Transitioning to ESXi
Spencer Cuffe, Sr. Escalation Engineer
© 2009 VMware Inc. All rights reserved
Agenda
Overview of ESXi
Hardware Monitoring and Systems Management
Upgrading/Migrating to ESXi
Infrastructure Services
Command Line Interfaces
Diagnostics and Troubleshooting
Next Steps
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Why ESXi?
Next generation of VMware’s Hypervisor Architecture
Full-featured hypervisor
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Superior consolidation and scalability
Same performance as VMware ESX architecture
More secure and reliable
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Small code base thanks to OS-Independent, thin architecture
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No Service console means smaller attack footprint
Streamlined deployment and configuration
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Fewer configuration items making it easier to maintain
consistency
Automation of routine tasks through scripting environments
such as vCLI or PowerCLI
Simplified hypervisor Patching and Updating
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Smaller code base = fewer patches
Eliminates patch drifting due to single image update
The “dual-image” approach lets you revert to prior image if desired
VMware components and third party components can be
updated independently
New and Improved ESX Management
Service Console (COS)
Management Agents
Agentless vAPI-based
Hardware Agents
Agentless CIM-based
vCLI, PowerCLI, vMA
Commands for
configuration and
diagnostics
Infrastructure
Service Agents
“Classic” VMware ESX
Local Support Console
Remote Support Console
CIM API
vSphere API
Native Agents:
hostd, vpxa, NTP,
Syslog, SNMP, etc.
VMware ESXi
Agenda
Overview of ESXi
Hardware Monitoring and Systems Management
Upgrading/Migrating to ESXi
Infrastructure Services
Command Line Interfaces
Diagnostics and Troubleshooting
Next Steps
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Hardware Monitoring with CIM
Common Information Model (CIM)
• Agent-less, standards based
monitoring of hardware resources
• Output readable by 3rd party
management tools via standard
APIs
• VMware and Partner CIM
providers for specific hardware
devices
Management Server
WS-MAN
Management
Client
CIM Broker
VMkernel
Hardware
VMware
Providers
Platform
CPU
Memory
Partner
Providers
Network
Storage
Monitor and Manage Health of Server Hardware with vCenter
New CIM Interface
• Detailed hardware health
monitoring
• Physical and virtual visibility
on server health
• vCenter alarms alert when
hardware failures occur
 Host hardware fan status
 Host hardware power status
 Host hardware system board
status
 Host hardware temperature
status
New
vCenter
Alarms for
Hardware
Third Party Hardware Monitoring
• OEMs HW Monitoring through their Management Consoles
HP SIMServer
5.3.2+Administrator 6.1
Dell Open Manager
• view server and storage asset data
• view server and storage health information
• view alert and command logs
• configure hardware (e.g. storage, BIOS)
Monitoring of Installed Software Component
In vCenter Server
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In ESXi 4.1 directly
ESXi OEM Versions
• VMware, Dell, IBM, HP versions available at www.vmware.com/go/get-freeesxi (requires registration)
Majority of Systems Management and Back Up Vendors Support ESXi
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BPM for Virtual Servers
BPA for Virtual Servers
Capacity Mgmt Essentials
Atrium Orchestrator
Bladelogic Operations
Manager
 ProactiveNet v7.7 *
 Client Automation
 Atrium Discovery &
Dependency Mapping
v7.4 *
 CA Virtual
Performance
Manager (VPM)
 Spectrum Automation
Management
 Spectrum
 eHealth
 Cohesion
 ARCserve
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Operations Orchestration
VI SPI
Client Automation
DDM
Operations Agent
UCMDB
SiteScope
Performance Agent
DataProtector
HP Operations
 ITM for Virtual
Servers v6.1.2 *
 TPM
 ITUAM
 ITLCM
 Tivoli Storage
Manager
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Smarts ESM v1.1
ADM v6.2
ControlCenter
Avamar
Networker
Agenda
Overview of ESXi
Hardware Monitoring and Systems Management
Upgrading/Migrating to ESXi
Infrastructure Services
Command Line Interfaces
Diagnostics and Troubleshooting
Next Steps
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Information on Migration to ESXi
http://www.vmware.com/files/pdf/techpaper/VMW-ESXi41-MigrationGuide.pdf
Provides an overview of differences between ESX Classic and ESXi
Provides examples of tasks and how to complete them on ESXi Vs.
ESX Classic
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Installation methods for ESXi 4.1
Details
• Numerous choices for installation
 Installer booted from
- CD-ROM (default)
- Preboot Execution Environment (PXE)
 ESXi Installation image on
- CD-ROM (default), HTTP/S, FTP, NFS
 Script can be stored and accessed
- Within the ESXi Installer ramdisk(Default Script)
- On the installation CD-ROM
- HTTP / HTTPS, FTP, NFS , USB
 Config script (“ks.cfg”) can include
- Preinstall
- Postinstall
- First boot
ESXi 4.1 Installer
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ESXi 4.1 Installer
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ESXi 4.1 Installer
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ESXi 4.1 Installer
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ESXi 4.1 Installer
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ESXi 4.1 Installer
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Agenda
Overview of ESXi
Hardware Monitoring and Systems Management
Upgrading/Migrating to ESXi
Infrastructure Services
Command Line Interfaces
Diagnostics and Troubleshooting
Next Steps
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Infrastructure Services for Production Environments
Function
ESX
ESXi
Time
synchronization
NTP agent in COS
Built-in NTP service
Centralized log
collection
Syslog agent in COS
Built-in Syslog service
SNMP monitoring
SNMP agent in COS
Built-in SNMP service
Persistent Logging
Filesystem of the COS
Log to files on datastore
Local access
authentication
AD agent in COS, Built-in
Active Directory service
Built-in Active Directory
service
Large-Scale
Deployment
Boot from SAN, PXE
Install, Kickstart
Boot from SAN, PXE
Install, Scripted Installation
New in vSphere 4.1
New Feature: Boot from SAN
Details
• Fully supported in ESXi 4.1
 Only experimentally supported in ESXi 4.0
• Boot from SAN supported for FC, iSCSI, and FCoE
• ESX and ESXi have different requirement:
iBFT (Boot Firmware Table) required
• The host must have an iSCSI boot capable NIC that supports the iSCSI iBFT
format.
• iBFT is a method of communicating parameters about the iSCSI boot device to
an OS
Agenda
Overview of ESXi
Hardware Monitoring and Systems Management
Upgrading/Migrating to ESXi
Infrastructure Services
Command Line Interfaces
Diagnostics and Troubleshooting
Next Steps
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vCLI and PowerCLI: primary scripting interfaces
vCLI
Other utility
scripts
vSphere
PowerCLI
Other
languages
vSphere SDK
vSphere
Client
vSphere Web Service API
vCLI and PowerCLI built on same API as vSphere Client
• Same authentication (e.g. Active Directory), roles and privileges, event logging
• API is secure, optimized for remote environments, firewall-friendly, standardsbased
New Feature: Additional vCLI commands
Storage Configuration
• esxcli swiscsi session: Manage iSCSI sessions
• esxcli swiscsi nic: Manage iSCSI NICs
• esxcli swiscsi vmknic: List VMkernel NICs available for binding to particular
iSCSI adapter
• esxcli swiscsi vmnic: List available uplink adapters for use with a specified
iSCSI adapter
• esxcli vaai device: Display information about devices claimed by the VMware
VAAI (vStorage APIs for Array Integration) Filter Plugin.
• esxcli corestorage device: List devices or plugins. Used in conjunction with
hardware acceleration.
Host Operations
• vicfg-hostops: Perform operations on ESX/ESXi hosts: enter/exit
maintenance mode shutdown/reboot host
Agenda
Overview of ESXi
Hardware Monitoring and Systems Management
Upgrading/Migrating to ESXi
Infrastructure Services
Command Line Interfaces
Diagnostics and Troubleshooting
Next Steps
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Diagnostics and Troubleshooting
ESXi Troubleshooting Options
• vCLI commands
• DCUI-based troubleshooting
• Browser-based troubleshooting
• Tech Support Mode
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Diagnostic Commands for ESXi: vCLI
Familiar set of ‘esxcfg-*’ commands available in vCLI
• Names mapped to ‘vicfg-*’
• Also includes
 vmkfstools
 vmware-cmd
 resxtop
 esxcli: suite of diagnostic tools
New Feature: Additional vCLI troubleshooting commands
Network
• esxcli network: List active connections or list active ARP table entries.
Storage
• NFS statistics available in resxtop
VM
• esxcli vms vm kill: Forcibly stop VMs that do not respond to normal stop
operations, by using kill commands.
 # esxcli vms vm kill --type <kill_type> --world-id <ID>
• NOTE: designed to kill VMs in a reliable way (not dependent upon wellbehaving system)
• Eliminates one of the most common reasons for wanting to use COS.
DCUI-based Troubleshooting
Menu item to restart all
management agents, including
- Hostd
- vpxa
Menu item to reset all
configuration settings
- Fix a misconfigured vNetwork
Distributed Switch
- Reset all configurations
Browser-based access of config files
https://<hostname>/host
Browser-based access of log files
https://<hostname>/host/messages
Browser-based access of datastore files
Disk Descriptor
https://<hostname>/folder
New Feature: Full Support of Tech Support Mode
Two ways to access
• Local: on console of host (press “Alt-F1”)
• Remote: via SSH
New Feature: Full Support of Tech Support Mode
• Toggle on DCUI
 Disable/Enable
 Both Local and Remote
• Optional timeout
automatically disables
TSM (local and remote)
 Running sessions are
not terminated.
 New sessions are
rejected
• All commands issued in
Tech Support Mode are
sent to syslog
New Feature: Full Support of Tech Support Mode
Can also enable in vCenter Server and Host
Profiles
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New Feature: Full Support of Tech Support Mode
Recommended uses
• Support, troubleshooting, and break-fix
• Scripted deployment preinstall, postinstall, and first boot scripts
Discouraged uses
• Any other scripts
• Running commands/scripts periodically (cron jobs)
• Leaving open for routine access or permanent SSH connection
Admin will be
notified when active
New Feature: Additional commands in Tech Support Mode
Additional commands for troubleshooting
• vscsiStat
• nc (netcat)
• tcpdump-uw
Summary of ESXi Diagnostics and Troubleshooting
• During normal operations:
• If things go wrong:
DCUI: misconfigs / restart mgmt agents
vCLI
Browser
vSphere APIs
TSM: Advanced troubleshooting
API
Access
ESXi
Direct Access
New Feature: Total Lockdown
Ability to totally control local access via vCenter Server
• Lockdown Mode (prevents all access except root on DCUI)
• DCUI – can additionally disable
• If both configured, then no local activity possible (except pull the plugs)
Access Mode
Normal
Lockdown
vSphere API (e.g., vSphere
Client, PowerCLI, vCLI, etc)
Any user, based on local
roles/privileges
None (except vCenter vpxuser)
CIM
Any user, based on local
role/privilege
None (except via vCenter
ticket)
DCUI
Root and users with Admin
privileges
Root only
Tech Support Mode (Local)
Root and users with Admin
privileges
None
Tech Support Mode (Remote)
Root and users with Admin
privileges
None
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Agenda
Overview of ESXi
Hardware Monitoring and Systems Management
Upgrading/Migrating to ESXi
Infrastructure Services
Command Line Interfaces
Diagnostics and Troubleshooting
Next Steps
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Summary of new ESXi features in vSphere 4.1
Capability
ESX i 4.0
ESX i 4.1
ESX 4.1
Admin/config CLIs
PowerCLI + vCLI
PowerCLI + vCLI
COS + vCLI + PowerCLI
Advanced
troubleshooting
Tech Support Mode (restricted)
Tech Support Mode
COS
Scripted installation
Not supported
Supported
Supported
Boot from SAN
Not supported
Supported
Supported
SNMP
Supported (limited)
Supported (limited)
Supported
Active Directory
Not supported
Integrated
Integrated
HW monitoring
CIM providers
CIM providers
3rd party agents in COS
Jumbo frames
Supported
Supported
Supported
Serial port host
management
Not supported
Not supported
Supported
Web Access
Not supported
Not supported
Not Supported
Total Lockdown
Not available
Supported
Not available
Planning the transition
Start Testing ESXi
• All the functionality of vSphere is supported on both ESX and ESXi architectures
Familiarize Yourself with Remote Command Lines
• vCLI and PowerCLI can also be used to manage ESX hosts
• Start using them even before you fully migrate to the ESXi architecture
Ensure Your Backup and Systems Management Products Integrate with ESXi.
• If you are using an agent-based partner solution to integrate with vSphere, please check with
your vendor to see if a newer version of the product supports the ESXi architecture
Plan an ESXi Migration as Part of Your vSphere Upgrade
• During the upgrade process, prior versions of VMware ESX can be replaced with the latest
version of VMware ESXi.
• Testing of ESXi architecture can be incorporated into overall vSphere testing
We Are Converging on the ESXi Architecture
• VMware will converge on the ESXi architecture in mid 2011.
• End-of-Sale ≠ End of Support: ESX 4.0 (with Service Console) will
be supported at least through May 2014 according to the VMware
vSphere Support Life Cycle (HW enablement is limited to first 2
years):
Years After
Release
General
Availability
1
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3
4
General
1st Minor Rel.
Please Look up the Details on vmware.com
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Extended
General
Extended
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Questions?
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Thank You
Spencer Cuffe
[email protected]
© 2009 VMware Inc. All rights reserved
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Transitioning to ESXi - Individual CMG Regions and SIGs