大学英语B考前辅导
交际用语、英译中
USE OF ENGLISH AND
TRANSLATION FROM ENGLISH TO
CHINESE
《大学英语B》机考90分钟试卷
题量及分值分布
项目
内容
题型 考点
题量 分数 时间(分钟)
交际英语 5个简短对话 单选 日常交际
5
15
5
阅读理解 2篇短文
单选 文章理解 10
30
20
词汇与结构 5个单句
单选 词汇与语法 5
15
10
完型填空
1篇短文
单选 词汇、句法和篇章10 10
10
英译中
3个单句
翻译 短句翻译 3
15
15
写作
1篇作文 命题作文 短文写作 1
15
30
100
90
总计 34
大纲对交际用语部分的要求

考生应掌握日常生活常见情景中的基本
交际用语。


针对英语日常会话设计
体现了英语交际功能的多样性和应用性
交际用语部分考试题型、内容、题量、分
数和时间安排






内容:5个简短对话
题型:单选 -- 按照所给的情景,选择最
佳问句或答句
考点:日常情景交际能力
题量:5
分数:15
时间:5分钟
解题思路概述: 1. 熟悉日常交际的
句型









要根据不同的情景,使用不同的表达法。
要 正 确 判 断 出 对 话 的 情 景 。 ( A: How’s the
young man? B: He’s much better.)
问话或答语不能离题。
用筛选法选择正确对话。
从语意进行判断。
根据习惯用法进行选择。
答语要符合西方人的文化、风俗和习惯。
要使用文明礼貌的语言。
要遵照口语交际特点,不要死套语法规则。
解题思路概述: 2. 运用语法知
识和上下文关系

就是根据问话选答语或根据上文选下文
时,熟悉交际功能句型的基础上,找出
答语或下文具有共性的一些规律,如 时
态、句型一致、肯定或否定的一致性等
规律来帮助自己作出正确的判断与选择
日常交际用语分类








问候、介绍greetings and 
introductions
告别Farewells
感谢和应答Thanks and
responses

道歉、遗憾和应答

Apologies, regrets,
sympathies & responses
问路和应答Asking the way
and responses

赞美和应答
购物Shopping
邀请和应答Invitations and
responses

请求允许和应答Asking for
permission and
responses
就餐Taking meals
祝愿、祝贺和应答Good
wishes, congratulations
& responses
提供(帮助等)和应答Offers
and responses
打电话making phone
calls
特殊表达
问候、介绍greetings and
introductions







Hello!
How do you do?
How are you (doing)?
How’s everything?
What’s up?
Hello, my name is
William Bell, but call me
bill.
Nice to meet you.

Hello!
How do you do?
Fine, thanks. How are
you?
Not much.

Nice to meet you too.



问候、介绍例题1

-- How are you, Bob?
--_____________.
A. How are you?
B. I’m fine. Thank you.
C. How do you do?
D. Nice to meet you.
问候、介绍例题2

-- Hello, I’m Harry Potter.
-- Hello, my name is Charles Green,
but
.
A. call my Charles
B. call me at Charles
C. call me Charles
D. call Charles me
问候、介绍例题3

-- Hi, Tom, how’s everything with you?
-, and how are you?
A. Don’t mention it
B. Hm, not too bad
C. Thanks
D. Pretty fast
问候、介绍例题4

-- How do you do? Glad to meet you.
-.
A. Fine. How are you?
B. How do you do? Glad to meet you
too.
C. How are you? Thank you.
D. Nice. How are you?
问候、介绍例题5

-- Hey, Tom, what’s up?
-.
A. Yes, definitely!
B. Oh, not much.
C. What is happening in your life?
D. You are lucky.
告别Farewells


I’m afraid I must
be leaving now.
I think it’s time
for us to leave
now.




Good-bye!(Bye-bye!
Bye!)
See you later /
tomorrow.(See you.)
Good night.
So early? Do you
really have to go?
Couldn’t you just
stay for …?
告别farewell例题

--Marilyn, I am afraid I have to be
leaving now.
--_____________________________.
A. That sounds wonderful
B. Oh, so early?
C. Not at all
D. Good luck!
感谢和应答Thanks and
responses




Thank you (very
much).
Thanks a lot.
Many thanks.
Thanks for....




You’re welcome.
My pleasure.
It’s / That’s all
right.
Not at all.
感谢和应答Thanks and
responses例题

--Thanks for your help.
-_______________________________.
A. My pleasure.
B. Never mind.
C. Quite right.
D. Don’t thank me.
感谢和应答Thanks and
responses例题

--Thank you for inviting me.
-_______________________________.
A. I really had a happy time.
B. Oh, it’s too late.
C. Thank you for coming.
D. Oh, so slowly?
感谢和应答Thanks and
responses例题

--How are you feeling?
--Much better.____________________.
A. Thanks for coming to see me.
B. You look great.
C. You are so kind.
D. Don’t mention it.
道歉、遗憾和应答Apologies,
regrets, sympathies &
responses


Sorry.
Pardon.





I’m sorry to
hear....
What a pity !

It doesn’t matter.
That’s all right.
That’s OK.
That’s nothing.
道歉、遗憾和应答Apologies,
regrets, sympathies & responses
例题1

--Why didn’t you come to my birthday
party yesterday?
-_______________________________
A. Excuse me, my friend sent me a
flower.
B. Fine, I never go to birthday parties.
C. Ha…ha, I don’t like birthday parties.
D. Sorry, but my wife had a car accident.
道歉、遗憾和应答Apologies,
regrets, sympathies & responses
例题2

--I’m sorry. I lost the key.
-____________________________
A. Well, it’s OK.
B. No, it’s all right.
C. You are welcome.
D. You are wrong.
道歉、遗憾和应答Apologies,
regrets, sympathies & responses
例题3

--Oh, sorry to bother you.
-____________________________
A. That’s OK.
B. No, you can’t.
C. That’s good.
D. Oh, I don’t know.
道歉、遗憾和应答Apologies,
regrets, sympathies & responses
例题4

--I’m terribly sorry that I’ve spilled
some coffee on the carpet.
--____________________
A. Sorry.
B. It doesn’t matter.
C. That’s right.
D. Don’t mention it.
道歉、遗憾和应答Apologies,
regrets, sympathies & responses
例题5

--Unbelievable! I have failed the
driving test again.
--__________.This is not the end
of the world.
A. Good luck.
B. Cheer up.
C. Go ahead.
D. No problem.
问路和应答Asking the way and
responses


Excuse me.
Where’s the
men’s / ladies’
room?
Excuse me. Can
you tell me the
way to...?



Go down this
street. Turn right
/ left at the first /
second crossing.
It’s about ...
metres from here.
Go straight ahead
till you see....
Sorry, I’m new
here.
问路和应答Asking the way and
responses例题1

--Madam, do all the buses go
downtown?
--__________________________
A. Wow, you got the idea.
B. No, never mind.
C. Pretty well, I guess.
D. Sorry, I’m new here.
问路和应答Asking the way and
responses例题2

--Excuse me,but can you tell me
the way to the post office?
-___________________________
A. Don’t ask that.
B. Sorry, I’m a stranger here.
C. No, I cannot say that.
D. No, you are driving too fast.
问路和应答Asking the way and
responses例题3

--Excuse me, could you show me the
way to the nearest post office?
--_______ Oh, yes! Two blocks away
from here at the Green Avenue. You
cannot miss it.
A. I beg your pardon?
B. What do you mean?
C. You’re welcome.
D. Mm, let me think.
赞美和应答





You look smart in
your new shirt.
Your house has
such a nice view.
Terrific.
Well-done.
Good job.


Thank you.
It’s very kind of
you to say so.
赞美和应答例题

--That’s a beautiful dress you have
on.
-____________________________
A. Oh, thanks. I got it yesterday.
B. Sorry, it’s too cheap.
C. You can have it.
D. See you later.
赞美和应答例题

--You know, I have three kids now.
--________________________
A. Well, I’ve grown a mustache.
B. That’s terrific.
C. Say, you’ve really changed your
hair.
D. Well, I gave up drinking.
赞美和应答例题

--Wow, this is a marvelous room!
I’ve never known you’re so artistic.
--________________________
A. Great, I’m very art-conscious.
B. Don’t mention it.
C. Thanks for your compliments.
D. It’s fine.
购物Shopping


What can I do for
you?
May/Can I help you?







How many/much do
you want?
What
colour/size/kind do
you want?
Would you like to try
it on?

I want/I’d like....
I’m just looking
around.
How much is it?
That’s too
expensive, I’m
afraid.
That’s fine. I’ll
take it.
购物Shopping例题

--Excuse me, how much is the
jacket?
--it’s 499 yuan. _____________
A. Oh, no. That’s OK.
B. How do you like it?
C. Which do you prefer?
D. Would you like to try it on?
购物Shopping例题

--What can I do for you?
--_____________
A. I want a kilo of pears.
B. You can do in your own way.
C. Thanks.
D. Excuse me, I’m busy.
邀请和应答Invitations and
responses



I’d like to invite
you to....
Will you come
to...?
Would you like
to...?



Yes, it’s very
kind/nice of you.
Yes, I’d love
to(...).
I’d love to, but....
邀请和应答Invitations and
responses例题1

--Say, how about going to dinner
at the Mexican restaurant tonight?
--_________________________
A. Forget it.
B. Sorry, I like Mexican food.
C. That’s great!
D. Glad you like it.
邀请和应答Invitations and
responses例题2

--Can you go to the concert with us this
evening?
--___________________________
A. No, I already have plans.
B. I’d love to, but I ‘m busy tonight.
C. No, I really don’t like being with you.
D. I’m ill, so I shouldn’t go out.
邀请和应答Invitations and
responses例题3

--We are going to have a singing party
tonight. Would you like to join us?
--______________________________
A. I’m afraid not, because I have to go
to an important meeting.
B. Of course not. I have no idea.
C. No, I can’t.
D. That’s all set.
邀请和应答Invitations and
responses例题4

--Oh, Betty, we will be having a buffet
party next Saturday, and we’d like you
to join us.
--_______, Susan. What’s the occasion?
What time do you want me to come?
A. I’d love to
B. no way
C. By no means
D. I’m afraid not
请求允许和应答Asking for
permission and responses



May I...?
Can/Could I...?
I wonder if I could....



Would/Do you mind
if I open the window?

Yes/Sure/Certainly.
Yes,(do) please. Of
course(you may).
Go ahead, please.
That’s OK/all right.
I’m sorry you can’t.
I’m sorry,but....
You’d better not.
No. /Not at all.
请求允许和应答Asking for
permission and responses例题1

--Do you mind telling me where
you are from?
-___________________________
A. Certainly. I’m from London.
B. Sure. I was born in London.
C. Not really, you can do it.
D. Certainly not. I’m from London.
请求允许和应答Asking for
permission and responses例题2

--Could you help me with my
physics, please?
--______________
A. No, no way.
B. No, I couldn’t.
C. No, I can’t.
D. Sorry, I can’t. I have to go to a
meeting right now.
请求允许和应答Asking for
permission and responses例题3

--It’s cold in here. Do you mind if I
close the window?
--______________
A. Yes, please.
B. No, go ahead.
C. Sure, please.
D. I don’t like it.
请求允许和应答Asking for
permission and responses例题4

--Could I borrow your car for a few
days?
--______________
A. Yes, you may borrow.
B. Yes, go on.
C. Sure, here you are. Enjoy your
journey.
D. It doesn’t matter.
请求允许和应答Asking for
permission and responses例题5

--May I see your tickets, please?
-____________________________
A. No, they are mine.
B. No, you cannot.
C. Sure.
D. Yes, you can.
请求允许和应答Asking for
permission and responses例题6

--May I use your bike for a moment?
-____________________________
A. It’s well.
B. It doesn’t matter.
C. By all means.
D. I have no idea.
请求允许和应答Asking for
permission and responses例题7

--Would you mind changing seats
with me?
--__________________________
A. Yes, you can.
B. Of course, I like to.
C. No, I don’t mind.
D. Certainly, please do.
请求允许和应答Asking for
permission and responses例题8

--Do you mind my smoking here?
-____________________________
A. No, thanks.
B. Yes, I do.
C. Yes, I’d rather not.
D. Certainly, please do.
请求允许和应答Asking for
permission and responses例题9

--Could you be so kind as to turn down
that rock’n roll? I’m preparing for
tomorrow’s exam.
--____________________________
A. It’s none of your business.
B. What are you doing?
C. Sure. Sorry to disturb you.
D. No, I don’t think so.
请求允许和应答Asking for
permission and responses例题10

--I wonder if I could use your
computer tonight?
-____________________________
A. Sure, go ahead.
B. I don’t know.
C. It doesn’t matter.
D. Who cares.
就餐Taking meals





What would you like
(to have)...?
Would you like
something (to eat /
drink)?
Would you like some
more ...?
Help yourself to
some ....
Are you ready to order,
sir?





I’d like …
Thank you. I’ve had
enough.
I’m full, thank you.
May I see the menu?
– Here you are, sir.
Yes, I’d like…
就餐Taking meals例题

--Please help yourself to the seafood.
--___________________________
A. No, I cannot.
B. Sorry, I cannot help.
C. Well, seafood don’t suit me.
D. Thanks, but I don’t like the seafood.
就餐Taking meals例题

--Would you like another slice of
Christmas cake?
--_________ I’m full.
A. Yes, please.
B. No more, thanks.
C. Why not?
D. Nothing more.
祝愿、祝贺和应答Good wishes,
congratulations & responses








Good luck!
Best wishes to you!
I wish you good luck /
success!
Good journey(to you)!
Have a good trip.
Have a nice/good time.
Congratulations.
I’d like to congratulate
you on....

Thank you.
The same to you.

Thank you.

祝愿、祝贺和应答Good wishes,
congratulations & responses例题
1

--I was worried about my maths, but Mr.
Brown gave me an A!
-_______________________________
A. Don’t worry about it.
B. Congratulations! That’s a difficult
course.
C. Mr. Brown is very good.
D. Good luck to you.
祝愿、祝贺和应答Good wishes,
congratulations & responses例题
2

--Congratulations! You won the first
prize in today’s speech contest.
--____________________________
A. Yes, I beat the others.
B. No, no, I didn’t do it well.
C. Thank you.
D. It’s a pleasure.
祝愿、祝贺和应答Good wishes,
congratulations & responses例题
3

--Tomorrow is my birthday.
--_______________________
A. Oh, I have no idea.
B. I’m glad you like it.
C. Many happy returns of the day!
D. You must be very happy.
提供(帮助等)和应答Offers
and responses
Can/Could/Shall I help
you?
 Would you like me
to...?
 Is there
anything(else) I can
do for you?
 What can I do for
you?
 Let me do / carry /
help ... (for you).
 Would you like
some...?






a. Thanks. That
would be nice/fine.
Yes, please. Thank
you.
No, thanks/thank
you.
No, thanks/thank
you. I can manage it
myself.
Thank you all the
same.
That’s very kind of
提供(帮助等)和应答Offers and
responses例题

--The box is too heavy for me to carry
upstairs.
--______________________________
A. You may ask for help.
B. Let me give you a hand.
C. Please do me a favor.
D. I’d come to help.
提供(帮助等)和应答Offers and
responses例题

--If you like I can mail this letter
for you.
--_____________
A. That’s very kind of you.
B. You are so kind.
C. Please give me a hand.
D. You are great.
打电话making phone calls



Hello! Is (Tom) in?
May/Could I speak
to...?
Is that...(speaking)?





Hello,this is ...
speaking. I called to
tell/ask you....
Hello, (this is Tom)
speaking.
Hold on,please.
Hello,who is it?
He/She isn’t here
right now. Can I
take a message
for you?
打电话making phone calls例
题1

--Who’s that speaking?
--This is Tom ______________
A. speaks
B. spoken
C. speaking
D. saying
打电话making phone calls例
题2

--Could I speak to Don Watkins,
please?
--______________
A. I’m listening.
B. Oh, how are you?
C. speaking, please.
D. I’m Don.
打电话making phone calls例
题3

--Hello, may I talk to the director now?
-_______________________________
A. Sorry, he is busy at the moment.
B. No, you cannot.
C. Sorry, you cannot.
D. I don’t know.
打电话making phone calls例
题4

--Hi, is Mary there, please?
--______________
A. Hold on, I’ll get her.
B. No, she isn’t here.
C. Yes, she lives here.
D. Yes, what do you want?
看病see a doctor



What’s the matter?
How are you feeling?
-- I have a headache. I don’t feel well.
I’m much better today.
看病例题

-- Doctor, I don’t feel well.
-.
A. You are fine.
B. It doesn’t matter.
C. What’s the matter?
D. Don’t take it seriously.
交际用语中的重要语法和句型







特殊疑问句
一般疑问句
反义疑问句
选择疑问句
省略倒装句
时态
情态动词
特殊疑问句1
 特殊疑问句的答语通常针对特殊疑问词作
出具体的回答,而问句也应根据答案选择正确的疑问词
-- Paul, _____________________ ?
-- Oh, that’s my father! And beside him, my mother.
A. what is the person over there
B. who’s talking over there
C. what are they doing
D. which is that
特殊疑问句2
 特殊疑问句的答语通常针对特殊疑问词作
出具体的回答,而问句也应根据答案选择正确的疑问词
-- Hi, welcome back! Had a nice trip?
--
.
A. Oh, fantastic! Fresh air, and sunshine every day.
B. Come on, I’ve got lots of fun.
C. By the way, I don’t like Saturdays.
D. Well, I’ll look forward to your phone call.
特殊疑问句3

特殊疑问句的答语通常针对特殊疑问词作
出具体的回答,而问句也应根据答案选择正确的疑问词
-- Haven’t seen you for ages! What are you busy doing now ?
-- _____________________
A. I hate the weather here.
B. My hair is getting a bit longer.
C. Yeah, thanks for coming.
D. I am working part time in a bookshop, you know.
特殊疑问句4
 特殊疑问句的答语通常针对特殊疑问词作
出具体的回答,而问句也应根据答案选择正确的疑问词
--
.
-- He teaches physics in a school.
A. What does your father want to do?
B. Who is your father?
C. What is your father?
D. Where is your father now?
特殊疑问句5
 特殊疑问句的答语通常针对特殊疑问词作
出具体的回答,而问句也应根据答案选择正确的疑问词
--
.
-- Well, they got there last Wednesday. So about a week.
A. When did you parents arrive at Paris?
B. How long have your parents been in Paris?
C. Did your parents arrive at Paris last Wednesday?
D. When will you parents go to Paris?
特殊疑问句6
 特殊疑问句的答语通常针对特殊疑问词作
出具体的回答,而问句也应根据答案选择正确的疑问词
-- How often do you go dancing?
--
.
A. I will go dancing tomorrow.
B. Yesterday.
C. Every other day.
D. I’ve been dancing for a year.
特殊疑问句7
 特殊疑问句的答语通常针对特殊疑问词作
出具体的回答,而问句也应根据答案选择正确的疑问词
-- How was your trip to London?
--
.
A. Oh, wonderful indeed.
B. I went there alone.
C. The guide showed me the way.
D. By plane and by bus.
特殊疑问句8
 特殊疑问句的答语通常针对特殊疑问词作
出具体的回答,而问句也应根据答案选择正确的疑问词
--David injured his leg playing football
yesterday.
--____________________________
A. Who did that?
B. What’s wrong with him?
C. How did that happen?
D. Why was he so careless?
一般疑问句1
 一般疑问句通常用yes和no来回答,
时态人称要一致。情态动词must的否定回答,表示不
必时用needn’t, don’t have to
Must we hand in our homework now?
______________________________
A. Yes, you will
B. Yes, you mustn’t
C. No, you needn’t D. No, you mustn’t
一般疑问句2
 一般疑问句通常用yes和no来回答,
时态人称要一致。
--Are you getting a new flat this year?
--___________I can’t afford to pay my bills, let alone buy a new
flat.
A. Without question
B. You must be joking.
C. Good idea.
D. Are you sure?
一般疑问句3
一般疑问句通常用yes和no来回答,
时态人称要一致。
Is it possible for you to work late tonight?
________________________
A. I like it
B. I’ll do that
C. I’d love to
D. I think so
反义疑问句
 反意疑问句是在句子后附加一简短的一般疑问句构成
的问句,用以要求对方判断或证实所陈述之事,一般
前、后两部分意思相反(前肯定,后否定;或者,前
否定后肯定)前面句中有never等否定词时也是否定句,
反意部分要用肯定式。
反意问句的答语应根据实际情况确定:内容是肯定的,
就用yes;内容是否定的,则用no。当前面句子为否定
时,尤要特别小心,不要搞错。
反义疑问句1
 It didn’t rain yesterday, did it ?
-昨天没有下雨,对吗?
-Yes,it did
-不,下雨了
-No, it didn’t
-对,没有下
 You are not the manager here, are you?
________________________
A. Yes, I’m not
B. No, I am
C. Yes, I am
D. No,not at all
选择疑问句1

选择疑问句是问话者提供两个或
两个以上答案供对方择一回答的问
句,答语应作出一个明确的选择
Shall we sit up here on the grass or down there near the water?
_______.
A. I’d rather stay here.
B. Sorry, I don’t like neither.
C. Certainly, why not?
D. Yes, we like these two places.
省略句型1
 省略倒装句的对话首句是肯定句时,用So+助
动词+主语构成;首句是否定句时用Neither+
助动词+主语构成。
I think the Internet is very useful .
__________________________
A. So do I
B. That’s a very good idea
C. Neither do I
D. I do rather go surfing on it
情态动词

情态动词是一种本身有一定的词义,表示
说话人的情绪,态度或语气的动词,但不
能单独作谓语, 只能和其他动词原形构
成谓语。
例题1

--Must I take a taxi?
-- No, you
. You can take my car.
A. had better to
B. don’t
C. must not
D. don’t have to
特殊表达


口语中常用的表达:This is the last
thing I want. / You said it.
特殊词语的精确理解: so; either;
neither; none.
例题1

— Susan is absent from today’s
writing class.
-- ____________________.
A. How come?
B. So what?
C. Why?
D. What for?
英译汉基本步骤

理解



表达
直译
 意译
校核:词组、词汇和句子;时间、日期、人物
名称、地点,以及有关数字


分析句子结构
理解句子的含义
(一)词的译法

词义的选择


根据该多义词在其语言环境中的词类、搭配
关系甚至是单复数形式来确定其基本意思
立足于原意,对其加以适当的引申
词义选择例句1




Each time history repeats itself, the
price goes up.
历史每重演一次,代价就增长一分。
In an age of plenty, we feel spiritual
hunger.
在物质财富充裕的时代,我们感到精神
上的饥渴。
词义选择例句2




Apples here like water and sunshine.
这里的苹果喜欢水和阳光。
Bill hit his car into a wall last night.
昨晚比尔开车时,车撞上了墙。
词义选择例句3




This place has plentiful material
resources.
这个地方的物质资源丰富。
The most common samples of
inorganic materials are the gases of
the atmosphere, water, rocks, etc.
大气中的气体、水、岩石等都是无机物
中最普通的实例。
(一)词的译法

词类的转化



为满足汉语表达习惯的需要,在翻译时,常
需进行词类的转换。
Would you please help me with this heavy
box?
你能帮我抬一下这个重箱子吗?
(一)词的译法

否定词与含否定意义的词的译法






You needn’t go there anymore. He already knows
about it.
你不必去了,他已经知道那件事了。
In no other country in the world can you find such
plants as this one.
像这种植物在世界上的其他任何一个国家中都找不
到。
All that glitters is not gold.
闪光的并不都是金子。
(一)词的译法
介词的译法





Various substances differ widely in their
magnetic characteristics.
各种材料的磁性有很大的不同。
Transistors are small in size and light in
weight.
晶体管的体积小,重量轻。
(二)被动语态的译法

被动语态的使用是科技文章的主要特点之一,
其用法十分广泛。在汉语中,我们可用“被、
让、把、遭、换、使、由、受到,为……所”
等词来表示被动。但在汉语中的被动语态使用
频率比英文要低得多。因此,在遇到被动语态
时,应遵循汉语的习惯,如译成被动语态不通,
则译成主动语态。


1.保留其被动语
2.将被动改为主动
(二)被动语态的译法




The students are encouraged by their teacher
to do more listening, reading and writing.
老师鼓励学生多听、多读、多写。
The plan has been over fulfilled by now.
目前已经超额完成计划。
(二)被动语态的译法




A lot of natural resources in the mountain
area are to be exploited and used.
那个山区有很多自然资源有待于开发利用。
In Foreign Languages Department, a
checking machine is used to correct the
students’ test papers.
外语系用阅卷机给学生批卷。
(三)复句的译法






(1)找出全句的主语、谓语和宾语,从整体上把握句子
的结构。
(2)找出句中所有的谓语结构、非谓语动词、介词短语
和从句的引导词。
(3)分析从句和短语的功能,例如,是否为主语从句、宾
语从句、表语从句等,若是状语,它是表示时间、原
因、结果,还是表示条件等等。
(4)分析词、短语和从句之间的相互关系,例如,定语
从句所修饰的先行词是哪一个等。
(5)注意插入语等其他成分。
(6)注意分析句子中是否有固定词组或固定搭配。
1.定语从句的译法



定语从句分为限定性定语从句和非限定
性定语从句。由于二者在翻译时无大差
异,所以讨论时不加严格区分。
All that glitters is not gold.
闪光的东西未必都是金子。
2.名词性从句的译法





名词性从句包括主语从句、宾语从句、表语从
句和同位语从句,它们中大多数可以适用“顺
译法”—按原文的顺序翻译。但也有一些值得
注意的地方:
Please give this book to whoever comes first.
请把这本书给最先来的那个人。
He told me that he had lived in America for
ten years before he came to China.
他告诉我他来中国前已经在美国生活了十年。
3.状语从句的译法

由于在句中用来表示时间、原因、条件、
目的、让步、比较等等,这类从句往往
用在主句后面,而汉语的习惯则要求将
状语的内容先于主句表达,即要用逆译
法。结果状语从句例外。
状语从句例句




I was having a nap when suddenly the
telephone rang.
我在睡觉时,电话铃突然响了。
Each time history repeats itself, the
price goes up.
历史每重演一次,代价也增长一分。
状语从句例句




If you decided to learn a new language, you
would have to dedicate yourself
wholeheartedly to the cause.
如果你决心学一门新的语言,你必须全身心地
投入。
Wang Li’s father has taught English here
since he graduated from Peking University.
从北京大学毕业后,王立的父亲就一直在这儿
教英语。
状语从句例句




Though it was late, they kept on
working.
尽管时间很晚了,他们仍然继续工作。
John and his brother differ in
personality even if their differences in
age are not significant.
尽管约翰和他弟弟年龄差别不大,可是
性格却不相同。
状语从句例句


Tom was such a hardworking student
that he soon came out first in class.
汤姆是个用功的学生,他很快成了班上
的第一名。
分词结构





分词结构包括现在分词和过去分词结构,可以
作定语,译成“…的”的结构;也可以作状语,
可以参照状语从句的译法。
There is a large amount of energy wasted due to
friction.
由于摩擦,很多能量被浪费了。
As is known to all, China is a developing country.
众所周知,中国是一个发展中国家。
特殊句型



The more passions we have, the more
happiness we are likely to experience.
我们越有激情,就越有可能感受到快乐。
我们的激情越多,我们可能感受到的快
乐就越多。
特殊表达


Ted and William have lived under the
same roof for five years.
泰德和威廉在同一屋檐下已经生活了五
年。
复习材料




讲座内容
结合自己情况的相应语言材料(词汇表、
语法、作文例文)
全国高校网络教育公共基础课统一考试
用书大学英语B部分
在线测试
Thank you and wish you good
luck!
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