The World before
the Opening of the
Atlantic
Chapter 1
Holt McDougal,
Chapter 1 Timeline
End of Ice Age
People Invented
Writing
The First Map
Aztec City Teotihuacan
10,000 Years Ago
5,000 Years Ago
2500 BC
500 BC
Waves and currents
reshaped Florida’s
landforms
People began
writing laws,
speeches, battle
plans, and other
things.
Holt McDougal,
The oldest
know Map is a
Babylonian
clay tablet
Teotihuacan reached its
height, during its time it
was the 6th largest city
in the world; it had a
population of 125,000
and covered about 8
square miles
Chapter 1 Timeline
4-5 Million
Years Ago
2.6 Million
Years Ago
500,000
Years Ago
200,000
Years Ago
11,000
Years Ago
10,000
Years Ago
Early
humanlike
creatures
called
Australopith
ecus
developed
in Africa
Hominids
make the
first stone
tools
By this
time
hominids
live all
across
Europe
The first
modern
humans
appear in
Africa
Humans
occupy all
of the
continents
except
Antarctica
Ice Ages
end and
people
begin to
develop
agriculture
Holt McDougal,
Chapter 1 Timeline
Poleolithic
Era
Mesolithic
Era
Neolithic
Era
Until 10,000
Years Ago
10,000 to
5,000 Years
Ago
Begin About
10,000 to
5,000 Years
Ago
The first
part of the
Old Stone
Age when
people
began to
make tools
The Middle
Stone Age
when
people
began
making
more
complex
tools and
shelters
The New
Stone Age
when
people
learned to
make fire
and grow
crops also
called the
Agriculture
Revolution
Holt McDougal,
Lucy
Discovered
1959
1974
1994
Mary Leakey
found bones
in East
Africa
belonging to
a hominid
that was
more than
1.5million
years old
Donald
Johanson
found the
bones of a 3
million year
old hominid
he named
Lucy:
Proved
Hominids
walked
upright
Tom White
found the
remains of a
hominid that
lived as long
as 4.4
million years
ago
Period of Time Terms
•
•
•
•
Decade – a period of 10 years
Century – a period of 100 years
Millennium – a period of 1000 years
Epoch – a long period of time marked
by a distinctive development
• Era – a long period of time marked by
great events, developments, or figures
Holt McDougal,
Terms Used With Dates
• Circa or c. – unsure date; about
• BC – before the birth of Christ
• AD – after the birth of Christ
• BCE – BC dates or before the
common era
• CE – AD dates or common era
Holt McDougal,
Terms that deal with Government and Society
• Politics – the art of creating government
policies
• Economics – the study of the creation and
use of goods and services
• Movement – a series of actions that bring
about a change in society
• Campaign – an effort to win a political office,
or a series of military actions
• Colony – a territory settled and controlled by
a country
Holt McDougal,
Section 1: The Earliest Americans
The Big Idea
Native American societies developed across
Mesoamerica and South America.
Main Ideas
• Climate changes allowed Paleo-Indians to
begin the first migration to the Americas.
• Early societies existed in Mesoamerica and
South America.
Holt McDougal,
Main Idea 1:
Climate changes allowed people to
migrate to the Americas.
• Paleo-Indians crossed the Bering Land Bridge
from Asia to present-day Alaska during the
last ice age between 38,000 and 10,000 BC.
• This movement of peoples from one region to
another is called migration.
• Paleo-Indians and their descendants moved
into present-day Canada, the United States,
Mexico, and South America.
Holt McDougal,
Land Migration of
Early People
Page 7
•During the Ice Age
the seal level
dropped and
people used land
bridges to migrate
to new areas.
•People from Asia
used the Bering
Land Bridge to
travel to North
America.
Holt McDougal,
Climate Affects Early Peoples
• Early peoples in the Americas were huntergatherers, who hunted animals and gathered
wild plants.
• The warming climate created new
environments: climates and landscapes that
surround living things.
• Different environments influenced the
development of Native American societies:
groups that share a common culture.
• Culture is a group’s common values and
traditions.
Holt McDougal,
Main Idea 2:
Early societies existed in Mesoamerica
and South America.
• Developed around 1200 BC in Mesoamerica
Olmec
• Known for use of stone in architecture and
built the first pyramids in the Americas
• Civilization ended around 400 BC
• Developed after the Olmec
Maya
• By AD 200, were building large cities
• Created great pyramids, temples, palaces,
and bridges
• Civilization ended around AD 900
Holt McDougal,
Maya Civilization page 8
Holt McDougal,
Aztec and Inca
• Conquered central Mexico
Aztec
• Founded capital city, Tenochtitlán, in AD
1325; it became the greatest city in the
Americas and one of the world’s largest
cities.
• By the early 1500s they ruled the most
powerful state in Mesoamerica.
• Began as a small tribe in the Andes
Mountains in South America
Inca
• Capital city was Cuzco.
• By the 1500s, the empire stretched along
much of the western South American coast.
• Known for a strong central government,
their architecture, and their art
Holt McDougal,
Aztec, Maya, and Inca
Civilizations
Page 9
•Inca Civilization was
in South America
along the Andes
Mountains
• The Maya
Civilization was
mainly in the Yucatan
Peninsula
•The Aztec
Civilization was in
Central and Northern
Mexico
Holt McDougal,
Civilization






Location/Leaders
Maya

1000 BC began
farming

200 AD began

forming cities
250-900 AD began
forming large cities
1500 AD power had
faded
Aztec
Began in Mid-1100
AD
1521 AD Empire
Ended



Mexico, Honduras,
Belize, Guatemala
Capital: None
King Pacal
Characteristics/Culture




Mexico
Capital: Tenochtitlan
built in 1325 AD on
Lake Texacoco
Emperor Moctezuma
II





Achievements/Technologies
Religion – many gods, Sun God,
Moon God, Maize God, human
sacrifice
Government: Theocracy – studied
the stars
Crops – beans, squash, avocados,
maize
Resources – cotton, cacao,
obsidian, jade, bird feathers, gold,
deer, rabbits, monkeys



Religion – many gods, human
sacrifice
Crops –cotton, maize
Formed alliances, controlled
trade, collected tribute
Huge Military
Resources –cotton, gold, silver,
gems, bright feathers
















Inca
Began in Mid-1400’s
AD
In 1537 AD Spanish
began to rule the
Empire





South America
Capital: Cuzco
Ruler Pachacuti
Language: Quechua
Andes Mountains



Religion – many gods, rarely
human sacrifice, mummies
Crops –maize, peanuts, potatoes,
Resources -llamas







Holt McDougal,
Stone pyramids, temples, statues
365 day calendar, 260 day calendar
Calendars that determined length of the
year
Observatories
Number system and symbol for 0
Writing system of Detailed Written Records
Books
Canals, terraces, Hieroglyphics
Stone pyramids, temples, statues
Causeways, canals, Hieroglyphics
Chinampas (floating gardens)
Calendar
Study astronomy
Detailed Written records
Jewelry and mask
Artisans used gold, gems and bright bird
feathers
Women embroidered colorful designs of
cloth they wove
Stone pyramids, temples, masonry
Largest empire (over 12 million people)
Advanced highway system of 10,000 miles
of stone roads and bridges
Terraces, Hieroglyphics
Gold and silver jewelry
Records kept with knotted cords called
quipus
Fine textiles, pottery
Section 2: Native American Cultures
The Big Idea
Many diverse Native American cultures developed
across the different geographic regions of North
America.
Main Ideas
• Several early societies developed in North America long
before Europeans explored the continent.
• Geographic areas influenced Native American cultures.
• Native American cultures shared beliefs about religion
and land ownership.
Holt McDougal,
Native
American
Culture Areas
Page 13
•Geographical and
climatic conditions
may have limited the
size of groups or
tribes
•The ability to grow
food and hunt also
affected the size of
the population
•Mountains, rivers,
and lakes served as
natural boundaries
between the native
groups of people
Holt McDougal,
Main Idea 1:
Several early societies developed in North
America long before Europeans
explored the continent.
• Earliest people in North America were hunter-gatherers.
• Learned to farm around 5,000 BC.
• The Anasazi was an early farm culture in Southwest.
– Grew maize, beans, and squash
– Developed irrigation methods
– Lived in pueblos, aboveground houses made of heavy clay called
adobe
– Built kivas, underground ceremonial chambers, for religious
ceremonies
– Built cliff dwellings for protection against enemies
– Began to abandon villages around AD 1300
Holt McDougal,
Anasazi Cliff Dwellings page 11
Holt McDougal,
Mound Building Cultures
• Lived in Mississippi, Ohio, and lower
Missouri river valleys
Hopewell
• Supported population with agriculture,
fishing and trade
• Built large burial mounds to honor the
dead
Mississippian
Others
•
Developed later in same area as the Hopewell
•
Built hundreds of mounds topped with temples
for religious ceremonies
•
Developed throughout eastern North America
•
Cultures declined and by the 1700s, no longer
existed
Holt McDougal,
Main Idea 2:
Geographic areas influenced Native
American cultures.
• Researchers use culture areas to help
describe ancient Native American peoples.
• Culture areas are geographic locations that
influence societies.
• North America is divided into several
culture areas, including the Far North,
Pacific Coast, California, West, Southwest,
Great Plains, and East.
Holt McDougal,
North and Northwest Culture Areas
Arctic
Subarctic
• Inuit people
in present-day
Alaska and
Canada
• Aleut people
in Alaska
• Fished and
hunted large
mammals
• Dorgrib and
Montagnais
peoples
• Hunters
followed
migrating
deer.
• People lived
in temporary
shelters made
of animal
skins.
Holt McDougal,
Pacific
Northwest
• Carved
images of
totems,
ancestor or
animal spirits,
on tall,
wooden poles
• Held feasts
called
potlatches
• Thrived on
abundant
game animals,
fish, and wild
plants
West and Southwest Culture Areas
California
• Many food sources,
such as acorns, fish,
and deer
• People lived in
isolated family
groups of 50 to 300.
• More than 100
different languages
were spoken.
• Groups included the
Pomo, Hupa, and
Yurok peoples.
Holt McDougal,
Southwest
• Dry climate
• Groups included the
Apache, Navajo, and
Pueblo.
• The Pueblo irrigated
land to grow crops.
• The Apache and
Navajo hunted game
and raided the
villages of other
groups.
Great Plains and Eastern Culture Areas
Great Plains
• Stretched from Canada to
Texas and from the Mississippi
Valley to the Rocky Mountains
Northeast and Southeast
• Region rich in sources of food
and shelter
• Mainly grasslands, with game
such as buffalo
• Southeastern groups, such as the
Cherokee and Creek, lived in
farming villages.
• Used buffalo skins for shields,
clothing, and coverings for
teepees, cone-shaped
shelters
• The Algonquian and Iroquois
were the main groups in the
Northeast.
• Matrilineal societies that
traced ancestry through their
mothers, not their fathers
• Groups included the Mandan,
Pawnee, Arapaho, Blackfoot,
and Comanche.
Holt McDougal,
• The Iroquois formed the
Iroquois League, a
confederation that waged war
against non-Iroquois peoples.
Native American Homes
North and
Northwest
West and
Southwest
 Their homes
 They built
were igloos,
two storied
hide tents, and
houses out of
huts.
adobe bricks.
Holt McDougal,
Great Plains
 They used
animal skins
and buffalo
hides to make
teepees, or
cone shaped
shelters.
Northeast and
Southeast
 They built
longhouses or
rectangular
homes make
from logs and
bark, that
housed 8-10
people
Main Idea 3:
Native American cultures shared beliefs
about religion and land ownership.
• Shared religious beliefs
– Religion linked to nature
– Spiritual forces were everywhere– even in plants and
animals.
• Shared beliefs about property
– Individual ownership applied only to the crops one grew
and was temporary.
– Land was for the use of everyone in the village.
– Believed they should preserve the land for future
generations
• Despite shared beliefs, Native Americans on the North
American continent were independent culture groups
and did not form large empires.
Holt McDougal,
Section 3: Trading Kingdoms of West Africa
The Big Idea
Using trade to gain wealth, Ghana, Mali, and
Songhai were West Africa’s most powerful
kingdoms.
Main Ideas
• West Africa developed three great kingdoms
that grew wealthy through their control of
trade.
• Slaves became a valuable trade item in West
Africa.
Holt McDougal,
Main Idea 1:
West Africa developed three great
kingdoms that grew wealthy through their
control of trade.
• For hundreds of years, trade routes run by
Berbers, a northern African group,
crisscrossed West Africa.
• Eventually though, trade routes were taken
over by a succession of West African
kingdoms:
– Ghana
– Mali
– Songhai
Holt McDougal,
Empires of West Africa page 18
Holt McDougal,
Kingdom of Ghana
• Began around 300 AD as farmers banded together for
protection
• Developed into a trading center
– Salt from the Sahara in the north
– Gold mined from Ghana itself
• As trade increased, so did Ghana’s power. By 800 it
controlled all of West Africa’s trade routes.
• Used wealth to build an army and an empire
• In the 1060s, Muslim groups attacked Ghana in an effort
to force its leaders to convert to Islam. This cut off many
trade routes and led to the decline of the Ghana empire.
• Islam eventually became the most practiced religion in
the region.
Holt McDougal,
Ghana was an ideal Trading Center
• Ghana had many valuable items to
trade. The Sahara Desert to the north
was a source of valuable salt, and
Ghana itself was rich in gold.
Because of its geographic location,
nearly all trade between northern
and southern Africa passed through
Ghana.
Holt McDougal,
Kingdoms of Mail and Songhai
Mali
• Developed along the fertile
banks of the upper Niger River
• Controlled trade along the
river
• King Mansa Musa led the
kingdom to the height of its
wealth, power, and fame by
building important trade cities
like Timbuktu.
• Mansa Musa also encouraged
the spread of Islam in West
Africa by building mosques,
buildings for Muslim prayer,
and by making a hajj, or
pilgramage to Mecca.
• Declined after the death of
Mansa Musa
Holt McDougal,
Songhai
• Lived along the Niger River
• Came to power as the Mali
empire weakened
• Greatest ruler was Askia the
Great. He was a devout
Muslim, supported education
and learning, and worked to
develop a strong government.
• After Askia’s death, the
kingdom declined and was
invaded by Moroccans from
the north.
Accomplishments of Askia the Great
Government
• set up five
provinces
• appointed
governors loyal
to him
• created
departments to
oversee task
Religion
• was a devout
Muslim
Education
• opened schools
and universities
• encouraged study
• built mosques of mathematics,
medicine, science,
grammar, and law
Holt McDougal,
Main Idea 2:
Slaves became a valuable trade item
in West Africa.
• Slavery existed in Africa for centuries and involved black
Africans, who were both slaveholders and slaves.
• People who were captured by warring groups, criminals, and
even relatives of people who owed money, were sold into
slavery.
• Beginning in the 600s, Arab Muslims and Europeans became
interested in the slave trade.
• Slave market increased as Muslim traders bought or seized
black Africans to sell in North Africa.
• Slave trade became important part of West African economy
because slaves were traded for valuable goods.
• West Africa was home of many enslaved Africans brought to
the Americas.
Holt McDougal,
Section 4: Europe before Transatlantic Travel
The Big Idea
New ideas and trade changed Europeans’ lives.
Main Ideas
• The Greeks and Romans established new forms of
government.
• During the Middle Ages, society eventually changed
from a feudal system to a system with a middle
class of artisans and merchants.
• The Renaissance was a time of rebirth in the arts
and in learning.
Holt McDougal,
Main Idea 1:
The Greeks and Romans established new
forms of government.
Greek Government
Roman Government
• Philosophers such as
Socrates, Plato, and
Aristotle worked to teach
people to think and
question their beliefs and
to live lives based on
reason, or clear and
ordered thinking.
• Established a republic
• Greeks established the first
democracy, a form of
government in which
people rule themselves.
• Laws, which protected
citizens’ rights, were
written and kept on public
display.
– Citizens vote on every
issue.
– Ideas are debated at an
assembly of citizens.
Holt McDougal,
– Citizens elect
representatives to vote
on issues.
– Ideas are debated at an
assembly of
representatives.
Democracy and Republic page 23
Holt McDougal,
Holt McDougal,
Plato
• Plato was a student
of Socrates.
• He started a school
called The Academy.
• Plato’s writing took
the form of a
dialogue between
teacher and
student.
• Plato wrote the
Republic, which
described an ideal
society.
Holt McDougal,
The Middle Ages
• After the fall of the Roman Empire, Europe began to divide
into many smaller kingdoms.
• Feudalism, a system of agreements between lords, and
vassals, including knights, developed. The lord promised to
give lands to his knights in exchange for military service. The
knight promised to support the lord in battle.
• Knights allowed peasants to farm land on their large estates,
called manors. In return, the peasants had to give the knights
food or goods as payment.
• The Catholic Church served as a strong unifying force
between kingdoms.
• The Crusades, a long series of wars beginning in the 1000s
between European Christians and Muslims in Southwest Asia,
helped create trade links between Europe and Asia.
Holt McDougal,
Main Idea 2:
During the Middle Ages, society eventually
changed from a feudal system to a system
with a middle class of artisans and merchants.
• As travel became safer, more trade routes opened and spread
all across Europe.
• Trade brought not only goods, but also diseases like the Black
Death that spread across Europe, killing nearly 25 million
people.
• Worker shortages meant that peasants and serfs could
demand payment. They moved to cities for work, and the
cities grew.
• The growth of trade and cities led to the decline of feudalism.
• A new middle class of artisans and merchants developed.
• Trade cities became commercial centers.
Holt McDougal,
Main Idea 3:
The Renaissance was a time of rebirth in the
arts and in learning.
• The Renaissance period brought new ways of thinking to
Europe.
• Began in Italy and spread to other parts of Europe
• European rulers began to increase their power over the
nobles in their countries.
• Fewer invasions from the outside helped bring a period of
peace and stability.
• Renaissance means “rebirth.”
• The growth in trade and services sparked a commercial
revolution. This also brought a rise in mercantilism, an
economic growth system, that unifies and increases the
power and wealth of a nation.
Holt McDougal,
Growth of Knowledge and Learning
Ancient Texts
Classical writings were found and scholars
rediscovered the glories of ancient Greece and Rome.
Humanism
Focus shifted from religion to the importance of
people and human value.
Art and
Literature
Great artists like Michelangelo and Leonardo da
Vinci reflected the ideals of the Renaissance in their
sculptures and paintings. Writers also penned great
works of literature during this time.
Science and
Invention
Advances were made in mathematics and astronomy.
German-born Johannes Gutenberg invented the
printing press which allowed thousands to read the
same books and share ideas about them.
Holt McDougal,
Trading Centers page 26
Holt McDougal,
Joint-Stock Companies
• business in which a group of
people invest together
• allowed investors to make money
more quickly.
• investors share in the companies’
profits and losses
• allowed investors to take fewer
risk
Holt McDougal,
Chapter 1 Review page 31
Holt McDougal,
Descargar

Document