social position before they were born.
To leave the community in which they were
born… would be questioning God’s wisdom.
And it was a sin to question the Church!
PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins H.S.
CH 13 Sec. 3, “The Age of Chivalry” Text p. 328; PACKET p. 3
See Diagram,
“Education of a
Knight”
Text p. 328
1. Education
At age 7 – began training
as a “page”
in a lord’s castle
At age 14 – began training
as a “squire”
acting as a
servant to a knight.
At age 21 – becomes a
knight !
PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins H.S.
CH 13 Sec. 3, “The Age of Chivalry” Text p. 328; PACKET p. 3
1. Education
At age 7 – began training
as a “page”
in a lord’s castle
At age 14 – began training
as a “squire”
acting as a
servant to a knight.
2. Weapons / Equipment
Saddles, stirrups, armor,
high-flying missiles.
At age 21 – becomes a
knight !
Packet reading,
“Medieval Hand Weapons”
p. 5
Loading, or “cocking”
a crossbow.
Question about
the “Crossbow”
on Test!
PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins H.S.
CH 13 Sec. 3, “The Age of Chivalry” Text p. 328; PACKET p. 3
1. Education
At age 7 – began training
as a “page”
in a lord’s castle
At age 14 – began training
as a “squire”
acting as a
servant to a knight.
At age 21 – becomes a
knight !
2. Weapons /
Equipment
Saddles,
stirrups,
armor,
high-flying missiles.
3. War games
Fighting in local wars
and in tournaments (mock
battles) kept knights trained
and in shape.
CH 13 Sec. 3, “The Age of Chivalry” Text p. 328; PACKET p. 3
1. Education
At age 7 – began training
as a “page”
in a lord’s castle
At age 14 – began training
as a “squire”
acting as a
servant to a knight.
2. Weapons /
Equipment
Saddles,
stirrups,
armor,
high-flying missiles.
3. War games
Fighting in local wars
and in
tournaments (mock
battles)
kept knights trained
and in shape.
At age 21 – becomes a
knight !
4. Code of Chivalry
-be loyal, brave, courteous;
- defend the “3 masters”
your Lord God,
your feudal lord,
and your lady;
- protect the weak / poor.
Chivalry – a code of behavior / values for Medieval knights and lords.
CH 13 Sec. 3, “The Age of Chivalry” Text p. 328; PACKET p. 3
1. Education
At age 7 – began training
as a “page”
in a lord’s castle
At age 14 – began training
as a “squire”
acting as a
servant to a knight.
At age 21 – becomes a
knight !
4. Code of Chivalry
-be loyal, brave, courteous;
- defend the “3 masters”
your Lord God,
your feudal lord,
and your lady;
2. Weapons /
Equipment
Saddles,
stirrups,
armor,
high-flying missiles.
3. War games
Fighting in local wars
and in
tournaments (mock
battles)
kept knights trained
and in shape.
5. Castles
The lived in and
protected home
of feudal lords –
designed as fortresses
with massive walls
and guard towers.
- protect the weak / poor.
Chivalry – a code of behavior / values for Medieval knights and lords.
Castles and Siege Weapons, Textbook p. 329
The trebuchet was a catapult
machine that could sling
objects at or over a castle wall.
CH 13 Sec. 3, “The Age of Chivalry” Text p. 328; PACKET p. 3
1. Education
At age 7 – began training
as a “page”
in a lord’s castle
At age 14 – began training
as a “squire”
acting as a
servant to a knight.
2. Weapons /
Equipment
Saddles,
stirrups,
armor,
high-flying missiles.
At age 21 – becomes a
knight !
4. Code of Chivalry
-be loyal, brave, courteous;
- defend the “3 masters”
your Lord God,
your feudal lord,
and your lady;
- protect the weak / poor.
3. War games
Fighting in local wars
and in
tournaments (mock
battles)
kept knights trained
and in shape.
6. Romance
5. Castles
The lived in and
protected home
of feudal lords –
designed as
fortresses
with massive walls
and guard towers.
Knight expected
to defend his
chosen lady and
keep her
entertained with
love songs and
poems.
Chivalry – a code of behavior / values for Medieval knights and lords.
Troubadours were poet-musicians at the
castles and courts of Europe who
composed short verses and long songs
about romance, heroic and lovesick
knights, or the news of the day was also
shared in this way. Troupes of
musicians / troubadours / minstrels
would travel village to village and
deliver the news “in song.”
Noble men and women flocked to the court of Eleanor of Aquitaine
(one of the richest and most famous of Medieval women – she
would marry both a French king and later an English king).
She and her daughter turned “love” into a scientific study at their
famous “Court of Love.” Here men visited to learn how to properly
“court” a Lady and to write love sonnets, women also learned the
“art” of loving a man “properly.”
Ch. 13: MIDDLE AGES –
Section 2 - 3:
The Feudal Society
AKINS HIGH SCHOOL
Mr. Loessin’s
World
History
Room 167
Tutorials: T-F 8:20-8:50
TODAY’S OBJECTIVES:
• Explain the effects of the new invasions on western Europe.
• Summarize the structure of the political system known as Feudalism.
• Explain the role of the Manor system in the feudal economy.
• Describe the training and standards of knighthood as well as the technology of warfare.
• Summarize the roles of medieval women.
AGENDA:
WARM-UP – Study the map on p. 323: Who was invading Europe?
• DISCUSSION of Section 2-3, Text p. 322-331 / packet p. 3 - 4
• DAILY QUIZ
NEXT ASSIGNMENT:
• Read Chapter 13, Section 4 and complete p. 6-8 in packet
Ch. 13: MIDDLE AGES –
Section 4:
The Church Wields Power
AKINS HIGH SCHOOL
Mr. Loessin’s
World
History
Room 167
Tutorials: T-F 8:20-8:50
TODAY’S OBJECTIVES:
• Describe the Church’s structure, influence, and power.
• Explain the relationship between the Church and the German Empire.
• List events in the power struggle between the popes and German emperors.
• Summarize the conflict between the Church and Frederick I.
• Explain why the feudal states of Germany did not unify during the middle ages.
AGENDA:
Please begin your Warm-up Immediately.
WARM-UP – Read p. 332 “Setting the Stage” & “The Scope of Church Authority”
• DISCUSSION of Section 4, Packet p. 6
• REVIEW Discussion for test
NEXT ASSIGNMENT:
• STUDY Chapter 13 (including all quizzes) for Friday’s TEST !!!
CH 13 Sec. 4, “The Scope of Church Authority” Text p. 332; PACKET p. 6
The Church Structure
(Hierarchy):
POPE
Clergy – religious
officials
Bishops Bishops Bishops
Priests Priests Priests Priests Priests
Lay – the
Lay People People People People People People common
people in the
Church
Bishop’s Cathedrals
Diocese
The Village
Parish Churches
in Major Cities
Diocese
The Village
Parish Churches
CH 13 Sec. 4, “Religion as a Unifying Force” Text p. 332; PACKET p. 6
The Middle Ages are aptly sometime called
The Age of Faith.
While Feudalism and the Manor system
created divisions among Medieval people…
Shared beliefs and the teachings of the Church
was a stable force,
establishing unity among Europeans.
Whoever you were, whatever your lot in life,
everyone could still follow the same path
to Salvation (everlasting life in Heaven).
This path to Heaven – according to the Medieval Church – was paved
by following the Church’s sacraments.
PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins H.S.
CH 13 Sec. 4, “Religion as a Unifying Force” Text p. 332; PACKET p. 6
Sacraments – important religious ceremonies (rites) in the Church.
The Sacraments were meant to follow a person’s life from beginning to end.
Baptism – initiation rite into the Christian community.
Confirmation – people of their own will acknowledge
their belief.
Holy Communion - a meal of bread and wine that
(Eucharist)
Christians share in remembrance
of Jesus’ last meal.
Marriage – ceremony blessing the union of a couple
Ordination – ceremony to initiate new priests into the
priesthood
Penance / Confession – repenting of sins;
(Reconciliation)
asking of forgiveness
Last Rites – prayer service priest provides the dying
or over the dead.
CH 13 Sec. 4, “Church Justice” Text p. 333; PACKET p. 6
canon law – the laws of the Church.
Church courts tried people
for breaking canon law / heresy.
Two types of punishment:
Of an individual = Excommunication
Of a community / region = Interdict
Popes often used the “threat”
of these two types of punishment
to force kings into obedience.
PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins H.S.
The Holy Roman Empire
was the strongest kingdom that
arose following the collapse of
Charlemagne’s Frankish kingdom.
Otto I became king came of the
Holy Roman Empire in 936.
His constant problem was trying to
control the nobles / princes who
controlled the several princely
“states” within his Germanic
Empire, the H.R.E.
To do so, Otto created close
alliances with church officials who
gave their support to his defeating
the “unruly” German princes.
PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins H.S.
CH 13 Sec. 4, “The Church and the H.R.E.” Text p. 333; PACKET p. 6
CAUSES
Otto wants to limit the
power of his nobles;
forms close alliance
with Church.
ACTIONS
1. Otto invades Italy
to rescue the Pope.
OUTCOMES
Pope agrees to crown Otto
“Emperor” in 962.
Otto was now the first Emperor in the West since Charlemagne.
However, his attempt to re-create an Empire like Charlemagne’s
created tensions –
particularly with Italian nobles
who resented growing German strength.
The Popes also came to resent the power German emperors held over
church clergy in Germany and even over some Italian principalities.
PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins H.S.
CH 13 Sec. 4, “The Church and the H.R.E.” Text p. 333; PACKET p. 6
Otto was now the first Emperor in the West since Charlemagne.
However, his attempt to re-create an Empire like Charlemagne’s
created tensions –
particularly with Italian nobles
who resented growing German strength.
The Popes also came to resent the power German emperors held over church clergy in
Germany and even northern Italian principalities.
EUROPE, 1000 A.D.
EASTERN
CH 13 Sec. 4, “H.R.E. Clashes with the Pope Text p. 334; PACKET p. 6
One of the things Popes began to resent most was kings who
exercised power over clergy and their church offices.
Remember:
The main focus of this resentment was the practice known as
Lay investiture – a ceremony in which kings appointed
church officials within their own kingdom.
CAUSES
ACTIONS
Pope Gregory VII
resents the power that
emperors have over the
church clergy.
2. Pope Gregory bans
lay investiture
Kings are
considered
“Lay” –
they are not
ordained
“Clergy”
OUTCOMES
H.R.E. Henry IV calls a
meeting of bishops in the
H.R.E. and orders Pope
Gregory to step down
from the papacy.
The Showdown at Canossa, Textbook p. 334
PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins H.S.
CH 13 Sec. 4, “H.R.E. Clashes with the Pope” Text p. 334; PACKET p. 6
CAUSES
ACTIONS
Pope Gregory
excommunicates
H.R.E. Henry IV;
German bishops & princes
side with the pope (fearing
an interdict);
Henry must seek the
Pope’s forgiveness.
3. Henry IV travels
to Canossa.
OUTCOMES
Henry is forgiven by the
pope, returns home,
and then punishes his
German nobles for siding
with the pope.
The Concordat of Worms is signed in 1122.
The issue of lay investiture
would remain undecided
for another century.
4. Representatives of
Church and the
emperor
meet in Worms.
Compromise is reached:
Only the pope could now
promote priests to be
bishops in any kingdom;
but the emperor would be
given veto power over any
selection he didn’t like.
PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins H.S.
CH 13 Sec. 4, “Conflicts Continue under Frederick” Text p. 334; PACKET p. 6
The Holy Roman Emperor Henry IV’s struggle with the Pope
provided a chance for German princes in the Empire to regain much of the power
they had lost under Otto.
A later German ruler, Frederick I, would resume the battle to assert royal authority
over these princes.
While Frederick was the first to actually call the German lands the “Holy Roman
Empire” it was anything but a unified empire – rather, a patchwork of princely states.
Poor
EUROPE, 1000 A.D.
Rich
EASTERN
CH 13 Sec. 4, “Conflicts Continue under Frederick” Text p. 335; PACKET p. 6
Instead of focusing on building up his royal power in the German states,
Frederick repeatedly invaded the rich cities of Italy.
CAUSES
Frederick’s brutal acts
angered the wealthy Italian
merchants who formed
the Lombard League.
ACTIONS
5. Lombard League
fights Frederick’s
army at the
Battle of Legnano.
OUTCOMES
The Italian foot soldiers of
the Lombard League
using crossbows
defeat Frederick’s feudal
army of mounted knights.
Frederick is forced to
make peace with the Pope,
a weakened ruler among
his German princes back
home.
PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins H.S.
CH 13 Sec. 4, “German States Remain Separate” Text p. 335; PACKET p. 6
Reason why German states Remain Separate and not a Unified Nation
• German kings getting involved in Italian politics led to
continued disruptive clashes.
• The system of German princes being the ones to elect the king
only weakened royal authority.
• German rulers controlled fewer “royal lands” in their kingdom
to use as a base of power.
(Unlike English and French kings who would quickly
establish strong central authority and create the
first Nation-states in Europe…
as we shall see in Chapter 14.)
PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins H.S.
Ch. 13: MIDDLE AGES –
Section 4:
The Church Wields Power
AKINS HIGH SCHOOL
Mr. Loessin’s
World
History
Room 167
Tutorials: T-F 8:20-8:50
TODAY’S OBJECTIVES:
• Describe the Church’s structure, influence, and power.
• Explain the relationship between the Church and the German Empire.
• List events in the power struggle between the popes and German emperors.
• Summarize the conflict between the Church and Frederick I.
• Explain why the feudal states of Germany did not unify during the middle ages.
AGENDA:
Please begin your Warm-up Immediately.
WARM-UP – Read p. 332 “Setting the Stage” & “The Scope of Church Authority”
• DISCUSSION of Section 4, Packet p. 6
• REVIEW Discussion for test
NEXT ASSIGNMENT:
• STUDY Chapter 13 (including all quizzes) for Friday’s TEST !!!
Descargar

Document