Regio Project
A Brief Literature Review
March 2014
Contents
1. Content and Language
Integrated Learning (CLIL)
2. Modern Foreign Language
(MFL) Pedagogy in the UK
3. Motivation and Transition
4. iPads Pedagogy
Secondary
School
Primary School
A quick reference to the UK’s education system
Key
Stages
(KS)
School
years
Ages
Foreign
Languages
Compulsory
0
Reception
Class
4-5
No
1
Year 1
Year 2
5-6
6-7
No
No
2
Year 3
Year 4
Year 5
Year 6
7-8
8-9
9-10
10-11
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
3
Year 7
Year 8
Year 9
11-12
12-13
13-14
Yes
Yes
Yes
4
Year 10
Year 11
14-15
15-16
No
No
Content and Language Integrated
Learning (CLIL)
• CLIL not clearly defined in Europe, thus
effectiveness difficult to measure (Cenoz
2013)
• CLIL contexts are important to assess
effectiveness: policy, teachers’ training, age
of implementation & extracurricular
exposure to target language (Sylvén 2013,
Cenoz 2013).
• CLIL in Spain has increased greatly in the
last decade, with some regional
differences. It also has a large and early
implementation. However, evidence
suggests that extracurricular exposure is
limited (Sylvén 2013).
Content and Language Integrated
Learning (CLIL)
• Aims need to be clear before implementation:
– Aim: functional bilingual: early introduction
– Aim: acquire subject specific proficiency: later
introduction
• Language only-lessons offer low cognitive
challenges, CLIL increase meta cognitive skills
(Hunt 2012)
• CLIL promotes linguistic competence,
cognitive development & thinking skills(Marsh
& Langé 2002)
Content and Language Integrated
Learning (CLIL)
• Recommendations:
• Solid empirical research needed
• Europe needs to research effects and features
instead of reporting benefits (Perez-Cañado
2012)
• Methodological flaws are common (PerezCañado 2012)
• Longitudinal studies needed (Perez-Cañado
2012)
Modern Foreign Language (MFL)
Pedagogy in the UK
A brief history of policy?
• 1990s: National curriculum: Languages for
all in KS3 & KS4
• 2000S: A National Languages Strategy:
– 2002: end of languages for all
– 2003: KS3 MFL Framework (MFL removed
at KS4)
– 2005: KS2 Framework for languages
– 2007: Revised National Curriculum
– 2009: KS3 Framework for languages
• 2014: National Curriculum revised: Foreign
languages compulsory in primary school.
New National Curriculum in England:
languages programmes of study
• In 2014 languages in primary schools
became compulsory (KS2, ages 7-11)
• Options:
Modern Foreign
Language (MFL)
Ancient Foreign
Language (AFL)
French
Latin
German
Greek
Italian
Spanish
Mandarin
Points of discussion
• Lack of staff expertise
• Lack of consistency in FL provision in
primary schools
• No assessment tools in place
• Lack of resources/budget cuts
• Curriculum does not place enough
emphasis on developing children’s cultural
understanding
• Options are not necessarily relevant for UK’s
context: there are other languages that
are greatly spoken in the UK: Arabic,
Russian, Somali
• Pros: greater collaboration among schools
can ease pupils’ transition from KS2 to KS3
In conclusion
• CLIL needs more empirical research
avoiding methodological flaws.
• Spain is an interesting case study to assess
CLIL because of history of implementation.
• It is important for pupils that MFL classes are
enjoyable (Evans & Fisher 2009).
• In England, there is a lack of consistency in
FL provision in primary schools and
challenges in progression in Year 7 groups
(Evans & Fisher 2009).
• Use of ICT was reported to be a key driver
for improving quality of language teaching
and learning, as well as interactivity (Evans
& Fisher 2009).
3. Motivation and Transition
What is motivation to learn
L2?
• different overlapping factors such as
interest, curiosity, or desire to achieve.
• differs in different situations and
circumstances
• subject to various external influences
such as parents, teachers, peers and
exams.
3. Motivation in foreign and second
language learning
• Learning a foreign language implies a social
venture. Language belongs to a person’s
whole social being; it is a part of one’s
identity, and is used to convey this identity
to other people.
• It involves an alteration in self-image, the
adoption of new social and cultural
behaviours and ways of being, and has a
significant impact on the social nature of
the learner.
• Learning a second language is learning to
be another social person. It’s acquiring the
skill and behavior patterns which are
characteristic of another community.
Gardner’s socio-educational model of
language learning motivation
• This model incorporates the learner’s
cultural beliefs, their attitudes towards the
learning situation, their integrativeness,
and their motivation.
• Defines motivation as the combination of
effort plus “the desire to learn a language,
the motivation intensity, and attitudes
towards learning such language”.
• Other factors, such as attitude towards the
learning situation and integrativeness can
influence these attributes
Reasons for learning another language
• Instrumental Orientation: the reason to learn a
language lies on external goals such as
passing exams, financial rewards, a career or
gaining promotion.
• Integrative Orientation: the reason to learn a
language lies on the wish to identify with the
culture of speakers of that language.
Dörnyei’s model: levels
• The language level encompasses various
orientations and motives related to aspects
of the second language. These will
influence the goals learners set and the
choices they make.
• Dörney’s learner level involves individual
characteristics that the learner brings to the
learning task.
• The situation level is related to the course,
the teacher, and the group dynamics.
A social-constuctivist view of motivation
•
A constructivist view of motivation centres around the
premise that each individual is motivated differently.
•
People will make their own sense of various external
infuences that surround them in ways that are personal
to them, and they will act on their internal disposition
and use their personal attibutes in unique ways.
•
What motivates one person to learn a foreign
language and keeps going will differ from individual to
individual.
•
An individual’s motivation is subject to social and
contextual influences. These will include the whole
culture and context and the social situation, as well as
significant other people and the individual’s
interactions with these people
Internal
• Intrinsic interest
of activity
• Perceived
value of the
activity
• Sense of
agency
• Mastery
• Self-concept
• Attitudes
• Affective states
• Developement
al stage
• Gender
and
External
• Significant
others
• Nature of
interaction with
significant
others
• Learning
environment
• Broader
content
The role of significant others
• The personality or nature of the
person introducing the acitivity.
• The way in which the person
presents the activity and works with
the learner during the completion of
that activity.
• The attitudes voiced (and displayed)
by friends, families, media figures
Suggestions for language teachers:
• Recognise the
complexity of emotion
• Be aware of both
initiating and
sustaining motivation
• Discuss with learners
why they are carrying
out activities
• Involve learners in
making decisions
related to learning the
language
• Involve learners in
language learning
goals
• Regonise people as
individuals
• Build up
individuals’ beliefs
in themselves
• Develop internal
beliefs
• Help to move
towards a mastery
oriented style
• Enhance intrinsic
motivation
• Build up a
supporting
learning
environment
• Give feedback that
is informational.
4. The use of iPads in the classroom:
Pedagogy and motivation
‘It appears that one-to-one Tablets
offer a sense of inclusion that allow
children, irrespective of socioeconomic status or level of
attainment, an opportunity to thrive
through a new pedagogical model
of pupil-led learning’.
Dr Barbie Clarke, Siv Svanaes, 2012
The introduction of iPads
Three main issues:
1. Technical
2. Pedagogical
3. Management
Data taken form Paul Heinrich, Longfield
Academy, Kent
Data taken form Paul Heinrich, Longfield Academy,
Kent
The Evolution of Pedagogical
Approaches
A movement away from traditional
pedagogy toward exploring wider
concepts and ideas.
•
•
•
•
Digital Capital.
Student led.
Learning outside the classroom.
Shifts in modes of assessment.
What does the use of the iPad mean
for the learner?
•
•
•
•
•
Motivation.
Quality and standard of work.
Collaborative learning.
Re-inforcement.
Accessability.
Supports:
• Creativity.
• Research.
• Critical thinking.
• Problem solving.
• Decision making.
Data taken form Paul Heinrich, Longfield
Academy, Kent
Data taken form Paul Heinrich, Longfield
Academy, Kent
Technical considerations
• Effective project management
is crucial.
• Requires a high quality of
cable and wireless networking.
• Licensing issues.
• Technical and repair issues.
• ‘ileaders’
Future Questions
• Does it have to be the iPad?
• Ownership or lease?
• One iPad per child?
Key Research Findings:
• Language is acquired most successfully when
it is learned for communication purposes in
meaningful and significant social situations.
• Technology offers real benefits in the
development of intercultural understanding,
increases motivation and has interesting
implications for language learning processes.
• IPads enable students to be effective
contributors.
• Students, teachers and parents unanimously
identified enjoyment and motivation as the
most compelling benefits of the iPad.
References
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Statutory Guidance: National curriculum England: languages
programmes of study. Available at
https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/national-curriculumin-england-languages-progammes-of-study
British Council: The Education systems of England, Wales, Scotland &
Northern Ireland. Available at
http://www.britishcouncil.org/flasonline-uk-education-system.pdf.
Jasone Cenoz (2013) Discussion: towards an educational
perspective in CLIL language policy and pedagogical practice,
International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism, 16:3,
389-394.
Evans M. & L. Fisher (2009) Language Learning at KS 3: The impact of
the KS3 MFL Framework and changes to the curriculum of provision
and practice. University of Cambridge Faculty of Education.
Hunt, Marilyn (2011) Learners’ perceptions of their experiences of
learning subject content through a foreign language, Educational
Review 63: 365-378.
Pérez-Cañado, M.L. (2012) CLIL research in Europe: past,
present,and future, International Journal of Bilingual Education and
Bilingualism, 15:3, 315-341.
The Guardian. Languages in primary schools: getting ready for 2014.
Rebecca Radcliffe. 15 May 2013.
Wade P., H. Marshall & S. O’Donnell (2009) Primary Modern Foreign
Languages Longitudinal Survey of Implementation of National
Entitlement to Language Learning at KS2. London. DCSF.
References
•
•
•
•
•
•
Sylvén, L.K (2013) CLIL in Sweden – why does it not work? A
metaperspective on CLIL across contexts in Europe, International
Journa of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism, 16:3, 301-320.
Ros Mitchell, Linguistics & Modern Foreign Languages in Schools.
University of Southampton
Cambridge University Press. Dörnyei, Z., & Kubanyiova, M. (2014).
Motivating learners, motivating teachers: Building vision in the
language classroom. Cambridge:
Dr Barbie Clarke, Siv Svanaes (2012) Tablets for Schools: One-to-one
Tablets in Secondary Schools: An Evaluation Study Stage 1: 20112012.
Kevin Burden, Paul Hopkins, Dr Trevor Male, Dr Stewart Martin,
Christine Trala (2012) iPad Scotland Evaluation. Technology
Enhanced Learning Group, Hull University.
Paul Heinrich. The iPad as a tool for education: A Study of the
Introduction of ipads at Longfield Academy, Kent.
Thank you.
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