Adverb Clauses
HOW, WHEN, WHERE, WHY,
AND UNDER WHAT CONDITIONS
THE ACTION OCCURS
Adverb Clause
A subordinate
clause
A group of words that contains
a subject and predicate that
does not express a complete
thought.
That modifies
Tells how, when, where, why or
under what condition the action
occurs
A verb
Action, state or relationship
Look and See it, Listen and Hear it
Miss Marie talks about adverb clauses
Miss Marie teaches English in Canada, therefore her
terminology is different.
Adverb clauses modify verbs only!
They do not modify adjectives or adverbs.
Adverb phrases modify adjectives and adverbs.
The conjunction for linking the subordinate clause to the main
clause is a Subordinating Conjunction, not a conjunctive
adverb. A conjunctive adverb is the type of adverb.
Remember to adjust the volume and expand to full screen
What it does
• Tells
– How
Two people can enjoy a movie, if they can agree on what movie to
see.
How can two people enjoy a movie?
if they can agree on what movie to see
Note: Answers to the adverbial questions are sentence fragments.
What it does
• Tells
– How
– When
After we go to the store, we can have lunch.
When can we have lunch?
after we go to the store
Note: Answers to the adverbial questions are sentence fragments.
What it does
• Tells
– How
– When
– Where
Profanity is not acceptable where young children are playing.
Where is profanity not acceptable?
where young children are playing
Note: Answers to the adverbial questions are sentence fragments.
What it does
• Tells
– How
– When
– Where
– Why
I am going to ask Sally to the prom because she is a pretty girl.
Why am I going to ask Sally to the prom?
because she is a pretty girl
Note: Answers to the adverbial questions are sentence fragments.
What it does
• Tells
– How
– When
– Where
– Why
– Under what conditions
If I get up late, Mom will drive me to school.
Under what condition will Mom drive me to school?
if I get up late
Note: Answers to the adverbial questions are sentence fragments.
Linking the clauses
Subordinate clauses are linked to the main clause by
Subordinating Conjunctions.
How
When
Where
Why
Under what
conditions
since
after
while
because
unless
if
before
where
although
even if
in order that
until
where, wherever
so that
even though
whether
when, whenever
though
provided that
as
once
than
as if
while
that
This is not an exhaustive list. Some of these words can be used to answer other adverbial
questions. “Than” and “that” can answer adjectival questions.
How to find it
First find the verbs and the predicates.
Second find the subjects.
If the subject is preceded by a subordinate conjunction
if is a subordinate clause. If the subordinate clause
answers an adverbial question (how, when, where,
why or under what conditions), it is an adverb
clause.
“Because” tells why
Because we will be building complex sentences, this
class needs to understand and identify adverb
clauses.
Look and See it, Listen and Hear it
What is an adverb clause
Just another explanation
After you watch this video, you may have a better
understanding of adverb clauses.
Remember to adjust the volume and expand to full screen
How it works - Placement
at the end
Main Clause
Students with good grades
get into less trouble because
they spend a lot of time
studying.
Subordinate Clause
at the beginning
Subordinate Clause
Because they spend a lot of
time studying, students with
good grades get into less
trouble.
Main Clause
Which order is better? End with the more important idea. This makes the
reader remember it better.
Note: Capital letters were changed because of standard sentence capitalization
rules. Comma was added after the introductory subordinate clause.
How it works -Punctuation
Separation by Comma
A comma is usually not
used if the adverb
clause is at the end of
the sentence.
Marcel is going to ask the new
girl on a date if his brother lets
him have the car.
No Comma here
If an adverb clause
begins a sentence, a
comma is used after it.
If his brother lets him have the
car, Marcel is going to ask the
new girl on a date.
Comma here
Example of Explication
He read the passage as if he had done it before.
Main clause: “He read the passage”
Adverb clause: “as if he had done it before”
tells HOW the action was done
How did he read the passage? as if he had done it before
Subordinate conjunction: “as if”
No punctuation because the clause comes at the end of the
sentence.
Subject
Predicate
Just for Fun
Diagramming
Main Clause
Subject
Diagramming indicates
parts of speech not
word order of the
sentence. It is a visual
picture of the sentence
structure.
Predicate
Subordinate Clause
or
Adverb Clause
Note: The subordinate (or dependent) clause is
below the main (or independent) clause, even if it
appears first in the sentence. The connector is
attached to the predicate since it modifies the verb
Whenever you read, I listen.
Just for Fun
Diagramming
Diagramming indicates
parts of speech not
word order of the
sentence. It is a visual
picture of the sentence
structure.
I
listen
Main Clause
you
Subordinate Clause
or
Adverb Clause
read
Your Turn
Find the adverb clause
What is the subject,
predicate of each
clause?
Juan ordered pizza after he found
out what everyone wanted on it.
Which clause is the
main, subordinate
clause?
What is the
subordinating
conjunction?
What adverbial question
is being asked?
When did Juan order the pizza?
after he found out what everyone
wanted on it
Your Turn
When I get there, I’ll give you a call.
Find the adverb clause
What is the subject,
predicate of each
clause?
Which clause is the
main, subordinate
clause?
What is the
subordinating
conjunction?
What adverbial question
is being asked?
When will I give you a call?
when I get there
Your Turn
Find the adverb clause
We will cheer for Bob as he crosses
the finish line.
What is the subject,
predicate of each
clause?
Which clause is the
main, subordinate
clause?
What is the
subordinating
conjunction?
What adverbial question
is being asked?
When and where will we cheer
for Bob?
as he crosses the finish line
Your Turn
Find the adverb clause
What is the subject,
predicate of each
clause?
If your teacher grades your
assignments, you will know that you
understand the material.
Which clause is the
main, subordinate
clause?
What is the
subordinating
conjunction?
What adverbial question
is being asked?
Under what condition will you
know how well you understand
the material?
if your teacher grades your
assignment
Note: “that you understand the material” is an adjective clause because it acts as the DO to “know”.
See Note
Your Turn
Find the adverb clause
What is the subject,
predicate of each
clause?
Because Rachel had broken her
leg before the coach sent in the
roster, she did not go to sectionals.
Which clause is the
main, subordinate
clause?
What is the
subordinating
conjunction?
Why did she (Rachel)
not go to sectionals?
When had Rachel
broken her leg?
What adverbial question
is being asked?
because Rachel had
broken her leg
before the coach sent in
the roster
Note: “before the coach sent in the roster” modifies the adverb clause “Before Rachel had broken her leg.”
Your Turn
Find the adverb clause
What is the subject,
predicate of each
clause?
While he was studying, Alex
understood the material, but he
couldn’t remember a thing after
after he
he
played video games all night.
Which clause is the
main, subordinate
clause?
What is the
subordinating
conjunction?
What adverbial question
is being asked?
When did Alex
understand the material?
When could he not
remember a thing?
while he was studying
after he played video
games all night
Note: two complex sentences connected by the conjunction “but.”
Try this!
Learn 4 Good Exercise
Answer all questions
Grammar Bytes Exercise
Answer questions
1,2,3,9,10,16 & 17
References
O'Brien, E. (2011).Diagramming Clauses .Retrieved from
http://www.english-grammar-revolution.com/diagramming-clauses.html
Royster, J. J., Lester, M., & Ligature, Inc. (1999). Writer’s choice:
grammar and composition. New York: Glencoe, McGraw-Hill.
Simmons, R.L. (2011). The adverb clause. Retrieved from
http:/www.chompchomp.com/ terms/adverbclause.htm.
Graphics credits
Photos: Barbara Enoch
Grammar Bytes: Simmons, Robin L. (2011) by permission at
<http://chompchomp.com/menu.htm>.
Learn 4 Good: By permission (D. von Chamier, personal communication,
February 21, 2011)
Hyperlink credits
Adverb clause examples. Retrieved from:
<http://www.learn4good.com/languages/evrd_grammar/adverb_clauses
_ex.htm>
Rackham, M. (Writer). (2009). Advanced grammar: adverb clauses .
Available from http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ylvCDgd4_fA
Selcke, Paul (Writer). (2009). What is an adverb clause? Available from
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=G6bfbdqJPiY&NR=1&feature=fvwp
Simmons, Robin (2011) Commas – exercise 5. Retrieved from:
<http://chompchomp.com/hotpotatoes/commas05a.htm>. Permission
at: http://www.chompchomp.com/presentations.htm
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Clauses Video - Youngstown State University