Автор:
Преподаватель
английского языка
и литературы
Н.В Баранович
МОУ «Гимназия №4»
Электронное пособие
к спецкурсу
английской
литературы
«Шекспировская
мастерская»
Астрахань
2006/2007
Оглавление
Педагогическая мастерская как одна из форм
интерактивного обучения на уроках английского языка
и литературы Англии.
Как создать условия, при которых ученики хотят
учиться, а учителя желают учить. Над этим вопросом
ученые давно ломают головы. Педагогическая
мастерская, как новая форма образования, похоже,
способна решить эту проблему.
Что же представляет собой педагогическая мастерская?
Мастерская – это форма многомерного,
многоуровневого диалога детей и взрослых, который
создает условия для восхождения к новым знаниям,
новому опыту, новым открытиям. Это форма отношений,
в которой ученики и учитель чувствуют себя
уникальными личностями, творцами.
Оглавление
Эта система обучения была разработана
французскими педагогами – представителями
ЖФЭН – «Французской группы нового
образования». У истоков движения стояли
психологи Поль Ланжевен, Анри Валлон. С
1984 года эта система была признана
Министерством образования Франции. В
последние годы движение возглавлял Анри
Басис, педагог, поэт, общественный деятель.
В самом общем виде ЖФЭН ставит целую
разработку и внедрение в практику
образования интенсивных методов обучения и
развития ребенка. Сущность новой системы
выражается в следующих основных
положениях:
Оглавление
• личность с новым менталитетом -
это личность самостоятельная, социально ответственная и
конструктивно вооруженная, способная оказывать
позитивное воздействие на свою жизнь и окружающий мир;
• все способны:
каждый ребенок обладает способностями практически ко
всем видам человеческой деятельности: к овладению
естественным и гуманитарным знанием, изобразительным
искусством, музыкой и т.д. дело только в том, какие методы
будут применяться в процессе его образования.
Оглавление
Интенсивные методы обучения и развития личности.
Для методов ЖФЭН характерны:
отношение к ученику, как к равному себе;
не простое сообщение знаний как неоспоримых
истин, а самостоятельное “строительство” знания
учащимися, критически относящимися к
информации, и самостоятельного решения
творческих задач;
плюрализм мнений, подходов, уважительное
отношение к мнению, варианту другого.
Оглавление
Новый тип педагога.
Это не авторитарный учитель, а тот, кто не подавляет
природу ребенка.
В начале 90-х годов группа сотрудников Санкт Петербургского университета педагогического мастерства
адаптировала эту технологию в практику российского
школьного образования
Оглавление
Обобщили работу французских мастерских сотрудники
из Санкт- Петербурга в виде следующих правил:
 мастер создает атмосферу открытости, доброжелательности, сотворчества в
общении;
 в процессе занятий мастер обращается к чувствам ребенка, пробуждает в
нем интерес к изучаемой проблеме (теме);
 он работает вместе с детьми, мастер равен ученику в поиске знания;
 мастер не торопится давать ответы на поставленные вопросы;
 важную информацию он подает малыми дозами, если обнаруживает
потребность в ней у учащихся;
 исключает официальное оценивание работы учащегося (не выставляет
отметок в журнал, не хвалит, не ругает), но через социализацию,
афиширование работ дает возможность появления самооценка учащегося, ее
изменения, самокоррекции.
Оглавление


Итак, цель данной технологии — создать содержательные и
организационные условия для личностного саморазвития,
осознания самих себя и своего места в мире, понимания других
людей, закономерностей мира.
Главное в технологии мастерских не сообщать и осваивать
информацию, а передавать способы работы. Мастерская — не
замена традиционных уроков, это один из видов работы.
Этапы построения мастерской.
Оглавление

1. Индуктор.
Первое задание в мастерской, мотивирующее дальнейшую деятельность
учащихся, психологический настрой на урок. Цель индуктора — пробудить
желание включиться в учебный процесс. доступность, “нетрудность” задания
снимает внутренние препятствия для включения в деятельность по его
выполнению.

2. Создание творческого продукта
(деконструкция и реконструкции)
Индивидуальное или групповое взаимодействие.

3. Социализация.
предъявление созданного продукта всем участникам, соединение индивидуальных
результатов, коллективная работа.

4. Промежуточная рефлексия и самокоррекция деятельности
(может отсутствовать).

5. Новая информация и ее обработка.

6. Создание нового варианта, версии, гипотезы.

7. Социализация.

8. Общая рефлексия.
Индуктор
Module 1. William Shakespeare
Оглавление
A. What two questions would you ask W. Shakespeare if you had
an opportunity to talk to him?
Write your ideas.
B. Look at the picture of a mediaeval London. Look! Listen! Smell!
Image! What are your associations? Describe your impressions.
Discuss your ideas with the partner.
Module 2. Hamlet.
Look at 3 pictures:
•
the engraving by Albrecht Durer “Melancholia”;
•
the painting by Salvador Dali “ Laurence Olivier as Richard III”
•
the painting by Hans Holbein “ Henry VIII”
Which picture is the most powerful from your point of view to
illustrate the play?
Explain why you think so.
Module 3. English History with
Shakespeare’s eyes.
Оглавление
An ideal king.
What are your associations when you hear this notion?
Introduce your own notions.
Write some sentences to support your ideas.
Module 4 The Wreath of Sonnets.
Listen to one of the Shakespeare’s sonnets.
What piece of music associates with it from your point of view?
Justify your choice.
Write key words and expressions which help you form the image
of the heroine.
Module 5. Shakespeare and Music.
A. You are listening to a piece of music by Chaikovsky or
Mendelson.
What feelings and emotions does this music arise in your heart?
Share your emotions with the partner.
B. Read Sonnet 128 “ Sonnet to a lady playing the virginal”.
Try to translate it into Russian.
Создание творческого продукта
Оглавление
Module 1. William Shakespeare.
A. Why do you think Shakespeare’s plays and sonnets are so popular
today?
What attracts the readers, the actors, the producers in Shakespeare’s
creative work?
If you were a producer what play would you choose to stage?
Justify your choice.
If you were a composer what sonnet would you choose to compose a
piece of music?
Explain your choice.
B. What are your associations when you hear the words “ The
Elizabethan Period “?
Here are pictures related to the period of Queen Elizabeth I reign.
Study the pictures.
Prepare a short talk on the topics:
Social and political life.
Cultural life. Theatre.
outstanding people of the period.
“ The University Wits”.
Оглавление
Module 2 . Hamlet.
A. Caught between the desire to act and the desire to refuse all action
in a world that appears increasingly absurd, Hamlet soliloquizes on
the possibilities before him. Many explanations of Hamlet the man
have been offered by the scientists. Read the list of explanations
and defend the one position that most closely parallels your view
of Hamlet. Support your position with references to the play.
1. Hamlet is a tragic hero.
2. Hamlet is a universal man. (Everyman)
3. Hamlet is a perfectionist, who once he discovers the world is not
what he thought it to be, responsibility for the wholesale
correction of the corrupted currents in it.
4. Hamlet is a sensitive plant, too tender for the world.
5. Hamlet is a victim of moral inferiority and mental superiority.
6. Hamlet is a victim of idealism.
7. Hamlet is a philosopher whose will is paralyzed and whose mind is
debating with itself.
B. Is the tragedy of Hamlet relevant today?
Prove your opinion by giving specific reasons
Module 3. Shakespeare’s Histories.
Оглавление
Compare the characters of the kings in Shakespeare’s Histories.
What was Shakespeare’s ideal of an ideal king?
Discuss the problem with your partners.
Read and analyze Richard’s soliloquies.
Module 4. . Shakespeare’s Sonnets.
A. Compare Petrakh’s and Shakespeare’s sonnets and their heroines – Laura
“ The Fair Lady” and “The Dark Lady”.
Illustrate one of the sonnets.
B. What composers wrote music to the Shakespeare’s sonnets?
Investigate the problem.
What is your favourite piece of music written on Shakespeare’s plays?
Share your ideas with the partner.
Module 5. Shakespeare and Music.
Write a composition on the subject: “Reading Shakespeare, listening to
Mozart”.
Shakespeare’s Language
Give some examples of words made up by Shakespeare.
Give some examples of Shakespeare’s metaphors and explain their
meaning.
“Catch phrases”. What do you understand by this notion?
What “Catch phrases” by W. Shakespeare are most popular nowadays?
Оглавление
Критериями оценки результативности
являются:
 овладение учениками
общеинтеллектуальными способами
деятельности;
 развитие способности к рефлексии;
 развитие коммуникативной культуры.
Оглавление
Результатом мастерской может быть как развитие
мотивации к дальнейшему познанию, так и создание
завершенных проектов на основе открытых знаний.
Оглавление
Итак, особенности организации деятельности
учащихся:
• творческая, поисковая, исследовательская деятельность;
• групповая форма учебного взаимодействия;
• самостоятельность и свобода выбора на всех этапах работы;
• право на собственное мнение, на ошибку;
• допустимость ситуации незавершенности поиска, ответов,
решений.
Оглавление
Особенности организации деятельности
учителя:
• специфика деятельности не в объяснении материала, а в
предъявлении заданий, ориентирующих на
самостоятельную деятельность ;
• мастер не задает вопросов и не торопится на них
отвечать;
• поддержка, поощрение самостоятельности, инициативы;
• создание доброжелательной обстановки, отсутствие
оценок ;
• сотворчество;
• организация диалога, в котором каждый ученик имеет
право на собственное мнение;
• обеспечение сотрудничества учащихся в группе.
Оглавление
Мастерские помогают ученику понять самого
себя. Они убеждают его в том, что он
интересен прежде всего как Личность. Они
заставляют его поверить в собственные
силы, открывают заложенные в нем
способности. А главное — они помогают
учителю увидеть своих учеников.
Оглавление
Модульная структура.
В основе этой технологии лежит идея смешанного
программирования, совмещенного с идеей блочной
подачи учебного материала (блоки, дозы, сетки, миникурсы). Каждый раздел или тема рассматриваются как
автономные мини-курсы. Они могут изучаться в любой
последовательности (некоторые из них можно просто
пропускать, если в них нет необходимости). Сущность
модульного обучения состоит в том, что обучающийся
более самостоятельно может работать с предложенной
ему индивидуальной учебной программой, включающей
целевую программу действий, банк информации и
методическое руководство по достижению поставленных
дидактических целей. При этом функции педагога могут
варьироваться от информационно-контролирующей до
консультотивно-координирующей.
What’s in a Module?
Оглавление
Module Opening page introduces topic and motivates students.
Module Objectives tell students what they are going to do.
Warm-up Activities get students thinking about the topic.
Language Focus page presents Shakespeare’s language in
comparison with modern usage.
Historical Background page gives a mine focus on a historical and
cultural aspect of the topic.
Skill Focus page prepares students for reading and listening.
Visualizing Shakespeare’s Characters page helps students
understand main character and their roles in the play.
Discussion: Themes, Characters, page directs students to think
and talk about what has been said or written.
Variety of Activities page gets students thinking about the play
and creating their own options.
Quote Shakespeare page are famous quotation related to the
topic.
Measuring Success page helps students with self-assessment.
Оглавление
Shakespeare
Hamlet
English History with Shakespeare’s eyes
The wreath of Sonnets
Shakespeare and Music
Оглавление
Module opening page
Shakespeare
Objectives
Shakespeare facts
Historical background
Quoting Shakespeare
Write an essay
Оглавление
William Shakespeare.
(1564 – 1616)
Оглавление
Objectives
In this module you will:
read Shakespeare’s facts;
talk about Elizabeth period;
read and discuss Shakespeare’s quotations;
learn more about Shakespeare’s creative work;
write an essay “My Shakespeare”.
Shakespeare facts.







Оглавление
Nobody knows Shakespeare’s true birthday.
Shakespeare invented the word “assassination”.
There are only two authenic portraits of William today: the widely used
engraving of William Shakespeare by Martin Droeshout first published
on the title page of the 1623 First Folio and the monument of the great
playwright in Stratford’s Holy Trinity Crunch in Stratford.
Shakespeare and wife had eight children, including daughter Susanna,
twins Hamnet, Judith, and Edmund. Susanna received most of his
fortune when he died in 1616, age 52. Hamnet died at the age of 11,
Judith at 77. Susanna dies in 1649, age 66.
There were two Shakespeare families living in Stratford when William
was born; the other family did not become famous.
Shakespeare, one of literature’s greatest figures, never studied at
university.
Of the 154 sonnets or poems, the first 26 were written to an aristocratic
young man who did not want marry. Sonnets 127-152 talk about a dark
woman.
Shakespeare facts.






Оглавление
William lived through the Black Death (the Black). This epidemic
that killed over 33,000 in London alone in 1603 then Will was 39,
later returned in1608.
In 1609, many of his sonnets were published without his
permission.
Unlike most famous artist of his time, he did not die in poverty.
William was know as a businessman to many in his home town of
Stratford.
William was popular with King James I, England’s ruler following
Elizabeth I. He has his acting company, “The Lord Chamberlain’s
Men” a patent allowing them to perform.
William Shakespeare is one of the many icons of England. Others
are members of England’s Royal family, Westminster Abbey, Big
Ben, and red double-decker buses.
Оглавление
He was no one- illiterate
good for nothing,
A poacher from Stratford
terrorizing woodmen
And merry friend in company
of Falstaff.
Who else was he? Comedian
or king, And old gray which
with
exorcism of spoiling,
A Venice woman, Roman
conspirator,
Or all of those were an
unfinished
role?
Он был никто –
безграмотный
бездельник,
Стредфордский
браконьер,
гроза лесничих,
Веселый друг в
компании
Фальстафа.
А кто еще? Комедиант,
король,
Седая ведьма с
наговором
порчи,
Венецианка, Римский
заговорщик,
Иль это – недоигранная
роль?..
Оглавление
Historical background
The most brilliant period English literature ever knew
was in the second half of the 16th and the beginning of
the 17th century; it is usually but in accurately called the
Elizabethan age after Queen Elizabeth, who reigned from
1558 to 1603, but it must be remembered, that many
authors of that time, including Shakespeare, wrote their
greatest works after her death. England had become a
great world power, the peak of the country's development
was reached in 1588, when the Spanish Armada, an
enormous fleet sent by King Philip II to conquer England,
was defeated. England had established wide commercial
contacts with all non-Catholic nations, including, Russia
(the ships that routed the Armada were built of timber
bought in Russia), and rich trading companies had been
organized.The English people were now a great nation,
and the English language, enriched and to a certain
extent already standardized, was now, except for the
spelling, not unlike Modern English.
Оглавление
There were fine works of poetry and prose in the
Elizabethan age, but the greatest heights of literature at
that period were reached in drama. The Middle Ages
knew religious drama; the Mysteries, Miracles, and
Moralities as they were called. The Mystery plays
dramatized episodes from the Bible; the Miracle plays,
episodes from the lives of saints. Morality plays were
allegorical, and dedicated to the struggle of the various
virtues and vices for the human soul, more often than hot,
the vices and even the devil himself were shown in such
plays in a comic aspect. Between the episodes of these
plays, comic scenes were usually acted that bore
almost no relation to the story; these were called
interludes There was another type of performance in
English cities.
Оглавление
QUOTING SHAKESPEARE
If you cannot understand my argument, and declare “It’s Greek to me”, you a
quoting Shakespeare; if you claim to be more sinned against than sinning, you are
quoting Shakespeare; if you recall your salad days, you are quoting Shakespeare; if
you act more in sorrow than in anger, if you wish is father to be thought, if your lost
property has vanished into thin air, you are quoting Shakespeare; if you have ever
refused to budge an inch or suffered from green-eyed jealousy, if you have played
fast and loose, if you have been tongue-tied, a tower of strength, hoodwinked or in
a pickle, if you have knitted your brows, made a virtue of necessity, insisted on fair
play, slept not one wink, stood on ceremony, danced attendance (on your lord and
master), laughed yourself into stitches, had short shrift, cold comfort or too much
of a good thing, if you have seen better days or lived in a fool’s paradise – why, be
that as it may, the more fool you, for it is a foregone conclusion that you are (as
good luck would have it) quoting Shakespeare; if you think it is high time and that
that is a long and short of it, if you believe that the game is up and that truth will
out even if it involves your own flesh and blood, if you lie low till the crack of doom
because you suspect foul play, if you have your teeth set on edge (at one fell
swoop) without rhyme or reason, then – to give the devil his due – if the truth were
known (for surely a tongue in your head) you are quoting Shakespeare; even if you
bid me good riddance and send me packing, if you wish I were dead as a door-nail,
if you think I am an eyesore, a laughing stock, the devil incarnate, a stony-hearted
villain, bloody-minded or a blinking idiot, then - by Jove! O Lord! Tut, tut! For
goodness’ sake! What the dickens! But me no buts – it is all one to me, for you are
quoting Shakespeare.
Оглавление
Write an essay “My Shakespeare”
Shakespeare's impact on everyday English speech.
Оглавление
Module opening page
Hamlet
Objectives
Hamlet’s soliloquy
Prince of Denmark and
characters in tragedy
Shakespeare’s language
Historical background
Write an essay
Hamlet
Оглавление
«Гамлет!...
Понимаете ли вы значение
этого слова? Оно велико и
глубоко. Это жизнь
человеческая; это человек,
это вы, это я, это каждый из
нас…»
Objectives
Оглавление
In this module you will:
•
•
read Hamlet’s soliloquy;
talk about the plot, subplots and characters of
tragedy;
•
learn the Shakespeare’s language;
•
learn more about historical background;
•
•
write an essay “Hamlet is a universal man” ;
do a project “Hamlet’s inner conflict”.
Оглавление
Read Hamlet’s soliloquy
* Red colour means reader1,
white means reader2,
blue means reader1 and reader2.
To be, or not to be - that is the question:
Whether 'tis nobler in the mind to suffer
The slings and arrows of outrageous fortune,
Or to take arms against a sea of troubles,
And by opposing, end them.
To die, to sleep
No more, and by a sleep to say we end
The heartache, and the thousand natural shocks
That flesh is heir to –
‘Tis a consummation
Devoutly to be wished.
To die, to sleep To sleep! perchance to dream! ay, there's the rub,
For in that sleep of death what dreams may come,
When we have shuffled off this mortal coil,
Must give us pause.
There's the respects
That makes calamity of so long life.
For who would bear the whips and scorns of time,
The oppressor's wrong,
The proud man's contumely, Оглавление
The pangs of disprized love,
The law's delay,
The insolence of office,
And the spurns
That patient merit of the unworthy takes,
When he himself might his quietus make
With a bare bodkin?
Who would fardels bear,
To grunt and sweat under a weary life,
But that's the dread of something after death,
The undiscovered country, from whose bourn
No traveler returns,
Puzzles the will,
And makes us rather bear those ills we have,
Than fly to others that we know not of?
Thus conscience does make cowards of us all,
And thus the native hue of resolution
Is sicklied o'er with the pale cast of thought,
And enterprises of great pitch and moment
With this regard their currents turn awry,
And lose the name of action.
Оглавление
THE PRINCE OF DENMARK
Since Shakespeare’s time, literary critics have expressed
various ideas about the character of Hamlet. Below are
several brief summaries of critical opinions concerning
the Prince of Denmark.
Select one statement and defend this view. Support your
opinions by citing specific events and statements from
the play.
1
Hamlet is an idealist who repelled by the evils which surround him; consequently,
he is incapable of taking action and withdraws into the world of his own mind.
2
Hamlet’s perception of reality is much more acute than that of the other characters.
He is able to see through the superficialities of the Danish court to the underlying
corruptness.
3
In his relations with the other characters, Hamlet reveals himself as an unfeeling
cynic whose acute perception of the reality of evil drives him to destroy the court
and its people.
4
Hamlet’s feigned madness serves no useful purpose; rather, it arouses the
suspicions of the king and other members of the court.
5
Hamlet’s feigned madness is not due solely to necessity; rather, he has a
natural inclination for pretense and dissimulation.
DISCUSSION: THEMES, CHARACTERS IN “HAMLET”Оглавление
One of the principal themes in Hamlet is corruption in all its aspects: political, physical
(including the deterioration of dead bodies), mental, moral, and spiritual corruption.
Discuss each of these aspects of corruption. For example attitudes of the
gravediggers, Hamlet and Horatio toward physical corruption or the poison
poured in King Hamlet’s ear by Claudius and the corrupting changes this
worked on his body.
Another major theme of the play is loyalty and betrayal.
Discuss these opposing traits with specific examples of each.
In the classical view, tragedy should arouse feelings of pity and fear in its audience. Do
you think this is true of Hamlet? Explain.
Hamlet has six soliloquies in the play. Explain how each shows Hamlet’s reaction to what is
occurring in the play and how they also reveal his various – sometimes conflicting –
character traits.
People have said that the role of Hamlet is the greatest role in all theatre. Considering
Hamlet’s character and actions, discuss why you agree or disagree with statement.
Consider the following: Hamlet’s betrayals and his reaction, his “madness”, as well as the
skills other than acting required for the role and scenes you believe to be greatest.
One critic has said that Hamlet’s problem is not “to be, or not to be” but rather “to do, or
not to do”. Do you agree or disagree? Use specific examples from the play to support your
position.
Select any one of the following questions and speak about the character.
Оглавление
DISCUSSION: THEMES, CHARACTERS IN “HAMLET”
a) GERTRUDE
Consider her behavior toward King Hamlet, Claudius, and Hamlet. Point out her
weaknesses and her sins. Does she have any redeeming virtues? If you were called
upon to pronounce a final judgment on her life, what would you say and why?
b) CLAUDIUS
Point out his weaknesses and sins. What character trait do you think led him into
sin? Did he have any redeeming virtues? If you were called upon to pronounce a
final judgment on her life, what would you say and why?
c) OPHELIA
Many people describe her as the most pathetic character in Hamlet since she
inspires more pity than anyone else. Explain specifically and in detail why you agree
or disagree with this. A key factor may be Ophelia’s age. Decide how old she might
be and marshal your evidence from that point.
d) HORATION
Explain in detail why you think he is an important character in the play. What would
be missing from the play if his role were omitted?
e) POLONIUS
Is he more foolish than dangerous, or more dangerous than foolish? How old might
he be? What might have been his position at court under King Hamlet? What part
might he have had in Claudius’ election?
Shakespeare’s Language
Оглавление
The English of Shakespeare's time has greatly changed since
then. Here are some words and grammar forms frequently used
by Shakespeare and grown obsolete in Modern English.
1) The pronoun for the 2nd person had forms for the singular and
plural:
sing - thou, thee (I know thee) pl - ye, you
The possessive pronouns for the 2nd person singular and plural
were:
thy, thine
your, yours
2) Some verbs, when conjugated in the Present, took the (e)stinflexion for the 2nd person singular:
thou speakest (you speak) thou knowest(you know)
thou host (you have) thou doest or dost (you do)
thou shouldst
(you should)
Some auxiliary verbs took the f -inflexion for the 2nd person:
thou art (you are)
thou shalt (you shall)
if thou Overt (if you were)
thou wilt
(you will)
Оглавление
Shakespeare’s Language
The English of Shakespeare's time has greatly changed since then.
Here are some words and grammar forms frequently used by
Shakespeare and grown obsolete in Modern English.
1) The pronoun for the 2nd person had forms for the singular and
plural:
sing - thou
thee (I know thee) pl - ye, you
The possessive pronouns for the 2nd person singular and plural were:
thy, thine
your, yours
Shakespeare’s Language
Оглавление
2) Some verbs, when conjugated in the Present, took the (e)stinflexion for the 2nd person singular:
thou speakest (you speak)
thou knowest
(you know)
thou host
(you have)
thou doest or dost
thou shouldst
(you should)
(you do)
Some auxiliary verbs took the f -inflexion for the 2nd person:
thou art(you are)
if thou Overt
(if you were)
thou shalt
thou wilt
(you will)
(you shall)
Shakespeare’s Language
Оглавление
3) There were two verb inflexions for the 3rd person singular,
Present Tense. The s-inflexion was used in the north of
England, and the (e)th was used in the London dialed.
Shakespeare make- use of bath forms:
he knoweth or knows
he speaketh or speaks
he hath or has
he doth or does
Shakespeare’s Language
Оглавление
4) The use of the auxiliary verb was not absolutely necessary
when forming questions:
Spoke you with him?
What soy you?
(Did you speak with him?)
What do you soy?)
5) The subjunctive Mood was widely used: to express a wish, a
supposition, doubt, possibility, even purpose or anything
contrary to fact:
Subjunctive: if he come
sit we down
Indicative: if he comes
let us sit down
if it be so
I think it be
if it is so
I think it is
Historical Background
Оглавление
The Renaissance, or the Revival of Learning, which is another English term for
it, was the period when European culture was at its height, a period
unsurpassed by any other before or after it. The coming of this great and
glorious epoch, which lasted from the 14th century till the 17th, was caused by
complex economic and social conditions. At that time the feudal system was
being shattered by the bourgeoisie, which was getting stronger and stronger.
The old social order didn't answer the demands of the new class that was
rapidly gaining strength. The boundaries of different duchies and counties
hindered the development of trade. It was more profitable for merchants to be
united under a single ruler. In opposition to feudal discord, absolute monarchy,
came into being, and feudal domains, once almost independent, cam under
one-man power. This led to the forming of nations in the true sense of the
word, and, as a natural consequence, to the creation of national languages. The
first stage in the appearance of the bourgeoisie on the historical arena is called
the period of the primary accumulation of capital. What were the means by
which this accumulation was effected?
1) Loans, for which stock exchanges and banking-houses were organized;
2) The expansion of markets by traveling to distant lands and seizing colonies;
3) Driving the peasantry off their land, as a result of which the necessary
workmen for the new manufacturing houses were provided and raw materials
produced.
Оглавление
Write an essay
“Hamlet is a
universal
man”
Do a project
“Hamlet’s inner conflict”
Оглавление
Module opening page
Objectives
War of Roses
Shakespeare's histories
Henry’s and Richard’s soliloquies.
Characters of the Kings
in Shakespeare’s Histories.
Write an essay
Оглавление
English History with
Shakespeare’s eyes
Оглавление
Objectives
In this module you will:
read and talk about War of Roses;
read and analyse Henry’s and Richard’s
soliloquies ;
compare the characters of the kings in
Shakespeare’s histories;
write an essay “Shakespeare’s Ideal King”
and do a project
War of Roses
The death of Chaucer was a great blow to English poetry. It
took two centuries to produce a poet equal to him. The
Hundred Years' War ended, but another misfortune befell the
country: a feudal war broke out between the descendants of
Edward III. This is what led to it. When the Magna Charta was
signed, the barons had been united with the Saxon freemen
and the bourgeoisie of the big towns, and they had
participated in the government. But during the Hundred. Years
War some lot of the barons ,who were professional soldiers,
built castles with high -walls and kept private armies of
thousands of men. These big barons devoted themselves to
family politics rather than to national politics. (They hoped to
increase their own land possessions by going on with the war
in France.) Realizing the danger these big barons represented
to, the Crown, Edward III tried to marry off. his sons to their
daughters, the great heiresses of these Houses. New titles
were added to the names of the great barons: the words
"duke", "marquis and “viscount” came into use. Henry IV, of
the House of Lancaster, came to the throne as king of the big
barons. He had a red rose in his coat of arms. His party was
opposed by the House of York (the White Rose) who were
supported by the lesser barons and some merchants of the
towns.
Оглавление
Shakespeare's histories
Оглавление
Shakespeare's histories, or chronicle plays, are more closely
related to his tragedies than to the comedies. This was the
genre in which he started his career as a playwright, and
beginning with his first works, he gives us a vast dramatic
cycle in which he deals with, themes in the historical
process, the laws of historical development, and the nature
of power.
In his first historical tetralogy, which includes the three
parts of "Henry VI“ and "Richard III", Shakespeare shows
the evils of feudalism. In these plays, which show the Wars
of the Roses, the predatory nature of the feudal overlord is
made very clear. The plays are a series of battles and
conspiracies, of alliances formed and broken; they are full of
treachery, brutality and suffering. Among the warring lords
there arises a figure which is, probably, the most sinister
one in all Shakespeare's plays. This is Richard, son to tote
Duke of York, who later becomes King Richard III.
Оглавление
How many thousand of my poorest subjects
Are at this hour asleep! - O sleep, O gentle sleep,
Nature's soft nurse, how have I frighted thee,
That thou no more wilt weigh my eyelids down,
And steep my senses in' forgetfulness?
Why rather, sleep, liest thou in smoky cribs,
Upon uneasy pallets, stretching thee,
And hush'd with buzzing night-flies to thy ?
slumber,
Than in the perfum'd chambers of the great,
Under high canopies s of costly state,
And lull'd with sounds of sweetest melody?
O thou dull god, why liest thou with the vile
In loathsome beds, and leav'st the kingly couch,
A watch-case or a common 'larum bell?
Wilt thou upon the high and giddy mast
Seal up the ship-boy's eyes, and rock his
brains
In cradle of the rude imperious surge,
And in the visitation of the winds,
Who take the ruffian billows by the top,
Curling their monstrous heads, and hanging
them
With deafening clamour in the slippery
shrouds,
That, with the hurly, death itself awakes?
Canst thou, O partial sleep, give thy repose
To the wet sea-boy in an hour so rude;
And in the calmest and most stillest night,
With all appliances and means to boot,
Deny it to a king? Then, happy low, lie
down!
Uneasy lies the head that-wears a crown.
(“Henry IV”, part II,III,1)
Оглавление
Henry’s and Richard’s soliloquies.
“Can honour set to leg? No: or take away the grief of a
wound? No. Honour hath no skill in surgery, then no. What
is honour? A word. What is in that word honour? What is
that honour? Air. A trim reckoning! - Who hath it? he that
died o' Wednesday. Doth he feel it? no. Doth he hear it? no.
Is it insensible, then? yea, to the dead. But will it not live
with the living? no. Why? detraction will not suffer it:
therefore I'll none of it. Honour is a mere scutcheon: ...
("Henry IV", Pact' I, V, 1)
Оглавление
Henry’s and Richard’s soliloquies.
Go, gentlemen, every man unto his charge:
* *
*
*
*
*
*
Conscience is but a word that cowards use,
Devid’s at first to keep the strong in awe:
Our strong arms be our conscience, swords our law
March on, join bravely, let us to’t pell-mell;
If not to heaven, then hand in hand to hell.
(“Richard III”, V, 3)
Characters of the Kings
in Shakespeare’s Histories.
Оглавление
Coward, glutton, drunkard, Falstaff is cynical to the last degree;
but he possesses a marvellous sense of humour and does not
hesitate to aim his irony at himself as well; and this good-natured
sense of humour gives him a peculiar charm.
When Shakespeare began analysing the nature of power and
politics, the situation in England was such that the necessity of
political stability, guaranteed by an undisputed monarchy, was
apparent, and such a point of view was upheld by the theory of the
Divine Right of Kings. By this theory, royal power is granted by God
Himself, and anyone revolting against the lawful king is in a state of
moral sin. Consciously or unconsciously, in his chronicle plays
Shakespeare undermined this theory to a great extent. In such
histories as “Richard II” and “Richard III” he proves convincingly that
the dethronement and even the killing of an unworthy or a villainous
king is a righteous and justifiable act.
Characters of the Kings
in Shakespeare’s Histories.
Оглавление
But that is not all. If we look at Shakespeare's histories as a single
whole, we may see that, all other things a part, they contain a
profound, and detailed treatise upon the nature of monarchy. In
them Shakespeare shows us all the possible types of autocratic
rulers.
King John - a mediocre villain.
Richard III - a great villain who, all the same, is a true genius
The historical Richard III was not such a dyed-in-the-wool (absolute)
scoundrel as Shakespeare shows him; in depicting him, Shakespeare
wanted to demonstrate the depths of depravity to which a villainous
king would sink if endowed with the intellect of a genius.
Henry VI - a kind, learned, weak-willed, religious man; he has
,none of the qualities necessary to be ruler of a kingdom, so he
brings as much suffering upon his country as a villainous king would.
Оглавление
Write an essay
“Shakespeare’s
Ideal King”
Do a project
Оглавление
Module opening page
Objectives
Shakespeare sonnets
The principles of womanhood in the
sonnets of Petrarch and Shakespeare
Read some sonnets
Write an essay
Оглавление
The Wreath of Sonnets
Objectives
Оглавление
In this module you will:
•
talk about sonnet as a poetic genre;
•
compare Petrakh’s and Shakespeare’s sonnet’s ;
•
read and discuss some sonnets and its heroes;
•
listen to a sonnet;
•
write a sonnet;
•
and do a project.
Shakespeare’s sonnets
Оглавление
Shakespeare did not originate the sonnet form. The basic
structure of the sonnet arose in medieval Italy. its. most
prominent exponent being the Early Renaissance poet Petrarch.
The appearance of English sonnets, however, occurred when
Shakespeare was an adolescent (around 1580). Both Edmund
Spenser and Philip Sydney, among others, worked in this form a
decade or so before Shakespeare took it up in the early 1590s,
possibly seeking to exploit the ongoing popularity of the sonnet
among literary patrons of the day. Sonnets 153 and 154 differ
from the other 152 poems included in the first edition of the
Sonnets in that they are clearly based on an epigram from
ancient Greek poetry that was in all probability known to
Shakespeare (and others) through Ovid's Metamorphoses.
Apart from these two pieces, none of the sonnets has an identifiable literary (or historical) sources.
Shakespeare’s sonnets
Оглавление
Three identity issues:
(1) who is the young man to whom Sonnets 1126 are
addressed?
(2) who is the Dark Lady of Sonnets 127-154?
(3) who are the rival poets who intrude in the love
triangles of Sonnets 78 through 86?
Оглавление
“The principles of womanhood in the
sonnets of Petrarch and Shakespeare”
Суровый Дант не презирал сонета;
В нем жар любви Петрарка изливал;
Игру его любил творец Макбета;
Им скорбну мысль Камоэнс облекал.
И в наши дни пленяет он поэта;
Водсворт его орудием избрал,
Когда вдали от суетного света
Природы он рисует идеал.
Под сенью гор Тавриды отдаленной
Певец Литвы в размер его стесненный
Свои мечты мгновенно заключал.
У нас его еще не знали девы,
Как для него уж Дельвиг забывал
Гекзаметра священные напевы.
Оглавление
In the old age black was not counted fair,
Or if were, it bore not beauty’s name.
Прекрасным не считался черный цвет,
Когда на свете красоту ценили.
Оглавление
The poet is a good family man. In his sonnets we also meet "the family"
but another family, for the sake of which he wants to live. It's an intime
range of his darling people - the young blond Friend and "the Dark
Lady". We don't know their names.
To fix the personality of "the Dark Lady", Shakespeare's beloved, there're
no facts, excepting the information reflected in the sonnets. There is a
broad field for suppositions. Amateurs began to find out the corresponding
dark-haired, swarthy Shakespeare's contemporaries with black eyes.
Among the "candidates" to be "the Dark Lady" was the rich woman Mary
Fitton. Those who were convinced that Shakespeare's friend was
Southampton considered that the Elizabeth veron, Southampton" s bride
was "the Dark Lady". And modern historian Dr. A. L. Rowse made his own
discovery.
"The problems of Shakespeare's Sonnets have long been thought to be
insoluble and the identity of the Dark Lady, Shakespeare's mistress, the
greatest mystery in the world's literature. But all, the time the secret was
waiting for me among, the manuscripts in the Bodleian Library at Oxford the
largely unexplored mass of papers of the Elizabethan astrologer, Simon
Forman, who had an exceptional knowledge of the denizens of London at
the time and of their goings-on.
But who-greatest mystery of all-was the Dark Lady?
Оглавление
In the old ages black was not counted fair;
Or if it were, it bore not beauty’s name;
But now is black beauty’s successive heir,
And beauty slander’d with a bastard shame:
For since each hand hath put on nature’s
power,
Fairing the fowl with art’s false borrow’d face,
But is profaned, if not lives in disgrace.
Therefore my mistress’ brows are raven black,
Her eyes suited, and they mourners seem
At such who, not born fair, no beauty lack,
Slandering creation with a false esteem:
Yet so they mourn, becoming on their woe,
That every tongue says beauty should look so.
Прекрасным не считался черный цвет,
Когда на свете красоту ценили
Но ,видно, изменился белый свет,Прекрасное позором очернили
С тех пор, как все природные цвета
Искусно подменяет цвет заемный
Последних прав решилась красота,
Слывет она безродной и бездомной
Вот почему и волосы и взор
Возлюбленной моей чернее ночи,Как будто носят траурный убор
По тем, кто краской красоту порочит.
Но так идет им черная фата,
Что красотою стала чернота.
(перевод С.Маршака)
Оглавление
Write a sonnet.
Do a project.
Оглавление
Shakespeare
Hamlet
English History with Shakespeare’s eyes
The wreath of Sonnets
Shakespeare and Music
Оглавление
Shakespeare and music.
Оглавление
Objectives
In this module you will:
•
learn about background;
•
read and discuss Shakespeare’s poetry;
•
learn about the composers and their works on
Shakespeare’s plays;
•
write an essay “Shakespeare and music”;
•
do a project.
Оглавление
1. The Eternal Problems in Shakespeare's creative work.
2. The Golden Age of Music in Britain.
3. The comparison of Shakespeare with famous composers.
a) Shakespeare and Mozart
b) Shakespeare and Beethoven
4. Famous composers illustrating Shakespeare.
a) “A Midsummer Night's Dream”
b) “Othello”
c) “Romeo and Juliet”
d) “Hamlet”
5. The Eternity of Art.
W.Shakespeare's “Song”
Orpheus with his lute made trees,
And the mountain top that freeze,
Bow themselves when he did sing
To the music plants and flowers
Ever spring; as sun and showers
There has made a lasting spring.
Every thing that heard him play,
Even the billows of the sea,
Hung their heads and than lay by.
In sweet music is such art,
Killing care and grief of heart
Fall asleep or, hearing, die.
(From Henry VIII)
Оглавление
Historical background
Оглавление
Among the favorites of the queen were the celebrated
traveler Sir Walter Raleigh who wrote poetry and history,
and the Earl of Leicester, a powerful nobleman. Queen
Elizabeth was very fond of amusements, and the Earl
knew just in what way she liked to be entertained; so he
arranged acting of all kinds, and dancing and music, and
Elizabeth liked music with plenty of noise. The court also
took pleasure in bull-baiting and bear-baiting, a cruel
and cowardly sport. The tastes of the nobility were still
very primitive.
The Golden Age of Music in EnglandОглавление
The period from the defeat of the Spanish Armada (1558) to the death of James
(1625) represents one of Europe's most brilliant <<golden ages». In less than 40 year
England gave the world W. Shakespeare, Marlowe, B. Johnson, Webster and Bacon,
the prose of Sir Walter Raleigh, the scientific researches of Gilbert and Harvey and the
music of Byrd, Gibbons, Wilbye, all geniuses of the first rank, and a host of richly
talented followers. Elizabethan civilization was the fruit of an exceptionally favourable
political and social union. The year 1558, which saw the defeat of the “Invincible
Armada”, ushered in an age inspired by a new sense of selfconfidence and optimism. I
was really from this moment that music and theatre began to spread their wings. In
the theatre , for which William Shakespeare wrote, music held an important place, and
composers actively collaborated in plays, which they enriched with numerous ayres
accompanied on the lute or viols. Unfortunately much of this music is now lost. But
perhaps one of the most remarkable features of the Elizabethan age was the popularit
of music making. In a period when public concerts were still unknown, the demand for
music by amateurs was great. Everyone sang madrigald, most sizeable households
possessed a chest of viols and the virginal, for which composers poured out a flood of
fine music, was more popular - the queen, herself a devoted virginalist, setting the
example. Popular music also greatly inspired composers, and the initiate fusion of art
music with popular and folk elements, remains one of the imperishable charms of this
golden age. The virginal was a great favourite of the English monarchs. Following the
royal fashion, English society took up the virginal; William Shakespeare immortalized
the instrument in his «Sonnet to a lady playing the virginal» (Sonnet 128).
Оглавление
How off, when thou, my music, music play'st
Upon the word my whose motion sounds
With thy sweet fingers, when thou gently
sway'st
The wiry concord that my ear confounds,
Do I envy those jacks, that nimble leap
To kiss tender inward of thy hand,
Whilst my poor lips, which should that harvest
reap,
At the wood's boldness by thee blushing stand!
To be so tickled, they would change their state
And situation with those dancing chips
O'er whom thy fingers walk with gentle gait,
Making dead wood more blessed that living lips.
Since saucy jacks so happy are in this,
Give them thy fingers, me thy lips to kiss.
Едва лишь ты, о музыка моя,
Займешься музыкой, встревожив строй
Ладов и струн искусною игрой, Ревнивой завистью терзаюсь я.
Обидно мне, что ласки нежных рук
Ты отдаешь танцующим ладам,
Срывая краткий, мимолетный звук, А не моим томящимся устам.
Я весь хотел бы клавишами стать,
Чтоб только пальцы легкие твои
Прошлись по мне, заставив трепетать,
Когда ты струн коснешься в забытьи.
Но если счастье выпало струне,
Отдай ты руки ей, а губы мне.
(пер. С.Маршака)
Оглавление
Shakespeare’s merits are enormous. He created a
new epoch in world literature. Even today we find
ideas and problems dealt with in Shakespeare’s plays
that were not considered before. These are social
problems concerning the relations of man to man in
human society. The interpretations of these problems
we see in music. The harmony of music and literature
makes us think about life, helps us to relax, to rest
from noisy cities and everyday problems. This
harmony is art itself. Art is the result of perfect
harmony between thought and feeling.
Оглавление
Write an essay
“Shakespeare and music”
Do a project
“Shakespeare and music”
Оглавление
Puzzle
Catch phrases
Оглавление
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