Language, Thought and
Culture
March 7, 2005
What do we know?
•
•
•
•
•
•
Voice No. 1
Voice No. 2
Voice No. 3
Voice No. 4
Voice No. 5
Voice No. 6
How do we know?
• Code (structure)
• Performance
Linguistics
• Descriptive Linguistics
• Sociolinguistics
• Historical Linguistics
Linguistics
Descriptive Linguistics
(Grammar)
• Phonology (Sound)
– Phoneme
• Morphology (unit of meaning)
– Morpheme
• Lexicon
– Dictionary, vocabulary
• Syntax
– Structure, word order
Descriptive Linguistics
• Colorless green ideas sleep furiously.
• Furious idealess color greenly sleeps.
– Syntax
– Morphology
• Semantics
– System for conveying meaning.
Historical Linguistics
Historical Linguistics
• English
– Germanic (Angles, Saxons, Jutes)
– Celtic
– Latin, Greek
– Old Norse
– French
Historical Linguistics
• American English
– American Indian languages
– African languages
– Spanish
• Barbeque (Guiana)
Sociolinguistics
• Performance
• Conveys different meanings using the
same code:
– Class
– Race
– Gender
– Politics
Language, Thought and
Culture
• Language structures thought and
knowledge
• Epistemology
• Does language:
– Describe reality?
Or…
– Create reality?
Language, Thought and
Culture
• Structuralism
– Basic structures in
the human brain
– Limited number of
structures
– Infinite number of
possibilities
• “Generative
Transformational
Grammar”
• Noam Chomsky
Language, Thought and
Culture
• Evidence
– People can learn
other languages
– Children learn new
languages easier
than adults
– Words can be
translated between
languages
• Noam Chomsky
Language, Thought and
Culture
• Sapir-Worf
Hypothesis:
Languages produce
different ways of
thinking that affect
perception of reality
• Edward Sapir
Language, Thought and
Culture
• Evidence:
– Gender
• Palaung
• English
• Spanish, French
– Time
• English
• Hopi
• Edward Sapir
Dude, what does this have to
do with ink?
What do these tell us?
What about these?
Where does meaning come
from?
• All communication is symbolic
• Meaning of symbols is arbitrary
• Because language is generative, we
can make new meanings . . . Fo shizzle.
Language, Thought and
Culture
• Communication requires that we
understand the code and the
performance.
Language, Thought and
Culture
• People perform the code in creative
ways to make a statement.
Descargar

Document