5th Edition
Stephen F. Davis
Emporia State University
Joseph J. Palladino
University of Southern Indiana
PowerPoint Presentation by
Cynthia K. Shinabarger Reed
Tarrant County College
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Chapter 6
5th Edition
Motivation and
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What Is Motivation?
Motivation refers to physiological or
psychological factors that account for the
arousal, direction, and persistence of behavior.
The aspects of motivation are
a) a factor or motivational state that prompts the
b) the goal(s) toward which the behavior is directed,
c) the reasons for differences in the intensity of the
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Copyright © Prentice Hall 2007
Theories of Motivation
• Incentive theories see motivated behavior
as being pulled by the incentive or goal;
the larger or more powerful the incentive,
the stronger the pull.
• According to Maslow's theory, motivational
needs are arranged hierarchically from
basic physiological needs to selfactualization.
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Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs
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Theories of Motivation
• Maslow’s theory is often characterized as
a growth theory of motivation because
people strive to satisfy successively higher
• Critics note that not everyone proceeds
through the hierarchy as Maslow outlined.
• What’s more, in some societies people
have difficulty meeting basic needs, yet
they may be able to satisfy higher needs.
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Theories of Motivation
• Biological theories of motivation focus on
the importance of biological or
physiological processes that determine
• Among these processes are unlearned
behaviors that are part of an organism’s
repertoire from birth.
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Theories of Motivation
• Instincts are
unlearned, speciesspecific behaviors that
are more complex than
reflexes and triggered
by environmental
events called releasing
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Motivation and Imprinting
• Konrad Lorenz’s research
• Geese, Ducks, “Mary’s Little Lamb”.
• Critical periods of sensitivity
– Precocial vs altricial species
• Evolutionary Significance for survival
– Short Term survival significance
• Safety, nurturance, food
– Long Term survival significance
• Sex and reproduction foster species survival
• Connections to “imitation”
• Connections to neuroscience.
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Theories of Motivation
• A drive is an internal motivational state
created by a physiological need.
• The drive-reduction theory views
motivated behavior as designed to reduce
a physiological imbalance and return the
organism to “homeostasis”.
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Theories of Motivation
• Drive reduction signals the organism that a particular
need has been reduced and that behaviors designed to
reduce other current drives can be engaged.
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Theories of Motivation
• Optimum-level theory states that the
body functions best at a specific level of
arousal, which varies from one individual
to another.
• To reach this level, the organism may seek
added stimulation or arousal.
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Theories of Motivation
• Cognitive theories of motivation focus on
how we process and understand
• According to cognitive-consistency
theories, we are motivated to achieve a
psychological state in which our beliefs
and behaviors are consistent because
inconsistency between beliefs and
behaviors is unpleasant.
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Theories of Motivation
• Cognitive
dissonance occurs
when incompatible
thought creates an
aversive state that
the organism is
motivated to reduce.
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Theories of Motivation
• Because cognitive dissonance produces
discomfort, it motivates us to reduce the
• We seek to reduce the discomfort by
creating cognitive consonance—the state
in which our cognitions are compatible
with one another.
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Theories of Motivation
• Once a difficult decision has been made,
many people wonder whether they made
the right decision.
• This postdecisional dissonance is reduced
by raising one’s evaluation of the chosen
item and decreasing the evaluation of the
rejected item.
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Theories of Motivation
• The existence of multiple motives often
results in conflicts.
• The most common conflicts are:
– approach-approach,
– avoidance-avoidance,
– approach-avoidance,
– and multiple approach-avoidance.
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Specific Motives
• One factor in hunger regulation is blood
glucose (blood sugar) levels.
• When our supply of glucose is high and
the cells of the body are able to use it,
hunger is low.
• As the blood sugar supply decreases,
hunger increases.
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Specific Motives
• The amount of stored body fat also serves
as a hunger signal.
• When a person’s weight falls, fat is
withdrawn from the fat cells and a hunger
signal is sent to the brain.
• When fat cells are full, no signal is sent.
• The hypothalamus is the brain structure
that receives hunger signals.
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Specific Motives
• Dietary factors contribute substantially to
the burden of preventable illnesses and
premature deaths in the United States.
• Obesity is a significant risk factor for heart
disease, high blood pressure, and
• Obesity and being overweight are
associated with several types of cancer
(colon, gallbladder, prostate, and kidney).
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Specific Motives
• Obesity is defined as body weight of 20% or
more in excess of desirable body weight.
• Body mass index (BMI) is a numerical
index calculated from a person’s height and
weight that is used to indicate health status
and disease risk.
• Genetic factors play a key role in
determining a person's weight.
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Specific Motives
• Heredity may influence what we weigh by affecting
our basal metabolic rate (BMR), the minimum
energy needed to keep an awake, resting body
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Specific Motives
• Accumulating research suggests that
biological factors alone do not fully explain
obesity; thus, we should also consider
social and cultural factors.
• Among women, obesity is related to social
• Rates of obesity are higher among people
in the lower socioeconomic classes than
among those in the middle and upper
socioeconomic classes.
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Specific Motives
• When considering diets, it is important to note
that the body does not treat all calories alike.
• One gram of carbohydrates or protein contains 4
calories, whereas 1 gram of fat contains 9
• What’s more, high-fat diets require fewer
calories for digestion than high-carbohydrate
• Once the fat is deposited in the body, few
calories are needed to maintain it, so it is difficult
to remove.
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Specific Motives
• Anorexia nervosa is a potentially lifethreatening eating disorder occurring
primarily in adolescent and young adult
• It involves an intense fear of becoming fat
that leads to self-starvation and weight
loss accompanied by a strong belief that
one is fat despite objective evidence to the
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Specific Motives
• Bulimia nervosa is an eating disorder in
which a victim alternatively consumes
large amounts of food (gorging) and then
empties the stomach (purging), usually by
induced vomiting.
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Specific Motives
• Although sex is classified as a biological
motive, it is different from other biological
motives in important ways.
• An individual’s potential to respond
sexually to persons of the same sex, the
opposite sex, or both is called sexual
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Specific Motives
• Growing evidence suggests that biological
factors play an important role in the
development of sexual orientation.
• Sexual behavior is influenced by external
factors, brain mechanisms, and hormones.
• Pheromones are chemical odors emitted
by some animals that appear to influence
the behavior of members of the same
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Specific Motives
• Sex hormones are highly significant in
directing sexual behavior in lower animals;
however, their role in directing human
sexual behavior is less clear.
• The hypothalamus regulates sexual
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Specific Motives
• Masters and Johnson
outlined the stages of
sexual arousal:
excitement, plateau,
orgasm, and
• They also pioneered
the development of
techniques to treat
sexual dysfunctions.
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Specific Motives
Achievement consists of three
a) behaviors that manipulate the
environment in some manner,
b) rules for performing those behaviors,
c) accepted performance standards
against which people compete and
compare their performance.
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Specific Motives
The Thematic Apperception Test (TAT) has
been used to measure levels of
achievement motivation.
When you take the TAT, you are asked to
create a story about a series of pictures that
depict people in ambiguous situations.
Participants are believed to attribute their
own motives to the figures in the ambiguous
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The What and The Why of Emotion
• Emotion refers to physiological changes
and conscious feelings of pleasantness or
unpleasantness, aroused by external and
internal stimuli, that lead to behavioral
• When the subjective feelings associated
with emotions last for an extended period
of time, we call them moods.
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The What and The Why of Emotion
• Charles Darwin suggested that emotional
expressions have a biological basis.
• Emotions can increase the chances of
survival by providing a readiness for
actions such as fighting predators that
have helped us survive throughout our
evolutionary history.
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Darwin’s observations
Of smiling
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The Physiological Components of
• The commonsense view of emotions
states the sequence of events in emotional
responding as:
– stimulus
– emotion
– physiological changes.
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The Physiological Components of
• The James-Lange theory states that
physiological changes precede and cause
• In the James-Lange theory the sequence
of events in emotional responding is:
– stimulus
– physiological changes
– emotion.
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The Physiological Components of
• The Cannon-Bard theory states that the
thalamus relays information
simultaneously to the cortex and to the
sympathetic nervous system, causing
emotional feelings and physiological
changes to occur at the same time.
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The Physiological Components of
• Establishing the physiological specificity of
emotions does not require that every
emotion have a unique physiological
signature, only that some emotions differ
from others in consistent ways.
• Research suggests that there are several
differences among emotions.
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The Physiological Components of
• One consistent finding is that anger tends to be
associated with cardiovascular changes.
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The Physiological Components of
• We can observe physiological patterns in
certain emotions such as embarrassment,
which can lead to blushing.
• Blushing may communicate the message
that the person values the positive regard
of others.
• Blushing can also occur when we are
praised or told that we appear to be
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The Physiological Components of
• The limbic system is probably the most
important in a discussion of emotion.
• Joseph LeDoux has found that the
amygdala reacts instantly to sensory
inputs and can trigger the fight-or-flight
response while the cortex is evaluating
inputs and making decisions.
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The Physiological Components of
• The entire brain plays a role in emotion.
• The right hemisphere appears to be
specialized for perceiving emotion from
facial expressions.
• When normal people report negative
emotions such as fear or disgust, there is
increased activity in their right hemisphere;
the left hemisphere is more active during
positive emotions such as happiness.
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The Physiological Components of
• Alexithymia is a marked inability to
experience and express emotions.
• People with alexithymia lack selfawareness; they rarely cry, are described
as colorless and bland, and are not able to
discriminate among different emotions.
• They are often unaware of what others
around them feel.
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The Physiological Components of
• The polygraph is an electronic device
(often called a lie detector) that senses
and records changes in several
physiological indices including blood
pressure, heart rate, respiration, and
galvanic skin response.
• Because polygraph tests measure
physiological responses, efforts to modify
these responses can affect test accuracy.
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The Expressive Components of
• There is strong evidence for universal
recognition of at least six basic emotions:
anger, disgust, fear, happiness, sadness,
and surprise.
• Recently, researchers reported a high
degree of reliability in identifying the
emotion of pride, which participants
distinguished from related emotions such
as happiness.
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The Expressive Components of
• Robert Plutchik has
offered a model of
how emotions can be
combined to yield
blends that differ in
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The Expressive Components of
• He proposes eight basic emotions: joy,
trust, fear, surprise, sadness, disgust,
anger, and anticipation.
• These primary emotions can be viewed as
four pairs of polar opposites, and each
emotion exists in varying degrees of
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The Expressive Components of
• These primary emotions are building
blocks that can be combined to create
more complex emotions, just as primary
colors are combined to form different
• The result is a three-dimensional structure
consisting of eight groupings of primary
emotions arranged in tiers representing
degrees of intensity and purity.
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The Expressive Components of
• The facial feedback hypothesis
contends that feedback from facial
muscles affects our experience of
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The Expressive Components of
• Display rules are culturally specific
prescriptions that tell us which emotions to
display, to whom, and when.
• Such rules account for some cross-cultural
differences in the expression of emotion.
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The Expressive Components of
• Smiling is a social act; we rarely smile
when we are alone.
• It is such a prominent social signal that we
can recognize a smile 300 feet away.
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The Expressive Components of
• A real smile of
enjoyment, the
Duchenne smile,
involves activation of
muscles that are not
activated during faked
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The Expressive Components of
• Nonverbal communication is
communication that involves movements,
gestures, facial expressions, eye contact,
use of personal space, and touching.
• Tone of voice and posture can convey
information that is different from what we
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The Expressive Components of
• There are four major categories of body
language: emblems, illustrators,
regulators, and adaptors.
• Emblems are nonverbal gestures and
movements that have well-understood
• The meaning of certain gestures varies
with the culture.
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The Expressive Components of
• Illustrators are nonverbal gestures or
movements made while speaking that accent or
emphasize words.
• Regulators are actions such as eye contact and
head nods that coordinate the flow of
communication among two or more people.
• Adaptors (or manipulators) are movements or
objects manipulated for a purpose; we use these
when we find ourselves in a particular mood or
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The Expressive Components of
• Paralanguage is communication that
involves aspects of speech such as rate of
talking and tone of voice, but not the
words used.
• Emotions are often associated with shifts
in tone of voice.
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The Expressive Components of
• Across ages, cultures, and stimulus persons,
women are more accurate than men in decoding
emotion from nonverbal cues offered by the
face, body, and voice.
• Compared with men, women display more
emotional awareness.
• One possible explanation is that women's roles
and occupations tend to require greater
sensitivity to the emotional expressions in
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The Cognitive Components of
• Cultures and languages differ in the
number of terms they use to describe
• Some English words describe categories
of emotion that have no equivalents in
other languages; other languages have
emotion words with no equivalents in
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The Cognitive Components of
• Schachter and Singer proposed a theory
that described emotion as beginning with
undifferentiated arousal.
• The labels we use to describe our
emotions depend on our immediate
environment and what is on our mind at
the particular moment.
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The Cognitive Components of
• Appraisal theories of emotion propose that
how we make judgments about events
leads to emotional reactions.
• Cultural values can influence people's
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The Cognitive Components of
• Emotions in infancy range from general distress
to pleasure.
• Joyful expression emerges as infants smile and
appear to show excitement and happiness when
confronted with familiar events such as the faces
of people they know.
• Sadness emerges at about 3 months in
connection with the withdrawal of positive
stimulus events.
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The Cognitive Components of
• Early on, children learn that emotional
expression is more than making faces and
sounds; it requires timing, an
understanding of context, and knowledge
of the audience receiving the
• At approximately 3 years of age, the
emotions a child experiences become
highly differentiated.
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The Cognitive Components of
• A key cognitive ability is evaluating one's
behavior in relation to standards.
• This ability is the basis of the selfconscious emotions such as shame, guilt,
and pride.
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The Cognitive Components of
The term emotional intelligence
describes four qualities:
a) the ability to perceive emotions in
b) the ability to facilitate thought,
c) understanding emotions, and
d) managing emotions.
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