MANAGEMENT
COMMUNICATION
GUO ZHIWEN
Professor, Dept of BA&HRM, Business School
Director of MBA Education Center
Email:[email protected]
Tel:027-88665896(O)
Mobile:13808646299
SURVEY
Intelligence, expertise and experience
accounts for only 25% of their success.
The rest 75% comes from good
interpersonal communication skills.
——Princeton University
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All depends on Communication
Learning-----listening, discussing, reading, writing, etc.
Persuading------your boss, friends, fellows, clients, etc.
Getting help------maybe from everybody around you,even
strangers.
Finishing works-----promotion,planning projects,
motivating your people.
Contacting with people------making life smooth.
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So many kinds of Communication
You can read&write-----books, magazines, news papers,
Internet, letters, reports, slips,etc.
You can listen&speak -----languages,music, other sounds
or voices.
You can watch&make-----TV shows,movies, pictures, live
shows,the nonverbal style,advertising.
You can feel&give------touch, tasting, atmosphere.
 NOTE: some involves more than one of the above.
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The Framework of The
Subject
Management communication in transition
Communication and strategy
Communication ethics
Speaking, writing, listening and feedback
Nonverbal communication
Intercultural and international issues
Managing conflict
Business meeting and how to deal with media
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How will I evaluate you?
Final total:
Final exam(60%)-----oral test
Course work(20%)
Class performance(10%)
Presence(10%)
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What Will You Learn?
The skills in communication
and interpersonal relations
The secret of making your life
& work smooth,relaxed and
happy
The technique to accomplish
your tasks more effectively
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Learn From The Nature:
the nonverbal communication
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CHAPTER 1: Management Communication
in Transition
Basic Issues
What Is Management
Communication?
Management communication is about the movement of
information and the skills which facilitate it---speaking,listening,and processes of critical thinking----but it’s more than just skill,really.
It’s also about understanding who you are,who others
think you are.
It’s about confidence-----the knowledge that you can
speak and write well,that you can listen with great skill
as others speak.
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Why Is Communication So
Important?
The essence of what management is all about is the effective use of
language to get things done.
Without the right words(rhetoric),used in the right way,it is unlikely
that the right actions will ever occur.
Your effectiveness as a speaker and writer will determine how well
you are able to get others to do what you want.
Your effectiveness as a listener and reader will determine how well
you understand others and can do things for them.
Most managers(also common people) fail duo to their defective or
poor communication. Do you want to be one of them?
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What Do Managers Do All Day
Outwardly,managers spend their time engaged in
planning,organizing,leading and controlling.
In fact,they spend most of their time interacting
with others---both inside and outside the
organization, about 2/3 to 3/4 of their time in
verbal activity, being brief and lasting less nine
minutes each time.
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The Roles Managers Play
(H. Mintzberg’s study)
Interpersonal roles------to host receptions, take clients to
dinner,meet with business prospects and partners,form
alliances,and conduct hiring,etc.-------the richest source of
information for managers.
Informational roles------to gather, analyze, store and
disseminate many kinds of information.
Decisional roles------to be charged with responsibility of
making decision under circumstances of high ambiguity and
with inadequate information.The former two roles will help.
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Interpersonal Roles
Figurehead role------to perform
ceremonial duties,deal with mails.
Leader role------formal authority,
leadership style,personal charisma.
Liaison role------to establish and
maintain contacts outside of the
vertical chain of command.
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Informational Roles
Monitor------to scan the environment for information, talk
with liaison contacts and subordinates,receive unsolicited
information,most in verbal form such as gossip,hearsay.
Disseminator------to pass privileged information directly to
subordinates.
Spokesperson-------to send information to people outside of
their organizations,often being asked to deal with news
media,providing both factual and opinion-based
responses,with both potential risks and reward.
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Decisional Roles
Entrepreneur------to seek to improve their
business,adapt to changing market conditions,and
react to opportunities and initiate change.
Crisis handler-------involuntarily to react to
deteriorating conditions.
Resource allocator------to decide who gets what,how
much,when and why.
Negotiator-------to negotiate over budget
allocation,labor and collective bargaining
agreements(boss and labors),and other formal
dispute resolution.
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My Research :Golden Triangle
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Things cannot be done with absence
of anyone of the three
Entrepreneur-----who initiates and creates the business with a
new idea,technology or product,and also the one who helps the
organization survive out of crises or make change and
reconstruct the organization.
Managers-----professionals in management, carrying out the
strategy made by entrepreneur.
Experts-----specialists such as accountants, engineers, sales
talents,lawyers, researchers or consultants.
Note: One of them may have more than one role of the
above.Some researchers combine entrepreneurs and leaders
into managers or use them alternatively.
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Four Kinds of Entrepreneurs
(politicians)
Creative Entrepreneur-----farsighted, acute, good at finding market
opportunities and breaking rules,never stopping destruction and
innovation------Mao,Napoleon,Shi Yuzhu,Wang An, Hu Zhibiao
Caretaker Entrepreneur-----good at building internal scientific system
and “game rules”, reasonably allocating resources-------Alfred Sloan Jr., F. Putin, Hu
Surgeon Entrepreneur-----who can find the deep-seated problems and
reconstruct the organization-------Lee Iacocca (Chrysler), Deng, Yeltsin
All-rounder Entrepreneur-------who knows who he is,when he should
exit and what is right things to do,adapting himself to changing conditions,
without mind-set and with all qualities of the above three------Bill Gates,
Zhang Ruimin
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Major characteristics of the
manager’s job
Time is fragmented-----overburdened with
obligations.
Values compete and the various roles are in tension.
The job is overloaded-----too many people reporting
to them directly, partly because of the popular
decentralization, downsizing and flattening.
Efficiency is a core skill.
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What varies in a manager’s job: Emphasis
As an entrepreneur------being aware of threats
and opportunities------technological
breakthroughs, shortened product cycles,
market niches, upgrades in equipment.
As a leader------being sophisticated as strategist
and mentor,motivating,training and promoting
good and potentially good people.
As a local person-----creating a local version
which can explain the strategy for the unit,in
practical and understandable terms.
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Management Skills
Technical skills: most valuable at the entry level,but less
valuable at more senior levels; easily outdated and not
necessarily getting you promoted.
Relating skills: valuable across the managerial career
span ,helping you progress or be promoted to higher levels
of responsibility and form relationships.
Conceptual skills: least valuable at entry level,but more
valuable at senior levels,which permit you to look past the
details of daily work assignment and see the bigger picture.
Note: remember golden triangle?
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Talk Is The Work
75% of managers’ time in verbal interaction
Face-to-face conversation
Telephone conversation
Video teleconferencing
Presentations to small groups
Public speaking to larger
audiences
Note:The major channels of management
communication are talking and listening.
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The Role of Writing
Documentation------The most important projects, decisions and ideas end
up in writing. You have to write a resume when seeking for a job.
A career shifter-----Your writing demonstrates your ability to put ideas in
a clear,unambiguous fashion--------Show your competence of writing,
especially in the early days of your career.
Do it yourself-----No others really know what you think,so you’d develop
writing skill.
Beware of the effect of your writing------The ill-considered or –expressed
writing could be utilized by your opponents or let down your boss.
Note: An article can trigger a wave of social revolution. And your writing can
persuade others to do what you want them to do.
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Information(SLWR) Is Socially
Constructed
Information is created,shared and interpreted
by people.
Information never speaks for itself.
Context always drives meaning---------Pay
attention to the backdrop to a message or its
background.
A messenger always accompanies a message.
So never only pay attention to the information
itself,and learn to take advantage of rhetoric.
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How To Become A Good
Communicator?
Admit to flaws in your skill
Recognize your strengths and weaknesses as a communicator----use the
most skilled ability and improve the least skilled one.
Be alert to demands to develop new skills.
Acquire a knowledge base and beware of trends affecting your future.
Read the relevant newspapers,magazines and books to make
communication more effective-------keep pace with the ongoing era.
Develop the confidence you will need to succeed as a manger,particularly
under conditions of uncertainty and change.
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Exercise:Get Things Done
Analyze your own strengths and weaknesses in skills of
communication.Write them in a paper and plan how to
deal with it.
Ask a friend or classmate to assess your analysis.Get his
or her advice.
Meet a stranger,tell him a “story”,and then persuade
him to do what you want him to do.
Example:In a bus stop,you ask a stranger to lend you 1.20
Yuan “because you lost your wallet or your wallet was
stolen by a thief in the bus”.
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Joke 1
Three mice are being chased by a cat. The
mice were cornered when one of the
mice turned around and barked, "Ruff!
Ruff! Ruff!" The surprised cat ran away
scared. Later when the mice told their
mother what happened, she smiled and
said, "You see, it pays to be bilingual!"
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Joke 2
A man walks into a shop and sees a cute little dog.
He asks the shopkeeper, "Does your dog bite?"
The shopkeeper says, "No, my dog does not bite."
The man tries to pet the dog and the dog bites him.
"Ouch!" He says, "I thought you said your dog does
not bite!"
The shopkeeper replies, "That is not my dog!"
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Joke 3(a)
Three rich brothers each wanted to do something special
for their elderly mother on Mother's Day.
The first brother bought her a huge house. The second
brother gave her a limousine(luxury car), with a driver.
The third brother remembered that his mother used to love
to read the Bible, but couldn't see well anymore, so he got
her a specially trained parrot that could recite any verse
from the Bible on demand.
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Joke 3(b)
Soon, the brothers received thank-you notes from their
mother.
The first son's note said, "The house you bought me is
much too big! I only live in a small part of it, but I have to
clean the whole thing!"
The second son got a note that said, "I rarely leave the
house anymore, so I hardly use the limo you gave me.
And when I do use it, the driver is so rude!
The third son's note said, "My darling baby boy, you know
just what your mother loves! The chicken was delicious!"
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Exercise: self-assessment
List your main advantage &
disadvantage in communication
skills.
Do you have any bad habits in
communication?
Let your friends or classmates
to identify your result.
Ensure how to improve your
communication skills.
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CHAPTER 2: Communication
and Strategy-----The process
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Defining Communication
Communication is the
transfer of meaning.
It must be understood .
It is a complex,ongoing
process.
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Joke 1…….Misunderstood
Boyfriend: What is
your favorite music
group?
Girlfriend: I love U2!
Boyfriend: I love you
too, but what is your
favorite music group?
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Joke 2 …….Misunderstood
 A man wanting to borrow another man's newspaper asks,
"Are you finishe(d)?"
The other man replies---"No, I'm Norwegian."
 I was arrested at the airport. Just because I was greeting my
cousin Jack! All that I said was -------"Hi Jack", but very loud.
 My 11-year-old daughter asked me whether or not I like F4.
“No.but I like F16,baby”,I replied.
“Wow! F16 ? What TV show do they play,papa?”she asked.
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Joke 3 …….Misunderstand
 A panda bear walks into a restaurant. He orders the
special and eats it. After eating, he pulls out a pistol, kills
the waiter and starts to walk out the door. The owner of
the restaurant says, "Hey, what are you doing? You come
in here, you kill my waiter and walk away without saying a
word. I don't understand."
The panda says, "Look it up in the dictionary," and walks
out the door.
So the owner gets out a dictionary and looks under the
heading "Panda". It reads:
 Panda: black and white animal; lives in central China; eats
shoots and leaves.
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Elements & Process of
Communication
Sender
Feedback
Receiver
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message
Encoding
NOISE
message
Decoding
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message
Media
or
Channel
message
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Make Sure Your Message
Understood
 The message itself----its effect on receiver and
yourself(sender)?Think before communicating.
 What about the receiver?-----his or their background of
education,level, experience, culture,age,gender,etc.-----the
source of how to encode and decode.
 Media choosing------cost,efficiency,timeliness, accuracy,need of
feedback,need to verify,etc.
 Pay attention to noise-----It can destroy the effect of your
communication.
 Remember the use of rhetoric or double talk.
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Find the Implication(A)
Two fellows have a call.
What does she really mean?
He can help me
finish the project.
Huh,a romantic
date.
Hi,Peter,would u like to
have dinner with me
tonight?
I have something
important to talk with
you.
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My
pleasure,Janet.See
you 7 o’ clock.
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Find the Implication(B)
 Just a fiction.Don’t put it Into yourself.
I love her and
want to woo her.
That’s great,but
sorry,Peter.I have to
go to my parents’
home to celebrate my
mom’s birthday
Hi,Janet,would you like
to have a dinner with
me tonight?
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I have a date
with my dear
James.
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Principles of Communication
 Dynamic------Human communication is constantly undergoing change.
 Continuous----Communication never stops-----you think after having
spoken,written,listened or read. Remember: Silence is a communication
too.
 Circular------It is a cycle-----we take in information,determine what it
means,and respond (feedback).
 Unrepeatable------Everything changes when doing the same thing again.
 Irreversible------you may want to get back what you said.But you can’t.All
you can do is to explain,apologize and say more.
 Complex-------Human being is a complex animal,isn’t it?
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When no adequate information
图文:中国海军陆战队
进行抗曝晒特种训练
http://www.sina.com.cn
2002年09月02日13:51
中国新闻网
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Levels of Communication
Intrapersonal-----you communicate within yourself----thinking problems over, working silently on a thing.
Interpersonal-----communication occurs between or
among people.
Organizational------occurring between or among
organizations-----negotiation,business meeting.
Mass or public-------sending messages from just one
person to many people simultaneously,as in class,TV
commercial,or news conference.
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Successful Strategic
Communication
Link your message to the strategy and goals of the
organization.
Attract the attention of your intended audience.
Explain your position in terms they will understand and
accept.
Motivate your audience to accept and act on your
message.
Inoculate them against contrary message and position.
manage audience expectations.
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CHAPTER 3 Communication Ethics
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ENRON :Unethical Cost
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Organizational Chart of Enron
O rga n iza tio na l C ha rt o f E n ro n C o rp . a s o f 1 9 9 7
E n ro n C o rp .
E x p lo ra tio n
T ra n sp o rta tio n
E n ro n
New
a n d D e ve lo p m e n t
a n d D is trib u tio n
G a s S e rvic e s
B u sin e sse s
E n ron O il & g as
C om p an y
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F lorid a G as
Tran s m is s ion
N orth ern
B ord er P ip elin e
N orth ern
N atu ral G as
Tran s wes tern
P ip elin e
P ortlan d
G en eral E lec tric
W h o le sa le E n e rg y
O p e ra tio n s
R e ta il
E n e rg y
a n d S e rvic e s
S e rvic e s
E n ron C ap ital &
Trad e R es ou rc es N orth A m eric a
E n ron E u rop e
E n ron In tern ation al
E n ron E n g in eerin g
& C on s tru c tion
GUO ZHIWEN (C)2010
E n ron
E n erg y S ervic es
A m oc o/E n ron S olar
E n ron
C om m u n ic ation s
E n ron R en ewab le
E n erg y C orp .
E n ron W in d C orp .
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Enron’s chairman resigns (A)
 Kenneth Lay, the CEO of Enron, resigned last night, the latest
casualty of a financial scandal that has taken America's seventhlargest company from the forefront of the New Economy to
Chapter 11 bankruptcy protection from its creditors(债权人).
 In a statement issued by the Houston-based energy trading
company, Lay, 59, said, "This was a decision the board and I
reached in cooperation with our creditors' committee. I want to
see Enron survive, and for that to happen, we need someone at the
helm(掌舵) who can focus 100% of his efforts on reorganizing
the company and preserving value for our creditors and
hardworking employees."
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Enron’s chairman resigns (B)
 Enron's board said it will seek a
restructuring specialist who can
salvage(抢救财产) what's left of
the company. Lay attributed(归因
于) his resignation to the
distractions(分心) of being
investigated by various
government panels(政府调查组)
at a time when the company has
to come up with a plan to honor(
兑现) billions of dollars in debt.
 Lay will remain on Enron's board
of directors, but he will no longer
be an employee of the firm he has
run since 1985.
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Enron’s chairman resigns (C)
 Lay had single-mindedly(一心一意地) pursued(追求)
one vision: becoming the biggest energy marketer in a
nation that was rethinking its system of governmentregulated(政府管制的) energy monopolies(垄断).
 Lay provided the economic vision behind Enron's
growth as an energy marketer, and he also helped
shape(制定) the government's approach toward
deregulation(违反规定). For the past decade he has
lavished(浪费) millions of dollars in campaign
contributions on legislators(立法委员), governors(州
长) and presidents.
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Enron’s chairman resigns (D)
 But in the past year, investors began having doubts. Through
the first half of 2001, Lay and his top executives(高级管理人
员) faced questions about Enron‘s revenue and growth.
When CEO Jeff Skilling quit last August, six months into his
job, questions grew more pointed(显著的).
 In October, Enron reported a third-quarter loss, then
informed analysts the firm was worth $1.2 billion less than
had been believed. When it restated its earnings in
November, removing $580 million in accumulated profits
over five years, the stock dropped precipitously(急剧地).
Enron went into Chapter 11 bankruptcy protection(根据美国
破产法第十一章规定申请破产) Dec. 2.
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Unethical Behaviors
Fraud (to customers,public,employees,etc.)
Commercial bribe receiving
Insider trading (securities industry)
Misappropriation (stealing property)
Writing deceptive reports (e.g. newspapers)
Pirate,counterfeit(illegal use others’ brand
or design)
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Why this happens?
Lack of self-discipline from top managers
Too much business cultures worldwide
Money is all businesses pursue
Broken moral systems
Defective game rules
Social unfairness or inequality
Unhealthy supervision mechanism
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Ethics and laws
unethical
illegal
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Defining Business Ethics
Ethics refers to a field of inquiry or discipline
in which matters of right and wrong,good
and evil are systematically examined.
Morality refers to patterns of behavior that
are actually common in daily life,and what
ethics is about.
Social responsibility refers to part of ethics,
relating to external constituencies.
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Multileveled Business Ethics
The individual----values concerning the
balance between self-interest and
common good or fairness.
The organization----group conscience for
good or evil.
The economy----pattern of social,political
and economic forces that drives
individuals and businesses.
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Three views of decision-making
Moral viewpoint
 Willingness to seek out and act on reasons.
 Being impartial from decision-maker
Economic viewpoint
 Using scarce resources to maximize profits
 Too many entities resulting in conflict
Legal viewpoint
 Not everything immoral is illegal
 Law outpaces new areas of concern
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An Integrated Approach?
A decision-making process integrates the three
viewpoints mentioned above.
Long-term rather than short-term profits result from
moral and legal actions.
A company removes a defective product from supermarket
shelves ,caring about both moral and legal issues.
Managers should engage in fair and open dialogue
with those who are most affected by the outcome of
the decisions.
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The nature of moral judgment
Normative judgments:claims that imply
something is good or bad and express
values.-----These figures are mistaken.
 non-normative judgment:neutral value
claims that describe something.-----These
figures do not match the auditors.
Moral judgment:a special category of
normative judgment.
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Making moral judgment
 Ethical sensibility-----identify aspects of the
situation that have ethical importance.
 Ethical reasoning------determine what kind of
ethical problem you face.
 Ethical conduct-----stand up and act on what you
think it is right.
 Ethical leadership------influence the exercise of
others by showing your integrity and moral
power.
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Statements of ethical principles
 Types of ethical statements:
 Code of ethics
 Values statement
 Corporate credo
 Content of these ethical statements-----clarity,
transparency,honesty,truth or objectivity,
credibility, coherence,loyalty,and respect for
human beings.
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How to make ethical
statements work?
Write it
Tailor it
Communicate it
Promote it
Revise it
Live it
Enforce/reinforce it
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CHAPTER 4:
SPEAKING
The easiest and the most difficult
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A Case of speaking1
尊敬的校长、各位老师、各位家长、同学们:
大家下午好!
我要感谢学校的老师们,是你们给我们这个机会
见证孩子们人生中重要的时刻。
同学们,看到你们那么优秀、那么可爱、那么引
人注目,我的心情激动、欣喜、不安……你们马上要
面临人生中最重要的挑战之一:高考。这同时也意味
着你们即将离开父母去开始从未有过的求学之旅,你
们要开始展翅飞翔……
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A Case of speaking2
在18岁的成人礼上,在你们即将开创更加瑰丽的人生的时候,
我要送给各位同学一朵玫瑰:ROSE。
Responsible(责任):对国家的责任,对学校和父母的责任,
最重要的是对自己的责任。18岁以前,你可以抢别人的棒棒糖,
18岁以前你可以哭,但是18岁以后…….
Optimistic(乐观):正式走入社会,你会发现并不像你想象
的那么美好,会有很多挫折、失望,但要保持乐观。
Strong(坚强):很多挑战需要你们去独自承担。
Excellent(优秀):做最优秀的自己。
同学们,最后祝你们高考成功!人生成功!再次感谢老师们的
辛勤付出!
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Practice
北宋思想家李觏有一句话,叫做“善之本在教,教之
本在师”。唐代思想家、教育家韩愈对教师有一个非
常全面的定义,即“师者,所以传道、授业、解惑
也”。我的体会是,“传道”就是要教会学生做一个
有道德、有思想、有责任感、积极向上的人;“授业”
就是要教授学生专业知识,培养学生的专业能力,使
他们能“立业”;“解惑”就是帮助学生解决“德”
和“业”上的困惑。因此,一个好的老师需要做到
“三心”,即传道需良心,授业需用心,解惑需耐心。
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Three types of SPEAKING
One-on-one speaking
Group speaking
Mass speaking
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Who can make 250,000 USD by
speaking in less than 30 minutes?
2002.5.23
in Shenzhen
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Why are you afraid of speaking?
No self-confidence
No complete preparation
You are afraid of making fools of
yourself
Lack of skills or practice
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——Before speaking
Taking control of the
situation
Preparing yourself to
succeed
Being Self-confident
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How to prepare a successful SPEECH (1)
 1.Develop a strategy
 2.Get to know your audience
 3.Determine your reason for speaking
 4.Learn what you can do about the
occasion for your talk
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How to prepare a successful SPEECH (2)
5.Know what makes people listen
6.Understand the questions listeners
bring
7.recognize common obstacles to
successful communication
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How to prepare a successful SPEECH (3)




8.Organize your thoughts
9.Keep your audience interested
10.Select a delivery approach
11.Develop your visual support
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How to prepare a successful SPEECH (4)
12.Rehearse your speech
13.Develop confidence in your message
and in yourself
14.Deliver your message
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1.Develop A Strategy
Strategy for speaking---General
knowledge of the speech
Audience
Purpose
occasion
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2.Get to know your audience
Age
Education
Personal beliefs
Occupation
Income
Socio-economic
status
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Ethnic origin
Gender
Knowledge of
the subject
Attitude toward
the subject
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3.Determine your reason for
speaking
To Inform
To Persuade
To Inspire
To interest
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4.Learn what you can do
about the occasion
Common occasion---polite,informative
presentation
Holidays---greetings,incorporated theme
Graduations,commencements,rites-ofpassages events,new employees
welcome ---focus on future,
responsibilities, opportunities that lie
ahead
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5.What makes people listen?
POSITIVE SPEAKING STYLES
Warm
Friendly
Interesting
Organized
Confident
Open
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Honest
Exciting
Knowledgeable
Creative
Inspiring
Authentic(true)
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What makes people not listen?
NEGATIVE SPEAKING STYLES
Pompous
Not energized
Patronized
Formal
Stuffy
closed
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Vague
Complex
Unsure
Irrelevant
Monotonous
nervous
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6.Understand the questions
listeners bring
Do you know something I need to know?
Can I trust you?
Am I comfortable with you?
How can you affect me?
What’s my experience with you?
Are you reasonable?
Who do you represent?(your organization?)
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7.Recognize common obstacles
to successful communication (1)
Stereotypes(Walter Lippmann, 1921)
ascribing to those characteristics observed from
all members of a group in just one or a few
 People are comfortable with stereotypes
 Stereotype help to explain the world as a
starting point,but these may make us fail to
acknowledge the differences within a group
 So you must try with an open mind to treat
people as individuals
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Recognize common obstacles
to successful communication (2)
Prejudice-----to judge before knowing,
because we are working with incomplete data
 Gathering enough information
Feelings
 Keep your emotion in check
 Control your anger
 Don’t display your contempt for others or their
ideas in public
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Recognize common obstacles
to successful communication (3)
Language ---- live only when relating to
the speaker
Repeat,tell stories,give examples
Culture---customs, habits, preferences,
traditions,beliefs,religions, subcultures,
values,etc
Pay attention to the culture differences
Respect the culture of your audience
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Recognize common obstaclesto successful communication
(4)
Communication obstacles can provoke
negative reactions
 When your audience feel unknown with your
speaking,they will feel frustrated, confused,
angry,and hostile toward you------they may
withdraw entirely.
 Suggestions:(1)begin with the familiar and
move to the unfamiliar.(2)Don’t confuse your
audience.(3)Make them feel they are as smart
as you.
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Support your ideas with credible evidence
Provide current,believable,easy-tounderstand evidence
Begin with your own experience, interests,
knowledge.
Cite the experts’ ideas
Consider new innovations, development,
ideas,technology
Get experts advice
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8.Organize your thoughts
Speech
Introduction
Main Body
Conclusion
A well-organized talk is easy to follow
A perfect introduction means 50% success in advance
Never forget a conclusion cohered to your introduction
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Introduction of A Speech(1)
 An anecdote: tell a story to interest people
 A humorous story: people love to laugh
 A prediction: it can amuse or arouse people
 A dramatic forecast: longer-range predication
 A striking example: very brief anecdote
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Introduction of A Speech(2)






A climatic moment: a particular moment in time
A suitable quotation: it can enforce your points
A reference to the occasion: humanizing yourself
A provocative question: stimulating brains
A statement of opinion: it should be respected
Current or recent events: fresh or inside info will be well
responded
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Structure Your Speech
Chronological order
Topical organization
Cause-and-effect
Problem-solution
Geographic order
Space order
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Advice Beyond Structure
Keep it simple
Keep it brief
Talk,don’t read
Relax( breathe deeply,
then exhale)
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How To Conclude
Remember: conclusions represent the last
chance to put the most important ideas before
people,reinforcing your purpose for speaking
Cue your audience that your speech is
coming to an end
Leave them a clear, simple,unambiguous
message
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9.Keep your audience interested
Provide order,
structure
Give them something
they can use
Make it logical
Make it reasonable
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Make it clear
Use words they
understand
Keep it moving
Answer their questions
Allay their fears
Respect their needs
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10.Select a Delivery
Approach
Under what circumstances would each
of the following be most appropriate?
Memorized Speech-------sounds wooden
Manuscripted Speech-------sounds read-like
Extemporaneous Speech------best
alternative,convincing
Impromptu speech--------brief and polite
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Giving an Impromptu Talk
Maintain your poise (not be tensional)---smile,thank your host
Decide your topic and approach
Don’t apologize
Be sincere,honest and direct
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11.Types of Presentation Visuals
When would each of the following
visuals be most effective:
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Handouts
Slides
Chalkboards
Flipcharts
Whiteboards
Electronic
presentations
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Designing Effective Visuals
Limit each visual to one idea.
Illustrate your main points, not your
entire presentation.
Use points and boxes to highlight
important information.
Use color and excitement.
Avoid visuals that conflict with your
verbal message.
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Good Visuals Will……
Be simple in nature
Explain relationships color effectively
Be easy to set up,display and transport
Reinforce the spoken message
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12.Rehearse Your Speech
Should you practice?-----Absolutely
1.limit timing 2.improve your transition
3.build confidence
Should you use notes?-----yes,partly
1.simple 2.compact 3.easy-to-follow
4.easy-to-handle 5.numbered 6.readable
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13.Develop Confidence in
your message and yourself
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14.Deliver Your Message
Beforehand preparation
Date,time and location
Room layout
Microphone, acoustics
and lights
Visual-aids
Stage and lectern
Time limits
Notes
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Exercise: imagine a scene…
Determine what you will prepare for your
speech
Provide a joke,a story,an introduction or
something that can interest your
audience
Ask your classmates for evaluation
Then perfect your speech
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CHAPTER 5 WRITING
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Ways to become a better business
writer(A)
Keep in mind that your reader doesn't
have much time
Know where you are going before you
start writing---the important points
Don’t make any spelling and grammatical
errors
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Ways to become a better business
writer(B)
Be responsive to the needs of the reader
Be clear and specific----use simple and word-toearth words
Try to use present tense
Make you vigorous and direct
Use short sentences and paragraphs
Use personal pronouns (I and You)
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Ways to become a better business
writer(C)
Avoid clichés(old words) and jargon
Separate facts from opinions
Use numbers with restraint---use tables or
charts
Write the way you talk
Never be content with your first effort
Make it perfect
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Strategy And Memo Writing
Memos------internal documents,focusing on
one issue,concise,in plain language.
Overview paragraph of memo
Purpose:why are you writing the memo?
Main idea:what do you want to tell?
Opinion:what is your point of view
on the subject?
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The Six Communication Strategies
Information strategies
• To confirm agreement
• To provide facts
• To provide a point of view
Action Assistance
• To request assistance
• To give direction
• To seek agreement
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Qualities of a good overview
Clear and simple
Brief
Deals with the what----not with the how
Includes and identifies the writer’s opinion
Reflects the needs of the reader
Thorough and complete
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An Example of a Memo
From: Hansen Zhang
Sent: Tuesday, August 06, 2002 10:39 AM
Provide facts
To: 郭志文
Cc: 舒伯阳; 李祥坤
Subject: 人力资源管理硕士课程介绍
purpose
Importance: High
郭教授:
您好!
非常遗憾您的电脑系统出了问题。 我将您原先准备的5门课程大纲再次发送给您。
根据我们在6月份的会谈情况,南昆士兰大学已完成了合同,但需要您提供贵院12
门课程的大纲(其中包括由贵院负责教授的6门课程),供其学术委员会认可。
考虑到10月份开班,双方的前期准备时间仅有2个月时间,其间还要完成合同签订、
项目申报、推广等多项工作,因此恳请您能尽快将有关课程大纲提供给我。
谢谢。
张华
项目开发部高级经理
澳中教育文化中心
2015/10/3
Request assistance
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The persuasive memo(A)
Consider your objective against the reader’ s
attitudes, perceptions, and knowledge of the
subject.---his mindset?how to let him say yes?
Outline on paper---never miss anything.
Include a plan of action---add your credibility and
practicality to your ideas.
Don’t lose your argument in the situation analysis--stick to the facts,avoid controversial issues and
unsupported assertions.
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The persuasive memo(B)
Use the direct approach---your ideas?
Always lead from strength---with a
strong and confident overview
paragraph,in order of importance.
Use precedent to make your proposal
appear less speculative (risk-taking).
Gear your argument to the reader’s
decision criteria.
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Outlining a proposal
Situation analysis----the
situation your reader or
company is facing
Your recommendation----what
should we do about it?
Rationale----why is the
recommendation a good thing
to do?
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Seven-step Outlining Procedure
1) Review your strategy.
2) Assemble the information that
will go into the memo.
3) Identify and separate need to
know information
4) Identify and separate the
recommended course of action
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Seven-step Outlining Procedure
5)
6)
7)
Develop your
rationale
Rank your arguments
from most powerful
to least important
Test your argument
against the reader’s
decision criteria
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The Proposal Format for Memos ---1
Overview:purpose,main ideas,your opinion,
overall cost.
Situation analysis:background,historical
perspective,relevant facts,key assumption
-----the foundation on which your proposal is built.
recommendation:a clear overall picture for
action.
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The Proposal Format for Memos ---2
Rational:a numbered list of reasons that
support your recommendation,in order of
importance.
Alternatives considered
Implementation plan:timing,resource
requirements with logically appropriate
headings
Next steps:what will happen?
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The competitive appraisal format
of memos
Overview
Background
Conclusion:your interpretation of the facts
Findings:the facts that support your conclusion
Indicated action
Supporting data
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Conference Reports
Including:the name of
the group,persons
attending,subjects
Report briefly on
----what was discussed?
----what was decided and
why?
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Focus your report on
-----what action is
required?
-----who is responsible?
-----what the timing will
be?
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Make your memos
inviting and attractive
Grab attention up front
Vary sentence and paragraph length----but keep them short
Use headings
Use bullets and numbers to identify groupings
Use parallel structure for lists
Underline or use boldface type to focus on topic
sentences,key words,and phrases
Leave adequate margins
Make it quality document
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Writing Good Business
Letters(Rudolph Flesch)---1
Answer promptly
Show that you are genuinely interested
Don’t be so short,brief,simple
If it’s bad news,say you are sorry
If it’s good news,say you are glad
Give everyone the benefit of doubt
Never send off an angry letter
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Writing Good Business
Letters(Rudolph Flesch)---2
Watch out for
cranks (don’t lose
your temper)
Appreciate humor
be careful with
form letters
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When you are required to explain something
Nothing is self-explanatory
Translate technical terms
Go step-by-step
Don’t say too little or too much
Illustrate---maps,drawings,process flow charts
Answer expected questions
Warn against common mistakes
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When you are required to apologize
take the complaint seriously
Explain what happened and why
Don’t shift the blame
Don’t just write----do something
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The order arrangement
Give-----directions before reasons
Requests before justifications
Answers before explanations
Conclusions before details
Solutions before problems
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CHAPTER 6
Listening and Feedback
How Our Time is Spent
Communicating
45% of our day is spent listening
30% of our day is spent speaking
16% of our day is spent reading
9% of our day is spent writing
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Listening is Hard Work
It is characterized by faster heart action, quicker
circulation of the blood, and a small rise in
bodily temperature.
The average American adult listens at an
efficiency rate of 25%.
Listening is a process that includes hearing,
attending to, understanding, evaluating, and
responding to spoken messages.
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Why Aren’t People Better
Listeners?
We’re always in a hurry; good listening
takes time.
People think listening is boring; they had
rather talk.
We’re conditioned to listen passively, not
actively, because of TV and radio.
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Why Listen?
Poor listening results in millions of little
time-wasting mistakes a day: wrong
telephone number, wrong coffee order, etc.
Poor listening can cause liability lawsuits.
Listening is the central skill in establishing
and maintaining interpersonal relationships.
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The Benefits of
Better Listening---1
Increased knowledge
Job success
Improved interpersonal relations
Self-protection
Listening demonstrates acceptance
Listening promotes problem-solving
abilities
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The Benefits of
Better Listening---2
Listening increases the speaker’s
receptiveness to the thoughts and ideas
of others.
Listening increases the self-esteem of the
other person.
Listening helps you overcome selfconsciousness.
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An Inventory of Poor
Listening Habits---1
Being preoccupied with talking, not
listening.
Calling the subject uninteresting.
Letting bias or prejudice distort the
messages you hear.
Oversimplifying answers or explanations.
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An Inventory of Poor
Listening Habits---2
Yielding to external distractions
Yielding to internal distractions
Avoiding difficult or demanding material
Rationalizing poor listening
Criticizing the speaker’s delivery
Jumping to conclusions
Getting over-stimulated
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An Inventory of Poor
Listening Habits
Assigning the wrong meaning to words
Listening only for the facts
Trying to make an outline of everything
you hear
Faking attention to the speaker
Letting emotion-laden words throw us off
track
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An Inventory of Poor
Listening Habits
Resisting the temptation to interrupt
Wasting the differential between the
rate at which we speak and the rate at
which we think
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Developing Good
Listening Skills---1
Stop talking!
One conversation at a time
Empathize with the person speaking
Ask questions
Don’t interrupt
Show interest
Give your undivided attention
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Developing Good
Listening Skills---2
Evaluate facts and evidence
React to ideas, not to the speaker
Wishing doesn’t make it so
Listen for what is not said
Share the responsibility for communication
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The Five Essential Skills
of Active Listening
Paraphrase(interpret) others as they speak
Reflect feelings
Reflect meaning
Reflect conclusions
Follow through
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A System for Improving
Your Listening Habits
Review your listening inventory
Recognize your undesirable listening
habits
Refuse to tolerate undesirable habits
Replace undesirable habits with effective
ones
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Guidelines for Constructive
Feedback---1
Acknowledge the need for feedback
Give both positive and negative feedback
Understand the context
Provide definitions
Use a common language
Don’t assume
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Guidelines for Constructive
Feedback---2
Focus on behavior
rather than people
Know when to give
feedback
Know how to give
feedback
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Knowing When Not
to Give Feedback-1
You don’t know much about the circumstances of the behavior.
You don’t care about the person or will
not be around long enough to follow up
on the aftermath of your feedback.
The feedback, positive or negative, is
about something the person has no
power to change.
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Knowing When Not
to Give Feedback-2
The other person seems low in selfesteem.
You are low in self-esteem.
Your purpose is not really improvement,
but to put someone on the spot or show
how much smarter you are.
The time, place, or circumstances are
inappropriate.
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Knowing How to Give Effective
Feedback---1
Be descriptive.
Be objective.
Don’t use labels.
Don’t exaggerate.
Don’t be judgmental.
Speak for yourself.
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Knowing How to Give Effective
Feedback---2
Talk first about yourself, not about the
other person.
Phrase the issue as a statement, not as a
question.
Encourage people to change.
Restrict your feedback to things you
know for certain.
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Knowing How to Give Effective
Feedback---3
Build trust.
Help people hear and
accept your
compliments when
giving positive
feedback.
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Knowing How to
Receive Feedback---1
Breathe.
Listen carefully.
Ask questions for clarity.
Acknowledge the feedback.
Acknowledge valid points.
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Knowing How to
Receive Feedback---2
Don’t be defensive.
Try to understand the other person’s
objectives.
Take time out to sort out what you heard.
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CHAPTER 7
Nonverbal Communication
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Why important?
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You will learn
 The nonverbal categories & process
 The functions and principles of nonverbal
communication
 The dimensions of nonverbal code
 The effects of nonverbal communication
 How to understand and use nonverbal
communication
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Nonverbal Communication Defined
Definition: The transfer of information without
using verbal messages.
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Importance of Nonverbal
Communication
Nonverbal communication is a crucial element
of management and business communication.
The nonverbal message comprises about 93% of
the total message.
55% comes from facial expressions and posture
of speaker
vocal aspects deliver 38%
the actual words deliver only 7%
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Generalizations about
Nonverbal Messages
Nonverbal Messages rarely have one set meaning
(except for “emblems”). Rather, they usually add
to the message’s meanings.
Nonverbal Messages vary from culture to culture
and region to region in their meaning.
When Nonverbal Messages contradict verbal ones,
nonverbal messages are usually the ones to trust.
Nonverbal Messages are difficult to read.
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Nonverbal
Categories
Sign language:
emblem,color,silence,vocal tone,etc.
Action language: Body movement,eye
contact,touch,facial expression,etc.
Object language:
Clothing,decoration,appearance,space,etc.
ATTENTION:Sometimes there is no difference
between two categories.
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The Nonverbal Process
Cue
Expectation
Inference
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Functions of Nonverbal Communication-1
Accenting: these signals
emphasize some part of a verbal
message.
Examples:
 a raised eyebrow might express
surprise;
a waving finger might mean
disapproval;
pounding on the desk while
talking.
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Functions of Nonverbal
Communication-2
Complementing: these signals reinforces the general tone or
attitude of our verbal communication.
Examples:
 a downcast expression and slumping posture might
accompany words of discouragement;
 upright posture, a smile, & animated movement might
reflect the verbal story about getting a promotion.
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Functions of Nonverbal Communication-3
Contradicting: these signals can contradict the
verbal message, sometimes deliberately, sometimes
unintentionally.
These nonverbal cues will often tell the observer
the truth when the verbal cues don’t. (Nonverbal
leakage of deception)
Examples:
 tears in our eyes and a quiver in our voice might contradict
our verbal message that we’re all right.
 A wink & a nod will send the non-verbal message that we
don’t mean what we’re saying.
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Functions of Nonverbal Communication-4
Regulating: these signals occur during conversations
to signal to our partner to
“slow down,” “stop,” and even “wait your
turn” and let the other person know when
we are ready to listen or to speak.
Example: speaker who isn't finished and
doesn't want to be interrupted may speak
louder or faster to keep his turn.
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Functions of Nonverbal
Communication-5
Repeating: these signals repeat
what verbal messages convey.
Example: with keys in hand and
coat on, you announce “I’m
leaving” as you walk toward the
door.
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Functions of Nonverbal
Communication-6
Substituting: If we can’t send a message by
verbal cues, we might use emblems to get
our point across.
Example: A supervisor visiting a noisy factory
might use the “OK” sign to signal an employee;
a “thumbs up” sign can substitute for words
of praise or encouragement.
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Principles of Nonverbal
Communication-1-2
Nonverbal communication
occurs in a context.
Nonverbal behaviors are usually
packaged.
body posture, eye contact, arm & leg
movement; facial expression, vocal
tone, etc. happen at once.
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Principles of Nonverbal Communication-3-4
Nonverbal behavior
always communicates.
Nonverbal behavior
is governed by rules.
Most nonverbal behavior is
learned and is a product of our
culture in which we are raised,
but there are exceptions.
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Principles of Nonverbal Communication-5-6
Nonverbal behavior is
highly believable.
Nonverbal behavior is
communication about
communication.
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The Communication
Environment
This refers to that collection of monotonous
factors that can and often does influence a
human relationship.
Examples: furniture, interior decorating,
lighting conditions, colors, temperature,
background noise, music.
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Exercise & Practice
1.
2.
3.
Can you tell the similarities and differences
between verbal and nonverbal communication?
Why is face-to-face communication is more
efficient than a phone call ? Should you smile
when calling?
Check up any poor verbal habits you have.
Practice: Role-playing ( job interviewer and
interviewee)
Reference
Practice: shopping observation
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Kinesics(study of physical movement)
Kinesics is the most studied of the areas
of nonverbal communication.
It includes body movement: walking,
sitting, standing, moving (our arms, hands,
head, feet, and legs), posture, facial
expression, and eye contact.
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Kinesics --Emblems
Emblems: nonverbal acts which
have a direct verbal translation,
sometimes just a word or two.
Examples: thumbs-up sign, Vshape finger, OK sign.
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Kinesics --Illustrators
Illustrators: these are gestures that often
complement our verbal signals, helping
to illustrate what’s being said verbally.
Example: a fisherman showing how big his
fish was that he caught.
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Kinesics --Affect displays
Affect displays: these are behaviors that
indicate the type and intensity of the various
emotions that we feel.
Example: facial expressions and hand & arm
movements are commonly used to
communicate emotional states of mind.
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Kinesics --Regulators
Regulators: these are the body
movements that help control the flow of
communication.
Example: when one holds up the hand
palm outward to keep another from
interrupting.
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Kinesics --Adaptors
 Adaptors: these are movements or behaviors
that involve personal habits and selfexpressions. They are methods of adapting or
accommodating ourselves to the demands of
the world in which we live.
Example: the person wishing to leave, but unable to
do so, might start to shake his crossed leg in
imitation of walking.
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Eye Contact
Direction, duration, and intensity of gaze are
often seen as indicators of interest, attention or
involvement between two people, but eye contact
varies from one society to another.
Example: In Japan, looking directly into the eyes
of a supervisor is a sign of defiance, but in the US,
supervisors expect eye contact. In our society,
eye contact is associated with honesty, esteem
and integrity.
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Physical Appearance
This includes body type, height, weight, hair,
skin color or tone, and physical attractiveness.
A number of studies have shown that people
readily attribute greater intelligence, wit,
charm, and sociability to those people whom
they judge to be very attractive.
1.Does appearance really matter?
2.What kind of person will attract you?
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Develop Your Physical Charm
Self-confidence---the most important
Self-confidence---it makes you feel ok
Self-confidence---never forget this
Proper dressing---your own style?
Nonverbal behaviors
Temperament---it comes from your heart and ,maybe,
your soul
Your achievements
Make-up---only when necessary
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Artifacts
These are objects that
are man-made.
These range from
clothing, jewelry,
eyeglasses to the
objects we decorate
our offices with.
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Dress
What we wear says much about who we are.
Dress is an important part of the first impression
we form in meeting others and is often the key to
credibility
 Be neither the first nor the last to
adopt a fashion.
 Women shouldn't wear clothes
that portray them as weak and
indecisive
 Dress as well as the person at
the next level.
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Haptics --Touch
This is among the most widely discussed and
perhaps least understood aspects of human
behavior.
Numerous studies have shown that physical
contact is essential to human existence.
Adults need it for social
and psychological balance;
children need it for security
and reassurance.
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Haptics –Five Categories of Touch
Touching falls into five categories:
Functional touch to serve professional
purposes
Social touch to answer the needs of politeness
Friendship to build warmth
Love to create intimacy
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Paralanguage (Vocalics)
Paralanguage involves the nonverbal aspects of vocal
delivery including the pitch, tone, onset, vocal qualifiers,
and duration of messages.
As we listen to others, the pitch of their voice, the onset
of the message (the time it takes between the person’s
taking the turn and the message’s beginning) and the
length of the message send subtle messages.
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Proxemics (Space)
This refers to how we use space in the areas
in which we work, live, socialize, and
conduct our lives.
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Categories of Personal Space-1-2
Intimate: ranges from actual touching to a
distance of about 18 inches(=0.4572 meters).
Personal: in the close phase, about 18 to 30
inches(0.762m), we can still hold or grasp each
other, but only by extending our arms. In the far
phase (about 30 inches to 4 feet=1.22m), two
people can touch each other only if they both
extend their arms.
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Categories of Personal Space-3
Social: at a distance of about 4 to 12 feet(=3.66m), we lose
the visual detail we could see in the personal distance, yet
we can easily make eye contact.
The near phase (4 to 7 feet=2.13m) is the range at which
most business conversations take place.
In the far phase (7 to 12 feet) business transactions have a
more formal tone and voices are raised slightly.
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Categories of Personal Space-4
Public: in the close phase (about 12 to 15
feet=4.57m), we feel more protected by space. In
the far phase (more than 25 feet=7.62m), we see
people as part of the landscape or scene in the room.
By understanding proxemic zones, managers can
gauge(measure) the relative warmth that exists in a
relationship by the distances people keep during
interactions. As trust grows, distances should
diminish.
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Differences in Space Categories
Proxemic categories (zones) vary from culture to
culture.
Men tend to maintain larger personal space than do
women.
Circumstances may artificially affect our use of
zones. Example: crowded elevator
People will stake out(line out) their territory.
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Managerial Implications of Proxemic Zones
Managers should be aware that invading
someone’s territory without invitation can be an
annoyance or even a threat.
Managers should recognize the boundaries of
fixed and semi-fixed space.
Experienced managers should be able to “read”
the environment for nonverbal clues. Consider
the amount of space, amount of privacy, and
location of space.
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Space in Written Documents
Written documents use space in two ways:
Physical appearance (texture and color)
Layout of words or visuals (Use shorter
paragraphs and lots of white space for easier
comprehension and retention.)
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Time
Our use of time and how we view its role in our
personal and professional lives speaks volumes
about who we are and how we regard others.
In the US, “time is money.” Time is viewed as a
commodity that can be saved, wasted, spent,
or invested wisely.
Mediterranean, Latin, and
Polynesian cultures don’t value time
as much.
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Women in Business and Nonverbal Signals
Quasi-Courtship Behavior
Both sexes rate women higher than men in both
encoding and decoding abilities.
but women often send the “wrong” signals in
business situations and men often misinterpret the
signals.
Courtship behavior invites a romantic relationship
and quasi-courtship behavior carries those roles into
the business context.
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Nonverbal Leakage
of Deception
When contradictory nonverbal signals betray
deception, they are called nonverbal leakage of
deception.
During deception, certain types of non-verbal
signals often escape from the deceiver despite
attempts at control.
The speaker’s subconscious betrays them
through this nonverbal leakage.
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Leakage Signals Difficult to
Control Consciously-1-2
Baseline : behavioral baseline needs to be
established for each person for each situation.
What behavior is normal for that person?
Kinesics: manual gestures and trunk movements
are the most valuable source of nonverbal leakage
of deception. Look at hand-to-face movements.
(Hand covering mouth; scratching nose; nail biting;
lip biting)
Are gestures outward and open or inward and
limited? What about leg and foot movements?
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Leakage Signals Difficult to
Control Consciously-3
Dress: this nonverbal leakage shows up in
the manipulation of dress, which may
suggest that the person feels threatened.
Does male interviewee close and button up
his coat or tug(pull) nervously at his pants
leg? Picking at lint on clothes or brushing
the clothes?
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Leakage Signals Difficult to
Control Consciously-4-5
Proxemics: does the person move their chair back? This may
show lack of cooperativeness.
The person may also cross their arms or give “signal
blunders” (putting briefcase or purse on their lap.)
Paralanguage: deceptive answers have a slower onset than
honest ones.
Deceptive answers are likely to be longer and less specific
than honest ones. Pitch is another source of leakage. Pitch
rises when deceptive responses are given.
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The Effects of Nonverbal
Communication-1
Nonverbal cues are often difficult to read.
Nonverbal cues are often difficult to
interpret.
Nonverbal behaviors are often contradictory.
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The Effects of Nonverbal
Communication-2
 Some nonverbal cues are more important than others.
 We often read into some cues much that isn’t there,
and fail to read some cues that are clearly present.
 We’re not as skilled at this as we think we are; our
confidence often exceeds our ability.
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Practice
Learn how to read
nonverbal messages
by observing
Appropriately use
nonverbal
communication
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Chapter 8
Communication
in Intercultural and
International Contexts
Cultural Challenges Abroad-1
In Hungary, men walk on the left side of
women or anyone of greater status, like a
boss.
It’s considered intrusive to ask a man from
the Middle East about his wife or female
members of his family.
It’s impolite for women to pour wine in Italy.
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Cultural Challenges Abroad-2
Don’t show the soles of your shoes in Iraq!
The U.S. “A-OK” gesture is obscene in many
countries. In France, this gesture means
“worthless.”
It’s impolite to point to people in Japan.
It’s offensive to eat with your left hand in many
Arab countries.
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Cultural Challenges Abroad-3
Don’t show up on time for a dinner party in South
America.
Saying “no” in Japan is very rude; in business
dealings, indirect and vague approaches are more
acceptable.
Presenting a business card in Japan is done with
reverence, using two hands and then bowing.
The recipient carefully studies the card before
respectfully putting it in a cardholder.
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Cultural Challenges Abroad-4
Americans are expected to give everyone in the
room a business card in Asia.
Your card should be translated into the local
language on the reverse side.
Just about every business occasion in Japan
demands an exchange of gifts.
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Business and Culture
Research has shown that failures in an
overseas business setting most
frequently result from an inability to
understand and adapt to foreign ways of
thinking and acting, rather than from
technical or professional incompetence.
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Should You Learn the Language?1
Learning a second language can be
challenging and tedious.
You could use an interpreter if you’re in the
country for only a short time.
As the length of your stay increases, the need
to learn the language increases.
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Should You Learn
the Language?-2
If you learn the language of the country, then you
can avoid interpretational problems in your
company’s advertising or product labeling:
Examples: Pepsi’s slogan “Come alive with Pepsi”
in German read “Come alive from the grave with
Pepsi”, Chevrolet’s Nova means “it doesn’t go” in
Spanish. Ford’s truck Fiera in Spanish meant
“ugly old woman”.
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What is Culture?
Culture is what we grow
up in.
Expected patterns of
behaviors
habits
Attitudes
Beliefs,values
customs
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Principles of culture
Culture is learned
Culture is universal to human society
Culture is constantly undergoing change
Culture is not value-neutral
Not all culture are equally complex
All cultures permit the development of
subcultures
Culture can influence biology, vice versa.
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The ways in which
we differ
power distance
Uncertainty avoidance
Individualism/collectivism
Masculinity/femininity
High/low context culture
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Power distance-1
Power Distance: the extent to which a
society accepts the fact that power in
institutions and organizations is distributed
unequally. It is reflected in the values of both
the more powerful and less powerful members
of the society.
Philippines, Venezuela, & Mexico are countries with
high power distance.
Denmark, New Zealand, Austria, & Israel have low
power distance.
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Power distance-2
Power Distance:
A manager in a culture with high power
distance has more power than sub-ordinates.
Probably uses a controlling strategy and
autocratic style.
A manager from a lower power distance
culture would have just a little more power
than subordinates and would favor equalitarian
strategy.
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Uncertainty avoidance-1
Uncertainty Avoidance: relates
to the degree to which a society
feels threatened by uncertainty and
by ambiguous situations. It tries to
avoid these uncertainties by
providing greater career stability,
creating more formal rules and
working to attain expertise.
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Uncertainty avoidance-2
Uncertainty Avoidance:
Greece, Portugal, Belgium, and Japan have
strong uncertainty avoidance.
Singapore, Hong Kong, Denmark, and
Sweden have weak uncertainty avoidance.
Managers trying to implement change should
use the equalitarian strategy.
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Individualism/collectivism-1
Individualism/collectivism:
Individualism suggests a loosely knit social framework in
which people are supposed to take care of themselves and
their families.
Collectivism is a much tighter social framework in which
people distinguish between in-groups and out-groups.
They expect their in-groups (relatives, organization) to
take care of them, and, therefore, they are loyal to them.
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Individualism/collectivism-2
Individualism/collectivism:
Managers from these two cultures have conflicts.
Example: negotiating---- managers from collectivist
cultures don’t want to make decisions without
collaborating and getting consensus first, while
managers from individualistic cultures don’t
collaborate and want to negotiate sooner.
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Masculinity/femininity-1
Masculinity/femininity:
Japan, Austria, Venezuela, and Mexico
are very masculine societies.
Denmark, Sweden, and Norway are
among the most feminine societies.
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High-context/Low-context culture-1
High-context/Low-context culture:
In high context cultures, much information is
either in the physical context or internalized
in the person. Nonverbal communication is
important and much meaning is determined
from it.
Japan and Saudi Arabia are high-context
countries.
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High-context/Low-context culture-2
High-context/Low-context culture:
In low context cultures, most
information is expected to be in
explicit words. Messages (sent and
received) should be accurate and
articulate.
US and Canada are low-context
cultures.
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Nonverbal Sensitivity-1
Whether you choose to learn the
country’s language or not, you should
definitely learn about the nonverbal
language common in that culture.
Interpretations of gestures, postures,
spatial relationships, time, dress, and
rituals vary widely.
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Nonverbal Sensitivity-2
Greetings
Handshake
Bow
Nose rub
Kiss
Placing the hands in
a praying position
Business cards
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Nonverbal Sensitivity-3
Dress
Business suit or slacks?
When you’re wearing the
country’s native attire, notice
how it is worn and where it is
worn.
Some clothes may be
considered offensive in many
Arab countries
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Nonverbal Sensitivity-4
Space, Touch, & Posture
Americans have a larger space bubble than Arab
and Latin American countries have.
It’s acceptable in Iran, China, and Indonesia for
two men to walk holding hands; it’s a sign of
close friendship. But it’s not acceptable for a
man and a woman to hold hands in public.(an old
story,right?)
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Nonverbal Sensitivity-5
Space, Touch & Posture
Managers should never touch the head of one from China
and Thailand because the head is sacred. In Tonga,
touching one’s head could get you the death penalty.
In Muslim countries, the left hand shouldn’t be used to
touch food or present a gift.
In Thailand and Indonesia, it is considered insulting to show
the sole of your shoe to someone else.
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Nonverbal Sensitivity-6
Gestures
Nodding the head up and down may mean “no”
and shaking the head from side to side may mean
“yes.”
The “OK” sign is obscene in some countries.
Our “come here” sign means “good bye” in most
African countries.
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Nonverbal Sensitivity-7
Time
To us, “time is money”. Romanians, Japanese, and
Germans value punctuality, but many of the Latin
countries have a more relaxed attitude toward time.
Meetings may start late.
Instead of written contracts, people in these
countries prefer to build their business relationships
on trust. To develop this trust takes time.
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Nonverbal Sensitivity-8
Food
You must have an adventuresome
spirit when traveling to many
foreign countries.
To reject food that may seem awful
to you in your host’s country would
make you look rude, so try some of
it.
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Nonverbal Sensitivity-9
Food
You might try sheep’s eyes in Saudi
Arabia, shark’s fin soup in China, a
roasted gorilla hand in one part of
Africa, a live fish brought to the
table and carved in Japan, or a
durian (榴莲果) in Southeast Asia.
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Nonverbal Sensitivity-10
Gifts
Gift-giving practices are expected in many
countries and frowned upon in others.
In Japan, it is important to give gifts but is
inappropriate in Germany. It is not normally
practiced in Belgium and the United
Kingdom.
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Nonverbal Sensitivity-11
Gifts
If giving flowers,
chrysanthemums should be
avoided in many European
countries because of their
funeral association.
In Japan, white flowers carry the
same message, as do purple ones
in Brazil and Mexico.
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Nonverbal Sensitivity-12
Gifts
Remember that numbers and shapes might
have some significance. The number 4
represents bad luck in Japan, as is 7 in Kenya.
The triangle is considered a negative shape in
Hong Kong, Korea, and Taiwan.
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Nonverbal Sensitivity-13
Sexism
While women in the US are given promotional
opportunities at work, men in many countries
do not treat women as equals and don’t want to
negotiate with them.
Women in some countries aren’t even allowed to
work, nor can they drive a car or be seen in
public without their veil.
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What is a Good
Intercultural Communicator?
A good intercultural communicator is not ethnocentric.
A good intercultural communicator is non-defensive
about their homeland.
A good intercultural communicator is curious about
other parts of the world and brave.
Good intercultural communicators are patient and
industrious.
Good intercultural communicators are genuinely
personable to the people of the other country.
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Career Concerns
Does the firm provide enough training to
employees who are headed overseas?
Are the overseas operations really important
to the firm?
How does the firm treat people on overseas
assignments?
Does the company have a repatriation program?
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CHAPTER 9
Managing Conflict
Understanding Conflict
The workplace of the 21st century
is filled with tension and strife.
Conflicts arise because of:
Pressure-cooker deadlines
Increased workloads
Fear of layoffs
Unrelenting(cold-blooded)
demand for higher productivity
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Understanding Conflict
Conflict can arise from a variety of
sources:
Personality differences
Personal and professional
relationships
Cultural differences
Working environments
Demands of the marketplace
Competition
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Understanding Conflict
Conflict generally has a negative
connotation.
Conflict can be a positive occurrence if
managed properly.
The positives of conflict:
Conflict requires that managers
analyze their goals.
Conflict creates dialog among
employees.
Conflict fosters creative solutions.
Without conflict, firms would stagnate.
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What is Conflict?
Three definitions:
1. Two systems (persons, groups,
firms, nations) are in conflict when
they interact directly in such a way
that the actions of one tend to
prevent or compel some outcome
against the resistance of the other.
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What is Conflict?
2. Conflict characterizes a situation in
which the conditions, practices, or goals
of individuals are inherently incompatible.
3. Conflict is a struggle over values or
claims to scarce resources, power, or
status.
 Communication is the method by which
managers determine if something is
inherently incompatible, and the struggle
over values is carried out through
communication behaviors.
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The Relationship of Communication
to Conflict
1. Conflict involves at least two
parties. Conflict can be
generated or resolved only
through communication.
A manager should understand the
types of communication interactions
that cause conflict.
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The Relationship of Communication to Conflict
2. Conflict develops due to
perceived mutually exclusive
goals. The parties perceive the
objectives as mutually exclusive.
However, through communication,
the two parties see that the goal
is not actually mutually exclusive.
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The Relationship of Communication
to Conflict
3. Conflict involves parties who may
have different value or perceptual
systems.
* The selection attention principle
affects values. We tend to perceive
that which is important and pleasing
to us and avoid that which is not.
* Not all the information about the
situation ever reaches the perceiver.
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The Relationship of Communication
to Conflict
When conflicting parties have different
value or perceptual systems,
communication is important in two
ways:
Sheer repetition of a positive message about
a person may result in greater liking for the
person.
As more accurate communication develops
between two people, the perceptual
differences will subside, and hence, the
probability of conflict will be resolved.
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The Relationship of Communication
to Conflict
4. Conflict ends only when each party is
satisfied that it has won or lost. Win-lose
situations dominate our culture. The win-lose
attitude develops two-valued thinking, which
will affect the manager’s communication style
in a conflict situation.
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A Note on Constructive
Conflict
The term conflict implies opposing
positions with negative results.
However, when properly managed,
conflict may be a positive rather than a
negative force. Conflict is needed for
progress and productivity. And conflict
does foster creativity.
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A Note on Constructive
Conflict
Studies show a higher decision quality when
there is open opposition and resistance by
subordinates than when the resistance of
sub-ordinates is weak and passive.
The “smooth ship” may not be effective.
The important duty of the manager is to
identify the potential for destructive or
constructive conflict.
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A Process Model of Conflict
1. Latent Conflicts: These are the
underlying causes of conflict situations.
 Functional interdependence
 Allocational interdependence
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A Process Model of Conflict
2. Perceived Conflict: This is present
when the parties recognize the latent
conditions or when the parties
misunderstand one another’s true
position.
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Four Conditions of
Perceived Conflict
1. Latent content present, perceived by
employees.
2. Latent content present, not perceived by
employees.
3. Latent content not present, not perceived by
employees.
4. Latent content not present, perceived by
employees.
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A Process Model of Conflict
3. Felt Conflict: The difference
between felt and
perceived conflict is the difference
between seeing and feeling. Felt
conflict is person-alized conflict and
should cause managers to be
concerned with the dysfunctions of
conflict.
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Two Explanations for the Felt
Component in Conflicts
1. The inconsistency between the demands of
an
efficient firm and individual growth.
Individuals and large firms find it difficult to
meet their needs concurrently, so
individuals may feel threatened. This may
cause anxiety. This anxiety may cause
defensive communication.
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Two Explanations for the Felt
Component in Conflicts
2. An employee may become personally
involved with the firm. Their selfimage may rely on job successes or
failures.
3. Felt conflict may be shown through
fear, threat, mistrust, and hostility.
Use non-defensive communication
when managing felt conflict.
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A Process Model of Conflict
4. Manifest Conflict: Either open
aggression or integrated problem
solving.
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Conflict Resolution Strategies
Avoidance: Combines a low concern
for production with a low concern for
people. This manager sees conflict as a
hopeless, useless experience. These
managers don’t like conflict of any kind.
They will comply to avoid
disagreements.
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Conflict Resolution Strategies
Smoothing: Managers try to deal with
conflict by making everyone happy.
These managers emphasize maintaining
relationships and de-emphasize
achieving production goals.This
manager believes conflict is destructive.
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Conflict Resolution Strategies
Forcing: This strategy is used by managers
who attempt to meet production goals at all
costs, without concern for the needs of others.
Losing is viewed as reduced status, weakness,and loss of self-image. Winning is
achieved at any cost. There will probably be
many later conflicts, loss of productivity;
employees don’t want to be on losing side of
win-lose position.
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Conflict Resolution Strategies
Compromise: This approach falls between
forcing and smoothing.
Compromise is used when:
Neither party involved believes he or she has the
power to “force” the issue on the other party, or
One or both of the parties believes resolution may
not be worth the cost in money, time, or energy
that might be needed to win.
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Conflict Resolution Strategies
Maximization: The Win-Win
Strategy
This strategy follows a problem solving
approach rather than a combative one.
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Beliefs Necessary to Implement
the Win-Win Approach
Cooperation is better than competition.
Both parties can be trusted.
Status differences should be minimized.
Mutually acceptable solutions can be
found.
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Implementing the Win-Win
Strategy
Use neutral rather than emotional terms.
Avoid absolute statements that leave no room
for modification.
Ask open-ended questions so that others will
be inclined to offer their viewpoints.
Avoid leading questions.
Repeat key phrases to make sure all parties
are communicating on the same wave length.
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Implementing the Win-Win
Strategy
Use terms that all parties clearly understand.
Allow the other person to complete
statements.
Use effective listening skills to ensure other
person’s ideas are understood.
Maintain a pleasant expression.
Use a face-to-face format, if possible.
Be aware of the importance of physical
arrangements.
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CHAPTER 10:
Business Meetings That
work
Planning & Running Successful
Meetings
Planning Phase: Purpose
Why was the group formed
Goals of group
Purpose of the meeting
Needs to be accomplished
Agenda: information vs. decisionmaking
Proposals to be voted on
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Planning: Outcome
What results do you want from the
meeting
List expectations:
increase membership
projects
networking
Ask if wish list reflects agenda
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The Big Plan
What needs to happen?
People need to show up
People need to be active participants
Agenda needs to be covered
What needs to be done?
A Lot!!!!
Equipment needed
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Agenda
Date Time Location
Participants
Agenda items (purpose) & time allotted
Person responsible for each item
Request written report from committees
Guide list: background & updates
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Agenda Guide
T o p ic
T im e
PERSO N
A p p ro v al O ffical
o f M in u tes
10
S IG
L ead er
U p d ate o f In fo rm
su rv ey
g en erate
p lan
5
15
D ian e
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Agenda: Pre-meeting Survey
Questionnaire: specific & general issues
Ask members what they want
Demographics
Summarize results
Pro’s: collective Con’s: poor response
Survey at meeting: time
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Attendee Preparation
Agenda
Ask for discussion questions/ comments
Reference material to be reviewed
Pre-reading
Request specific information to bring
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Promotion & Marketing
“Any publicity is good publicity”
Notify all prospective attendees
(schedule)
Invite leaders in the field
Review other meeting notices
Direct mail, e-mail, fax, article in news
letter, journals
Food,
music,
&
theme
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Invitation
Prepare early
Schedule delivery & reminder
Include: date, time, place, purpose,
outline of agenda
Color, border, logo
Set tone (theme)
Refreshments
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Meeting Packets
Signifies leader is ready & prepared
Saves distribution time
Folder: agenda, list of participants,
leadership contact numbers, references,
articles, index cards, & treat
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Slides & Flip Chart
6 X 6 Assign Artist
Color & highlight
Emphasize key words
Number, bullet, & symbols
Sticky Notes
Mind mapping
Clustering
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Facilitating
Parliamentary Procedure
efficient collective decisions
involve all members opportunity
equality, fairness & respect
order
majority rules/absentees
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Rules
Proposals = motions
Change wording = debated as
amendments
Rules of voting
Reinforce bylaws of national
organization
Bylaws: voting, board, committees,
quorum requirements
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Minutes
Written record
Recorder reminded of importance of
accurate & complete information
Include: Date, time, names, points,
actions, decisions, tasks, assignments,
follow-up list, archiving.
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Group Participation
Open or subgroup
discussion
Partners
Response cards
Polling
Go-Arounds
Call next speaker
Panel
Photograph
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Facilitate Discussions
Paraphrase
Clarify
Positive feedback
Expand
Increase Pace
Humor
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Disagree gently
Relieve tension
Consolidate
Change process
Summarize
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Consensus
Biggest challenge
Consider: values, opinions, ideas, &
preferences of all
Reflection & discussion
List ideas, Stick-up notes, billboard
Summarize & assign task force
Voting
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Assigning Jobs
Tom Sawyer
Ask for volunteers
Ask for suggestions
Get those present
Alphabetical
Random Assignment
Number Lottery
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Committees
Bait & Hook!
Recognize work of previous committee
members by name
Enthusiasm = Fun = Easy = Perks
Simplify work load
Stress the importance of task
Congratulate those who volunteer
Write public and personal thank you
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Challenges
Disorder: Sound signal, Light, “times up”
Silent signal
Difficult participants: “T” , eye contact,
acknowledge viewpoint & invite them to
call you, ask for others to speak,
change format
Humor Ignore
Do not take personally
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Conflict
Normal
Firm Grip
Verbalize
deterioration
Ground rule
Ask them to
paraphrase
“in my opinion”
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Quota of turns
All questions first
Say what you like
about others idea
Debate team or task
force to further eval
Small groups
index cards
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Conflict
Sit with co-chair
Summarize opposing positions
respectively & objectively
“the conflict we’re having”
“What concerns us”
“what we’d like to suggest”
“What we’re willing to do about it”
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Conflict Resolution
“How important is it to resolve this?”
“What is the ideal resolution?”
“What practical ideas do you have to
resolve?”
Ask for collaboration
Recognize OK to not agree
Appreciate diversity
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Follow-up
Evaluation of meeting
Publish accomplishments of meeting:
summary, teamwork, committee
recognition
Develop time line for task force
Communicate with committees
Public & private “Thank You”
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General principles - 1
Public health + media: cooperation - conflict
disseminate info vs sell news
Know and respect their point of view
clear story, timely information, deadlines,
political-cultural context etc.
Demand respect for your point of view
disseminate message, role to solve the problem,
be well prepared etc.
Try and have the initiative
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General principles - 2
Tell the truth
Do not exaggerate
If you make a mistake, correct it
If you do not know something, say so
Pick out a single convincing idea & get it across
Get your message across early in an interview
Repeat your key-message several times
Think of ways to say the main message in an
interesting manner
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General principles - 3
Be both rational and emotional
Do not forget you are actually talking about
people – not figures
Know your audience
(e.g. focus groups, interviews)
Be aware of different sub-groups in population
Be positive: alleviate fear, offer solutions
Make sure the solutions you offer are feasible (e.g.
enough supplies)
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Types of contact with media
Press release
Press conference
Print interview
- person to person
- on the phone
Radio interview
- in person (office, studio)
- on the phone
- recorded
- live
TV interview
On the spot
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Press release
Be concise (use short sentences)
Do not use jargon
Most important information should go first
Update facts from previous release (if any)
State what the current situation is
Explain what you are doing about it
State any constrains that you face
Send public health message(s) clearly
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Press conference - 1
Plan time, place and persons (when, where, who)
Consider presence of small number of experts
Be well prepared
Have clearly in mind the central issue(s)
Prepare for likely questions
Spokesperson to open and conduct discussion
Hand out the statement +/- press release
+/- further material
Take care of organisational details
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Press conference - 2
Introduce panel - Make a short prepared
statement
Your first sentence should be your keymessage
Speak in headlines (details and
documentation can be included in the
handout)
Don't just read. Speak lively.
Do not allow yourself to be bullied
Sum up at regular intervals
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Before the interview
Have media contacts screened
Get clear information on reporter/medium
Get a clear idea why the reporter wants an interview
What is the reporter's deadline. How much of your
time is required
Prepare well
Set scope and time limit of interview
Plan your strategy. Write down your primary public
health message. Draft colourful quotes
Prepare (+/- send in advance) background info, fact
sheet etc.
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At the interview
Confirm topic and length of interview
Give the reporter your business card (correct
spelling of name, title and affiliation)
A convenient way to start may be: "What do you
know about . . . (topic)?"
Focus on your main message. Answer briefly
questions on issues other than this.
Get your message across early in an interview
Refuse to expand on other topics
Stick to agreed time limit
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After the interview
Try and learn from your interview
Keep record of every interview. Rate yourself and
the journalist. File for future reference.
If you discover that you have given wrong
information, correct it as soon as possible
Check what was actually published or
broadcasted
If facts have been misstated or your statements
distorted, contact the reporter
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Print interview
Be aware of the danger of feeling too
relaxed and saying too much
Be aware that facial expressions,
sarcastic tone, humour etc. usually do
not come reliably across in written
If interviewed on the phone, start when
you are prepared. Call back later or
make a telephone appointment.
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Radio interview
Learn to modulate your voice in pitch and
volume
Use facial expression and gestures: their
effect will come across
Use small and simple words
If interviewed on the phone, start when you
are prepared. Remember that you can stand
up and walk around if you feel like it.
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TV interview - 1
In TV it is more important how you say something
than what you say
Be aware of importance of appearance and appeal
Speak in 15-20 sec segments ("sound bites")
Speak in declarative sentences. Do not answer with
a simple yes or no.
Use short and easily understood words
Avoid quoting exact figures (use "most", "few" ...)
Be a good listener: respond to what you have been
asked
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TV interview - 2
Be calm and relaxed. You should project
conviction and confidence
Use natural eye contact. Look at the person you
are talking to. Do not look briefly at the camera
Your facial expressions should be natural and
pleasant. Smile.
Have a straight and relaxed body posture. Use
your hands when talking
Dress in a simple way
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During an outbreak
Designate a spokesperson. Others stay away from
the media
Give early info: you seek out the media first
Give accurate info: be well prepared
Give regular info: e.g. regular press briefing time
Give consistent info : no conflicting facts
Focus on one or two key-messages
Coordinate local, regional, national officials
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Communicating risk
Be aware of the complexity of the notion of risk
Realise the importance of “stories” (versus statistics)
and people’s experience
Use “stories”, but have them well prepared and well
balanced
Make analogies with familiar risks
For an unfamiliar risk, allow for a “contemplation
stage” before the “action stage”
Communicate risk not panic
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Two important matters
Communicate
directly
with the public
Communicate
with health care
workers
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Communicate directly
with the public
Information sheets, health education leaflets
Posters
Advertisements
Use simple language
Use diagrams / images
Select very few public health messages
Focus on what should be done (vs what should not)
When prevention is the goal, bare also in mind those
affected
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Communicate with
health care workers
Why?
Important communicators of health messages
Personal interest in the impact of health problem
Scientific interest
How?
Briefings, letters etc.
Medical / Nursing press
What?
Guidance on diagnosis, case management, selfprotection, community education, aetiology
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Always remember
The media are not your enemies
You need a positive relationship with them
Organise your information
Know what you want to say
Understand what the media want to know
Give early, regular, accurate and consistent info
Use press releases, conferences and interviews to
get messages to the public
avoid confusion and panic
let the world know what you are doing
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Last but not least
Scientific opinion/findings vs official policy
Should the members of the scientific team
make public statements on matters related to
official (local or national) policy?
Withhold information ?
Is there any type of information which can be
legitimately withheld from the public? Would
this be ethical? What should be done if there is
political pressure to withhold information
important for the public?
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Management Communication